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Cover: a reflective look at communications appliances used in the past contrasted with those used today

Wireless Comnunications: A Spectrum of Opportunities...the tremendous growth in the consumer market for wireless communications products, such as celluar and cordless telephone, has created a parallel growth in research and development for higher-performance components for these products, by William J. McFarland, pg 6-9

The IrDA Standards for High-Speed Infrared Communications...as more data communications products, such as printers and laptop PCs, are released with infrared capability, support for a core set of IrDA standards has strong support from many manufacturers because, among other things, they want to ensure that their products will interoperate in a transparent and user-friendly manner, by Iain Millar, Martin Beale, Bryan J. Donoghue, Kirk W. Lindstrom, and Stuart Williams, pg 10-26

RF Technology Trade-offs for Wireless Data Applications...rapidly evolving wireless system standards and applications are placing demands on RF semiconductor manufacturers to produce highly specific and optimized RFIC solutions for specific growth segments including wireless data terminals, by Kevin J. Negus, Bryan T. Ingram, John D. Waters, and William J. McFarland, pg 27-36

0.1-um Gate-Length AlInAs/GaInAs/GaAs MODFET MMIC Process for Applications in High-Speed Wireless Communications...to ensure high performance of MODFETs used in HP's high-speed communications applications, their high-frequency signal, noise, and power characteristics must be optimized, by Hans Rohdin, Avelina Nagy, Virginia Robbins, Chung-Yi Su, Arlene S. Wakita, Judith Seeger, Tony Hwang, Patrick Chye, Paul E. Gregory, Sandeep R. Bahl, Forrest G. Kellert, Lawrence G. Studebaker, Donald C. D'Avanzo, and Sigurd Johnsen, pg 37-38

An Enhancement-Mode PHEMT for Single-Supply Power Amplifiers...to address the growing handset power amplifier needs for the emerging Personal Communications Services (PCS) markets, a 3-volt, single-supply, enhancement-mode pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (E-PHEMT) has been developed. The device exhibits +33 dBm output power and 65% drain efficiency at 1.88 GHz, by Der-Woei Wu, John S. Wei, Chung-Yi Su, Ray M. Parkhurst, Shyh-Liang Fu, Shih-Shun Chang, and Richard B. Levitsky, pg 39-51

Direct Broadcast Satellite Applications...one of the main reasons for the popularity of direct broadcast satellite (DBS) service is the small size of the parabolic dish antenna. The key to the small-size dish is a low-noise GaAs transistor used in the low-noise block of the DBS receiver system. One of HP's efforts in this area has been to develop an AllnAs/GaInAs device fabricated on a conventional GaAs substrate that has a lower noise figure, higher gain, and lower cost - Page 52, by Shunichiro Yajima and Antoni C. Niedzwiecki, pg 52-55

Pager Testing with a Specially Equipped Signal Generator...this paper reviews current trends in the paging industry, describes typical pager designs, presents the test requirements of modern pagers, and discusses the contribution to pager testing of the HP 8648A signal generator with Option 1EP, the paper signaling option, by Matthew w. Bellis, pg 56-65

HP CaLan: A Cable System Tester that is Accurate Even in the Presence of Ingress...today, cable system operators have to deal with bidirectional traffic from sources such as pay-per-view television, high-speed Internet access, and two-way telephony. A cable testing system is described that can handle bidirectional traffic even with RF noise (ingress) on the return path,by Daniel D. Van Winkle, pg 66-83


Cover: examples of 3D graphics images that can be rendered with HP workstations using the VISUALIZE fx graphics hardware.

An API for Interfacing Interactive 3D Applications to High-Speed Graphics Hardware...the OpenGL specification defines a software interface that can be implemented on a wide range of graphics devices ranging from simple frame buffers to fully hardware-accelerated geometry processors, by Kevin J. Lefebvre and John M. Brown, pg 6-8

An Overview of th HP OpenGL Software Architecture...OpenGL is a hardware-indepent specification of a 3D graphics programming interface. This specifications has been implemented on many different vendors platforms with different CPU types and graphics hardware, ranging from PC-based board solutions to high-performance workstations, by Kevin J. Lefebvre, Robert J. Casey, Michael J. Phelps, Courtney D. Goeltzenleuchter, and Donley B. Hoffman, pg 9-18

The DirectModel Toolkit: Meeting the 3D Graphics Needs of Technical Applications...the increasing use of 3D modeling for highly complex mechanical designs has led to a demand for systems that can provide smooth interactivity with 3D models containing millions or even billions of polygons, by Brian E. Cripe and Thomas A. Gaskins, pg 19-27

An Overview of the VISUALIZE fx Graphics Accelerator Hardware...three graphics accelerator products with different levels of performance are based on varying combinations of five custom integrated circuits. In addition, these products are the first ones from Hewlett-Packard to provide native acceleration for the OpenGL API, by Noel D. Scott, Daniel M. Olsen, and Ethan W. Gannett, pg 28-34

HP Kayak: A PC Workstation with Advanced Graphics Performance...world-leading 3D graphics performance, normally only found in a UNIX workstation, is provided in a PC workstation platform running the Windows NT operating system. This system was put together with a time to market of less than one year from project initiation to shipment, by Ross A. Cunniff, pg 35-40

Concurrent Engineering in OpenGL's Product Development...time to market was reduced when tasks that had been traditionally serialized were completed in parallel, by Robert J. Casey and L. Leonard Lindstone, pg 41-45

Advance Display Technologies on HP-UX Workstations...multiple monitors can be configured as a contiguous viewing space to provide more screen space so that users can see most, if not all, of their applications without any special windown manipulations, by Todd M. Spencer, Paul M.Anderson, and David Sweetser, pg 46-50

Delivering PCI in HP B-Class and C-Class Workstations: A Case Study in the Challenges of Interfacing with Industry Standards...in the highly competitive workstation market,m customers demand a wide range of cost-effective, high-performance I/O solutions. An industry-standard I/O subsystem allows HP workstations to support the latest I/O technology, by Ric L. Lewis, Erin A. Handgen, Nicholas J. Ingegneri, and Glen T. Robinson, pg 51-61

Linking Enterprise Business Systems to the Factory Floor...information is the fuel that drives today's business enterprises. The ability to link different components in the enterprise together in a user-friendly and transparent manner increases the effectiveness of companies involved in manufacturing and production, by Kenn S. Jennyc, pg 62-73

Knowledge Harvesting, Articulation, and Delivery...harnessing expert knowledge and automating this knowledge to help solve problems have been the goals of researchers and software practioners since the early days of artifical intelligence. A tool is described that offers a semiautomated way for software support personnel to use the vast knowledge and experience of experts to provide support to customers, by Kemal A. Delic and Dominique Lahaix, pg 74-81

A Theoretical Derivation of Relationships Between Forecast Errors...this paper studies errors in forecasting the demand for a component used by several products. Because data for the component demand (both actual demand and forecast demand) at the aggregate product level is easier to obtain than at the individual product level, the study focuses on the theoretical relationships between forecast errors at these two levels, by Jerry Z. Shan, pg 82-88

Strengthening Software Quality Assurance...increasing time-to-market pressures in recent years have resulted in a deterioration of the quality of software entering the system test phase. At HP's Kobe Instrument Division, the software quality assurance process was reengineered to ensure that released software is as defect-free as possible, by Mutsuhiko Asada and Pong Mang Yan, pg 89-97

A Compiler for HP VEE...with the addition of a compiler, HP VEE programs can now benefit from improved execution speed and still provide the advantage of an interactive interpreter, by Steven Greenbaum and Stanley Jefferson, pg 98-99


Cover: the 150-MHz-bandwiddth membrane hyrophone is described. The signal is generated by a 20-MHz focused ultrasound transducer driving water into a non-linear state.

A 150-MHz-Bandwidth Membrane Hydrophone for Acoustic Field Characterization...to measure the beam parameters of intravascular ultrasound imaging transducers with operating center frequencies exceeding 20 MHz and beamwidths below 200 um, a hydrophone with a spot diameter less than 50 um and a bandwidth greater than 150 MHz is required. The hydrophone described in this article is a step towards meeting these requirements, by Paul Lum, Michael Greenstein, Edward D. Verdonk, Charles Grossman Jr., and Thomas L. Szabo, pg 6-16

Units, Traceability, and Calibration of Optical Instruments...this article presents a short and comprehensive overview of the art of units measurement and calibration. Although the examples focus on optical instruments, the article may be of interest to anyone interested in metrology, by Andreas Gerster, pg 17-29

Techniques for Higher-Performance Boolean Equivalence Verification...the techniques and algorithms presented in this paper are a result of six years experience in researching, developing, and integrating Boolean equivalence verification into the HP Convex Division's ASIC design flow. We have discovered that a high-performance equivalence checker is attainable through careful memory management, the use of bus grouping techniques during the RTL-to-equation translation process, hierarchical to flat name mapping considerations, subequivalence point cone partitioning, solving the false negative verification problem, and building minimal binary decision diagrams, by Harry D. Foster, pg 30-38

On-Chip Cross Talk Noise Model for Deep-Submicrometer ULSI Interconnect...a simple closed-form model for calculating cross talk noise on signal lines in deep-submicrometer interconnect systems has accuracy comparable to SPICE for an arbitrary ramp input rate. Interconnect resistance, interconnect capacitance, and driver resistance are all taken into account. The model is suitable for rapid cross talk estimation and signal integrity verification, by Samuel O. Nakagawa, Dennis M. Sylvester, John G. McBride, and Soo-Young Oh, pg 39-45

Theory and Design of CMOS HSTL I/O Pads...to control reflections, the impedence of integrated circuit output pad drivers must be matched to the impedance of the transmission lines to which the pads are connected. HP's HSTL (high-speed transceiver logic) controlled impedence I/O pads use an on-chip impedence mathcing network that compensates for process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations, by Gerald L. Esch Jr. and Robert B. Manley, pg 46-52

A Low-Cost RF Multichip Module Packaging Family...these packages provides much lower cost than traditional high-frequency packaging, shielding, and interconnects, while still providing low-reflection transitions and high electrical isolation, by Lewis R. Dove, Martin L. Guth, and Dean B. Nicholson, pg 53-60

Testing with the HP 9490 Mixed-Signal LSI Tester...the tester's features include a timing interval analyzer for statistical analysis of clock periods, synchronous generation of arbitrary waveforms with respect to master digital clocks, and a library of digital signal processing routines. These features have been applied to production measurements of key parameters like AGC loop bandwidth, phase-loced loop timing jitter, and ADC signal-to-noise ratio and distoration parameters, by Matthew M. Brog and Kalwant Singh, pg 61-70

Reliability Enhancement of Surface Mount Light-Emitting Diodes for Automotive Applications...preencapsulation drying eliminates broken stitch bonds and reduces inconsistent reliability performance. A new casting epoxy formulation stops epoxy cracking, and optimization of the die-attach epoxy cure schedule solves lifted die-attach and delamanation problems, by Koay Ban-Kuan, Leong Ak-Wing, Tan Boon-Chun, and Yoong Tze-Kwan, pg 71-80

Engineering Surfaces in Ceramic Pin Grid Array Packaging to Inhibit Epoxy Bleeding...bleeding of epoxy resin around surfaces undergoing bonding during electronic packaging assembly has long caused sporadic yield loss. Previously, it was thought that vacuum baking reduced the yield loss resulting from surface contaminants. Although vacuum baking inhibits epoxy resin bleeding, it also produces coatings of hydrocarbons, which affect surface wettability and surface energy. Surfactant coating results in a surface chemistry similar to vacuum-baked substrates but it a better alternative because of its controllability, by Ningxia Tan, Kenneth H. H. Lim, Bernard Chin, and Anthony J. Bourdillon, pg 81-90


Cover: the lower-left pictures shows the SnapLED emitters that are attached to a clinch frame to make up the fully assembled SnapLED array shown in the upper-right picture. The other pictures show two more configurations of fully assembled SnapLED arrays

HP SnapLED: LED Assemblies for Automotive Signal Lighting...decreased packaging cost and improved performance have helped LEDs gain acceptance as light sources in automative applications such as signal lighting. An assembly technique is described that allows the creation of thin taillamps that can be customized to conform to the shape of a particular vehicle, by James W. Stewart, pg 1-12

OTDR APIs Enable Customers to Build Their Own Systems...in the past few years, OTDRs have evolved from being used only as standalone measurement instruments with limited functionality to become key instruments for servicing and characterizing global fibert-optic communication links. This trend has spurred the creation of standard file formats for OTDR data and standard software interfaces to control OTDRs remotely, by Torsten Born and Peter Thoma, pg 13-20

Updating a UNIX Application Suite for the Windows NT World...a project team learned some useful lessons in porting a real-time software platform for industrial applications to an environment that typically runs desktop applications such as word processors, database programs and spreadsheet applications, by Thomas W. Hutchinson and Ronald R. Derynck, pg 21-25

Integrating Real-Time Systems with Corporate Information Systems...integrating distibuted systems involves more than just connecting different communications techologies. It also involves connecting different information environments, by Ronald R. Derynck and Thomas W. Hutchinson, pg 26-28

New Approaches to Creating and Testing Internationalized Software...creating high-quality software that runs in any language is a big challenge. By changing our development process to stress early defect detection and by using the World Wide Web as a collaboration tool, we have dramatically improved the quality of our internationalized software, by Harry J. Robinson and Sankar L. Chakrabarti, pg 29-36

Comparison of Finite-Difference and SPICE Tools for Thermal Modeling of the Effects of Nonuniform Power Generation in High-Power CPUs...this paper describes a thermal study of junction temperature variation across the surface of a large CPU resulting from nonuniform power generation. Results from Flotherm finite-difference thermal analysis software were compared to results from a SPICE simulation. Both simulations provided results close to measured values. Each tool offered strengths and benefits in different areas, by Jeffrey L. Deeney and C. Michael Ramsey, pg 37-45

A Low-Complexity, Fixed-Rate Compression Scheme for Color Images and Documents...based on one-dimensional differential pulse code modulation, the coder is multiplication-free, codes each pixel as soon as it is available, and outputs a fixed number of bits for each pixel. Hence, there is no need for any buffering of the input image or coder output bitstream. The compression scheme is visually lossless and yields a modest compression ratio of 3 to 4. Because of its simplicity, it is useful when hardware is limited and coding delays cannot be tolerated, by Nader Moayeri, pg 46-52



Cover: the neonatal version of a family of sensors used for monitoring oxygen saturation levels in a patient's blood

SoftBench 5.0: The Evolution of an Integrated Software Development Environment...the vision and objectives of the original SoftBench product have enabled it to continue to be a leader in the integrated software development market. For example, since SoftBench 1.0 over 80 third-party software tools have been integrated with SoftBench, by Deborah A. Lienhart, pg 6-11

Applying a Process Improvement Model to SoftBench 5.0, by Deborah A. Lienhart, Scott Jordan, pg 8

The C++ SoftBench Class Editor...the C++ SoftBench class editor adds automatic code generation capabilities to the class graph of the SoftBench static analyzer. Novice C++ programmers can concentrate on their software designs and have the computer handle C++'s esoteric syntax. Experienced C++ programmers benefit from smart batch editing functionality and by having the computer quickly generate the program skelton, by Julie B. Wilson, pg 12-15

The SoftBench Static Analysis Database...the static analysis database supports the SoftBench static analyzer and the C++, C, FORTRAN, Pascal, and Ada programming languages. The underlying data is isolated by a complier interface and a tool interface, by by Robert C. Bethke, pg 16-18

CodeAdvisor: Rule-Based C++ Defect Detection Using a Static Analysis Database...C++ SoftBench CodeAdvisor is an automated error detection tool for the C++ language. It uses detailed semantic information available in the SoftBench static database to detect high-level problems not typically found by compliers. This paper describes CodeAdvisor and identifies the advantages of static over run-time error checking, by Timothy J. Duesing, John R. Diamant, pg 19-21

Using SoftBench to Integrate Heterogeneous Software Development Environments...migrating from mainframe-based computing to client/server-based computing can result in a heterogeneous collection of machines that do not interoperate, forcing software developers to deal with unfamiliar system commands and systems that cannot share data. A SoftBench control daemon is described that enables developers to integrate heterogeneous computing systems into efficient, tightly coupled software development environments with consistent, easy-to-use graphical user interfaces across all machines, by Stephen A. Williams, pg 22-27

The Supply Chain Approach to Planning and Procurement Management...the supply chain approach models stochastic events influencing a manufacturing organization's shipment and inventory performance in the same way that a mechanical engineer models tolerance buildup in a new product design. The objectives are to minimize on-hand inventory and optimize supplier response time, by Gregory A. Kruger, pg 28-34

Appendix I: Derivation of the Standard Deviation of Demand Given an R-Week Review Period, pg 34

Appendix II: The Expected Value and Variance of On-Hand Inventory when there Are no Restrictions on Minimum Buy Quantities, pg 34

Appendix III: The Expected Value and Variance of On-Hand Inventory when there Are Restrictions on Minimum Buy Quantities, pg 35

Appendix IV: Incorporating SRT (Supplier Response Time) into the Safety Stock Calculations, pg 36-37

Appendix V: Derating the Service Level to Account for Reduced Periods of Exposure to Stock-outs as a Result of Minimum Buy or Economic Order Quantities, pg 37

Appendix VI: Estimating Weekly Demand Uncertainty from Monthly Data, pg 38

Appendix VII: Adjusting Safety Stock to Account for Yield Loss, pg 38

A New Family of Sensors for Pulse Oximetry...this new family of resuable sensors for noninvasive arterial oxygen saturation measurements is designed to cover all application areas. It consists of four sensors: adult, pediatric, neonatal, and ear clip, by Dietmar Miller, Siegfried K,stle, Friedemann Noller, Siegfried Falk, Anton Bukta, Eberhard Mayer, pg 39-53

Design of a 600-Pixel-per-Inch, 30-Bit Color Scanner...simply sampling an image at higher resolution will not give the results a customer expects. Other optical parameters such as image sharpness, signal-to-noise ratio, and dark voltage correction must improve to see the benefits of 600 pixels per inch, by Steven L. Webb, Kevin J. Youngers, Michael J. Steinle, Joe A. Eccher, pg 54-61

Building Evolvable Systems: The ORBlite Project...one critical requirement that HP has learned over the years from building large systems is the need for the system and its components to be able to evolve over time. A distributed object communication framework is described that supports piecewise evoluation of components, interfaces, communication protocols, and APIs and the integration of legacy components, by Keith E. Moore, Evan R. Kirshenbaum, pg 62-72

Developing Fusion Objects for Instruments...the successful application of object-oriented technology to real-world problems in a nontrival task. This is particularly true fro developers transitioning from nonobject-oriented methods to object-oriented methods. Key factors that improve the probability of success in applying object-oriented methods are selecting an object-oriented method, developing a process definition and continually improving the process, by Antonio A. Dicolen, Jerry J. Liu, pg 73-85

An Approach to Architecting Enterprise Solutions...a frequently mentioned ailment in healthcare information management is the lack of compatibility among information systems. To address this problem, HP's Medical Products Group has created a high-level model that defines the major architectural elements required for a complete healthcare enterprise information system, by Robert A. Seliger, pg 86-95

Object-Oriented Customer Education...as customers require more trusted advice to solve their business problems, the choice of education solutions has become a strategic issue that often precedes and directs the choice of technologies, by Wulf Rehder, pg 96-102

Starting an Object-Oriented Project, by Ramesh Balasubramanian, pg 100


Cover: successively zoomed views of the analog startup waveform of a circuits, captured by the HP 54645D mixed-signal oscilloscope triggering on digital data

A Family of Instruments for Testing Mixed-Signal Circuits and Systems...this entirely new product category combines elements of oscilloscopes and logic analyzers, but unlike previous combination products, these are "oscillioscope first" and logic analysis is the add-on, by Robert A. Witte, pg 6-9

Mixed-Signal Microcontroller, by Weis Reid, pg 8

Testing a Mixed-Signal Design Based on a Single-Chip Microcontroller...the HP 54645D mixed-signal oscilloscope simplifies the testing and debugging of microcontroller-based mixed-signal designs with its integrated analog and digital channels, by Jerald B. Murphy, pg 10-12

Design of a Mixed-Signal Oscilloscope...this combination of a digital oscilloscope and a logic timing analyzer provides powerful cross-domain triggering capabilities for capturing signals in mixed-signal environments. MegaZoom technology, consisting of advanced acquistion techniques and dedicated signal processing, maintains display responsiveness while making optimal use of deep sample memory, by Matthew S. Holcomb, Stuart O. Hall, Warren S. Tustin, Patrick J. Burkart, Steven D. Roach, pg 13-22

A Cost-Effective Architecture for a 500-MHz Counter for Glitch Trigger, by Steven D. Roach, pg 22

Sustained Sample Rate in Digital Oscilloscopes...at all but a few of the fastest sweep speeds, the acquisition memory depth and not the maximum sample rate determines the oscilloscope's actual sample rate. Peak detection capability, when used correctly, can make up for acquisition memory shortfalls, by Steven B. Warntjes, pg 23-25

Acquisition Clock Dithering in a Digital Oscilloscope...when a frequency component of the input signal is greater than half the sample rate, aliasing can occur. When the oscilloscope is equivalent time sampling, signals that are subharmonics of the sample clock will be poorly displayed. In the HP 54645A/D oscilloscopes, these effects are greatly reduced by dithering the sample clock during and between acquisitions, by Derek E. Toeppen, pg 26-28

An Oscilloscope-Like Logic Timing Analyzer...market research indicated that some customers doing embedded development preferred to work with oscilloscopes instead of standard logic analyzers. The HP 54620 logic timing analyzer offers many oscilloscope features, including direct-access controls, a highly interactive display, computed measurements, delayed sweep, simplifed triggering, and a trace labelmaker, by Steven B. Warntjes, pg 29-33

High-Sample-Rate Multiprocessor-Based Oscilloscopes...the HP 54615B and 54616B oscilloscopes blend proprietary high-speed sampling technology with the power of digital signal processing and a proven user interface to deliver usable advaned characterizaiton capability, by R. Scott Brunton, pg 34-36

A Dielectric Spectrometer for Liquid Using the Electromagnetic Induction Method...key parameters of colloids are often directly related to or can be derived from permittivity or conductivity. Dielectric dispersion analysis (dielectric spectroscopy) yields insights into colloidal properties. A dielectric meter using a new sensing technique has been developed, by Hideki Wakamatsu , pg 37-44

Emulating ATM Network Impairments in the Laboratory...this article discusses a new product for the HP Broadband Series Test System. The HP E4219 ATM network impairment emulator allows telecommunication network and equipment manufacturers to emulate an Asynchronous Transfer Mode network in the laboratory, by Robert W. Dmitroca, Susan G. Gibson, Trevor R. Hill, Luisa Mola Morales, Chong Tean Ong, pg 45-50

A Message Handling System for B-ISDN User-Network Interface Signaling Test Software...B-ISDN user-network interface signaling has many different protocol variants and each of them has tens of different types of messages. The message handling system provides a powerful tool for the developer to easily support these variants and messages in the HP Broadband Series Test System (BSTS), by Satoshi Naganawa, Richard Z. Zuo, pg 51-58

Object-Oriented Network Management Development...as networks continue to proliferate, the need to develop and deploy network management applications has become a critical issue. Two software development tools are described that allow developers to create powerful network management-side applications quickly without necessarily having to be experts on network protocols, by Peter E. Mellquist, Thomas Murray, pg 59-65

Design of an Enhanced Vector Network Analyzer...a liquid crustal display (LCD) reduces size and weight and has a larger viewing area. TRL (Thru-Reflect-Line) calibration alllows measurement of components that do not have coaxial connectors. New software algorithms achieve faster acquisition and frequency tuning of the synthesized source to give faster updates of the measurement data, by Barry A. Brown, Stanley E. Jaffe, Frank K. David, Frederic W. Woodhull II, Richard R. Barg, Joel P. Dunsmore, Douglas C. Bender, pg 66-77

Modeling Source Match Effects for Microwave Power Splitter Design, by Joel P. Dunsmore, pg 72

Optimization of Interconnect Geometry for High-Performance Microprocessors...the goals of the work presented in this paper were to estimate quantitatively the impact of interconnect technology parameters on the performance of high-end microprocessors and to use this information to optimize the interconnect geometry within the constraints imposed by the process. The 64-bit PA 8000 microprocessor was used as a test case, by Khalid Rahmat, Soo-Young Oh, pg 78-83

Dsigning, Simulating and Testing and Analog Phase-Loced Loop in a Digital Environment...in designing a phase-locked loop for use on several HP ASICs, the digital portion of an existing phase-locked loop was transferred to a behavioral VHDL description and synthesized. A behavioral model was written for the analog section to allow the ASIC designers to run system simulations. A new leakage test was developed that has been very effective in screening out process defects in the filter of the original design, by Thomas J. Thatcher, Michael M. Oshima, Cindy Botelho, pg 84-88

Analog Behavioral Modeling and Mixed-Mode Simulation with SABER and Verilog, a description is given of specific analog behavioral modeling and mixed-mode simulation techniques using SABER and Verilog. Full-channel simulations have been carried out on a class I partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) read/write channel chip. Complex analog circuits such as an adaptive feed-forward equalizer, an automatic gain control block, and a phase-locked loop are modeled in detail with SABER MAST mixed-signal behavioral mdoeling language. A simulation sppedup of two orders of magnitude has been achieved compared to SPICE, by Ben B. Sheng, Hugh S.C. Wallace, James S. Ignowski, pg 89-94

Physical Design of 0.35-um Gate Arrays for Symmetric Multiprocessing Servers...to meet gate density and system performance requirements for the HP Exemplar S-class and X-class technical servers, a physical design methodology was developed for 1.1-million-raw-basic-cell, 0.35-um CMOS gate arrays. Commercial and ASIC vendor-supplied tools were augmented with internally developed tools to put together a highly optimized physical chip design process, by Lionel C. Bening, Tony M. Brewer, Harry D. Foster, Jeffrey S. Quigley, Robert A. Sussman, Paul F. Vogel, Aaron W. Wells, pg 95-103

Fast Tunaround of a Structured Custom IC Design Using Advanced Design Tools and Methodology...through the use of several new tools and methodologies, a small team of engineers was able to design and verify a 1.7-million-FET chip in eight months. The tools and methodologies used included a set of guidelines and timing constraints that were met by the customer, a data path compiler, a highly tuned custom multiplier cell that was used in 87 locations, and an automated top-level power connection scheme, by Rory L. Fisher, Stephen R. Herbener, John R. Morgan, John R. Pessetto, pg 104-107


Cover: an artisitci rendition of the change in the printing model brought on by the Printing Performance Architecture (PPA) implemented in the HP DeskJet 820C. The top figure depicts printing before the PPA where most of the printing logic resides in the printer. The lower figure depicts printing after the PPA where most of the printing logic resides in the host computer

A Lower-Cost Inkjet Printer Based on a New Printing Performance Architecture...the HP Deskjet 820C printer is the first HP inkjet printer in an evolutionary product plan that takes advantage of computer and operating systems trends to make inkjet printing affordable for more users. The printer's integrated software, firmware, and digital electronics architecture uses the computational resources in the PC instead of duplicating these resources in the printer, by David J. Shelley, James T. Majewski, Mark R. Thackray, John L. McWilliams, pg 6-11

PPA Printer Software Driver Design...the software driver for the HP DeskJet 820C printer performs many functions that were formerly performed in the printer, including swath cutting, data formattting, and communications. The driver also includes a PCL emulation module for DOS application support, by David Hall, Lee W. Jackson, Katrina Heiles, Karen E. Van der Veer, Thomas J. Halpenny, pg 12-21

PPA Printer Firmware Design...Hewlett-Packard's new Printing Performance Architecture (PPA) includes a significantly reduced set of printer firmware. "Don't touch the dots" was the firmware designer's golden rule. This means that the firmware and processor do only mechanism control, I/O, command parsing, status reporting, user interface, and general housekeeping functions, by Erik Kilk, pg 22-30

PPA Printer Controller ASIC Development...as the first Printing Performance Architecture printer, the HP DeskJet 820C needed a completely new digital controller ASIC design. The chip's architecture was optimized for the specific requirements of PPA. Concurrent development of hardware and firmware through the use of hardware emulators and attention to regulator issues during the design helped the product meet all of its requirements on schedule, by John L. McWilliams, Leann M. MacMillan, Bimal Patak, Harlan A. Talley, pg 31-37

Next Generation Inkjet Printhead Drive Electronics...by integrating the functions of four ICs into one new custom IC and then moving all the electronics related to the pens up to the carriage with the pens, significant savings were realized. A simple, low-contact-count, inexpensive flexible cable is used to connect the carriage to the main printed circuit assembly, by Huston W. Rice, pg 38-42

The PA 7300LC Microprocessor: A Highly Intergrated System on a Chip...a collection of design objectives targeted for low-end systems and the legacy of an earlier microprocessor, which was designed for high-volume cost-sensitive products, guided the development of the PA 7300LC processor, by Terry W. Blanchard, Paul G. Tobin, pg 43-47

Functional Design of the HP PA 7300LC Processor...microarchitecture design, with attention to optimizing specific areas of the CPU and memory and I/O subsystems, is key to meeting the cost and performance goals of a processor targeted for midrange and low-end computer systems, by Leith Johnson, Stephen R. Undy, pg 48-60

High-Performance Processor Design Guided by System Costs...to minimize time to market and keep costs low, the PA 7300LC design was leveraged from a previous CPU, the chip area was reduced, cache RAM arrays with redundancy were added, and high-speed, high-coverage scan testing was added to reduce manufacturing costs, by David C. Kubicek, Thomas J. Sullivan, Amitabh Mehra, John G. McBride, pg 61-68

Verifying the Correctness of the PA 7300LC Processor...functional verification was divided into presilicon and postsilicon phases. Software models were used in the presilicon phase, and fabricated chips and real systems were used in the postsilicon phase. In both phases the goals were the same - to find design bugs and ensure that customers get the highest quality part possible, by Paul G. Tobin, Duncan Weir, pg 69-72

An Entry-Level Server with Multiple Performance Points...to address the very intense, high-volume environment of deapartmental and branch computing, the system design for the D-class server was made flexible enough to offer many prince and performance features at its introduction and still allow new features and upgrades to be added quickly, by Lin A. Nease, Kirk M. Bresniker, Charles J. Zacky, Micheal J. Greenside, Alisa Sandoval, pg 73-81

A Low-Cost Worksation with Enhanced Performance and I/O Capabilites...various entities involved in product development came together at different times to solve a design problem, evaluate costs, and make adjustments to their own projects to accommodate the cost and performance goals of the low-cost HP 9000B-class workstation, by Scott P. Allan, Bruce P. Bergmann, Ronald P. Dean, Dianne Jiang, Dennis Floyd, pg 82-88

Testing Safety-Critical Software...testing safety-critical software differs from conventional testing in that the test design approach must consider the defined and implied safety of the software at a level as high as the functionality to be tested, and the test software has to be developed and validated using the same quality assurance processes as the software itself, by Evangelos Nikolaropoulos, pg 89-94

A High-Level Programming Language for Testing Complex Safety-Critical Systems...dealing with an enormous amount of data is characteristic of validating complex and safety-critical software systems. ATP, a high-level programming language, supports the validation process. In a patient monitor test environment it has shown its usefulness and power by enabling a dramatic increase in productivity. Its universal character allows it to migrate validation scenarios to different products based on other architectural paradigms, by Andreas Pirrung, pg 95-102

An Automated Test Evaluation Tool...the AutoCheck program fully automates the evaluation of test protocol files for medical patient monitors. The AutoCheck output documents that the evaluation has been carried out and presents the results of the evaluation, by Jorg Schwering, pg 103-108

Effective Testing of Localized Software...testing localized software is a complex and time-consuming task. With the help of the testing tools developed for HP patient monitors, local language validation for these products is fully automated, by Evangelos Nikolaropoulos, Jorg Schwering, Andreas Pirrung, pg 109-111


Cover: the four-way superscalar HP PA 8000 microprocessor

Four-Way Superscaler PA-RISC Processors...the HP PA 8000 and PA 8200 PA-RISC CPUs feature an aggressive four-way superscalar implementation, speculative executive and on-the-fly instruction reordering, by Anne P. Scott, Kevin P. Burkhart, Ashok Kumar, Richard M. Blumberg, Gregory L. Ranson, pg 8-15

Design Methodologies and Circuit Design Trade-Offs for the HP PA 8000 Processor...this paper discusses the various design methods used in the PA 8000, specific design techniques for the new packaging technology, the clock distribution scheme, cross-chip signal integrity issues, and some of the new tools and techniques, by Paul J. Dorweiler, Floyd E. Moore, D. Douglas Josephson, Glenn T. Colon-Bonet, pg 16-21

Functional Verification of the HP PA 8000 Processor...the advanced microarchitecture of the HP PA 8000 CPU has many features that presented significant new verification challenges. These include out-of-order instruction execution, register renaming, speculative execution, four-way superscalar operation, decoupled instruction fetch, concurrent system bus interface, and PA-RISC 2.0 architecture enhancements. Enchanced functional verification tools and processes were required to address theis microarchitectural complexity, by Steven T. Mangelsdorf, Raymond P. Gratias, Richard M. Blumberg, Rohit Bhatia, pg 22-31

Electrical Verification of the HP PA 8000 Processor...electrical verification applies techniques from both functional verification and reliability and environmental testing to improve the quality of the CPU. Electrical verification checks that the CPU functions correctly under stressful environmental conditions, well outside the normal operating environment, by John W. Bockhaus, Rohit Bhatia, C. Michael Ramsey, Joseph R. Butler, David J. Ljung, pg 32-39

Solving IC Interconnect Routing for an Advanced PA-RISC Processor...this paper discusses some important new block routing technologies that were required for the HP PA 8000 processor chip. These technologies are implemented in a new block routing system called PA_Route, by James C. Fong, Hoi-Kuen Chan, Martin D. Kruckenberg, pg 40-45

Intelligent Networks and the HP OpenCall Technology...the HP OpenCall product family is a portfolio of computer-based telecommunications platforms designed to offer a foundation for advanced network services based on intelligent network concepts. This article concentrates on the HP OpenCall service executive platform, service management platform, and service creation environment, by Tarek Dehni, John O'Connell, Nicolas Raguideau, pg 46-57

HP OpenCall SS7 Platform...the HP OpenCall SS7 platform allows users to build computer-based signaling applications connected to the SS7 signaling network, by Denis Pierrot, Jean-Pierre Allegre, pg 58-64

High Availability in the HP OpenCall SS7 Platform...fault tolerance in computer systems is discussed and high availability is defined. The theory and operation of the active/standby HP OpenCall solution are presented. Switchover decision-making power is vested in a fault tolerance controller process on each machine, by Brian C. Wyld, Jean-Pierre Allegre, pg 65-71

A Benchtop Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer...the HP 4500 is the first benchtop ICP-MS. It has a new type of optics systems that results in a very low random background and high sensitivity, making analysis down to the subnanogram-per-liter (parts-per-trillon) level feasible. It can be equipped with HP's ShieldTorch system, which reduces interference from polyatomic icons, by Yoko Kishi, pg 72-79

Audit History and Time-Slice Archiving in an Object DBMS for Laboratory Databases...development of an object database management system allows rapid convenient access to large historical data archieves generated from complex databases, by Timothy P. Loomis, pg 80-89

Testing Policing in ATM Networks...policing is one of the key mechanisms used in ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks to avoid network congestion. The HP E4223A policing and traffic characterization test application has been developed to test policing implementations in ATM switches before the switches are deployed for commercial service, by Mohammad Makarechian, Nicholas J. Malcolm, pg 90-95

MOSFET Scaling into the Future...2D process and device simulators have been used to predict the performance of scaled MOSFETs spanning the 0.35um to 0.07-um generations. Requirements for junction depth and channel doping are discussed. Constant-field scaling is assumed. MOSFET drive current remains nearly constant from one generation to the next and most of the performance improvement comes from the decreasing supply voltage. Gate delay decreases by 30% per generation, nearly the same trend as previous generations. However, this perfomance gain comes at the price of much higher off-state leakage because of the reduction of the threshold voltage. Various solutions to this high leakage are discussed., by Paul Vande Voorde, pg 96-100

Frequency Modulation of System Clocks for EMI Reduction...this paper focuses on clock dithering as an on-chip technique for EMI reduction. It is a survey paper based on information gathered from inside and outside HP's Integrated Circuit Business Division (ICBD). It reviews the basic concept, the work that has been done at ICBD and elsewhere, ICBD customer experiences, and lessons drawn from these experiences about design, effectiveness, and customer implementation with ICBD, by Cornelis D. Hoekstra, pg 101-106

Fully Synthesizable Microprocessor Core via HDL Porting...microprocessing integrated in superchips have traditionally been ported from third-party processor vendors via artwork. A new methodology uses hardware description language (HDL) instead of artwork. Having the HDL source allows the processor design to be optimized for HP's process in much the same way as other top-down designers, by Jim J. Lin, pg 107-113

General-Purpose 3V CMOS Operational Amplifier with a New Constant-Transconductance Input Stage...design trade-offs for a low-voltage two-stage amplifier in the HP CMOS14 process are presented and some of the issues of low-voltage analog design are discussed. The design of a new constant-transconductance input stage that has a rail-to-rail common-mode input range is described, along with the rail-to-rail class-AB output stage. The performance specifications and area of this amplifier are compared with a similar design in a previous process, CMOS34, by Derek L. Knee, Charles E. Moore, pg 114-120

Improving Heat Transfer from a Flip-Chip Package...the lid of an ASIC package can significantly increase the temperature of the die by impeding heat transfer. In flip-chip packages the backside of a die can be exposed by eliminating the lid, thus allowing a heat sink to be attached directly. Numerical finite difference methods and experimentation were used to investigate the differences between lidded and lidless flip-chip designs. The results demonstrate that a lidless package is a superior design because of the increased thermal conductivity between the die and the heat sink, by Cullen E. Bash, Richard L. Blanco, pg 121-125


Cover: an artistic rendition of global internet communications, showing fiber-optic technology as the backbone for universal connectivity

Communications Challenges of the Digital Information...the Internet and World Wide Web are forerunners of a digital information utility that in time will provide computing as well as information to society, just as other utilities provide water and electric power, by Joel S. Birnbaum, pg 6-10

Residential Communications...establishing a communications infrastructure to get information to, from, or around a residence is not a straightforward task today. However, in the future the equipment and wiring within a residence for Internet communications will be treated the same as the wiring and equipment for services such as telephone, electricity, and cable television are treated today, by Daniel A. Pitt, pg 11-18

Optical Networks: Backbones for Universal Connectivity...Communications traffic in the world's fiber-optic backbone network is growing more than 10% per year and the growht rate is accelerating. The ever-increasing bandwidth demands are being met by an array of technological innovations including higher time-division multiplex (TDM) transmission rates combined with wavelength-division multiplex (WDM) overlays, by Robert C. Bray, Douglas M. Baney, pg 19-31

Data Transmission for Higher-Speed IEEE 802 LANs Using Twisted-Pair Copper Cabling...transmission at 424.8 Mbits/s using Category 5 cable can meet both industrial and the more stringent domestic emissions regulations. The design is robust in operation and the complexity is not much greater than that used for the 100-Mbit/s rate, by Eric Deliot, Alistair N. Coles, Steven G. Methley, pg 32-41

SpectraLAN: A Low-Cost Multiwvelength Local Area Network...the first-generation SpectraLan module will allow existing 62.5-um multimode fiber-optic links to carry four times higher data rates than is possible with conventional methods. Four-channel error-free operation at aggregate data rates of 2.5 and 4.0 Gbits/s has been demonstrated over distances of 500 m and 300 m, respectively. The module is compact and potentially low-cost, by Brian E. Lemoff, Lewis B. Aronson, Lisa A. Buckman, pg 42-52

Gigabyte-per-Second Optical Interconnection Modules for Data Communications...a ten-channel parallel optical link module operating at 1 Gbit/s per channel has been developed in the POLO (Parallel Optical Link Organization) program. Key components include vertical-cavity surface emitting laser and detector arrays, bipolar transceiver ICs, a high-speed ball-grid array package, polymer waveguides, and multichannel ribbon fiber connectors. Applications of the POLO module include computer clusters, switching systems, and multimedia, by Kenneth H. Hahn, Kirk S. Giboney, Robert E. Wilson, Joseph Straznicky, pg 53-61

Developing Leading-Edge Fiber-Optic Network Link Standards...advances in fiber-optic network technology within Hewlett Packard are achieved by close cooperation between Hewlett-Packard Laboratories (HPL) and Hewlett-Packard's Communication Semiconductor Solutions Division (CSSD). This paper explores the interaction between HPL and CSSD for the advancement of high-speed LAN standards, particularly in the ATM Forum and IEEE 802.3z (Gbit/s Ethernet). Details of major technical contributions to 622-Mbit/s ATM and Gbit/s Ethernet specifications are presented, by David G. Cunningham, Delon C. Hanson, Mark C. Nowell, C. Steven Joiner, pg 62-73

1300-nm Strained Quantum Well Lasers For Fiber-Optic Communications...this paper describes new uncooled strained quantum well lasers for SONET/SDH systems. New Fabry-Perot lasers for short-haul and intermediate link applications are extremely reliable, have high ex-facet power, and have record low threshold currents, making lower packaging costs possible. Uncooled distributed feedback lasers for the long-haul market at 622 Mbits/s and 2.488 Gbits/s are discussed. These operate from - 40oC to +85oC with extremely good threshold and power characteristics , by William S. Ring, Simon J. Wrathall, Adrian J. Taylor, pg 74-85

Modeled Optimization and Experimental Verification of a Low-Dispersion Source for Long-Haul 2.488-Gbit/s Systems...this paper describes microwave, laser, and fiber models that were used in the development of the HP LSC2500 2.488 Gbit/s laser diode module. Knowledge of the modeled behavior of the laser diode as a function of the input electrical pulse shape has led to deliberately shaping the input pulse to give the minimum wavelength excursion during direct modulation, and therefore a high yield of low-dispersion-penalty laser diodes. These devices can be successfully used for transmission distances in excess of 200 km, by Ian H. White, Joseph A. Barnard, Stephen M. Gee, Herbert Lage, Chris Park, Kevin A. Williams, Richard V. Penty, pg 86-100

Flip-Chip Photodetector for High-Speed Communications Instrumentation...a family of 7-GHz bandwidth optical receivers and a nine-channel optical receiver with a gigabit-per-second data rate per channel have been developed for multigigabit lightwave test systems for long-haul fiber-optic telecommunications links and gigabit optical interconnects for computer systems. A new micro-flip-chip process, featuring liftoff-based small-diameter solder bumps, is incorporated with HP high-speed InP p-i-n photodetectors to minimize parasitic capacitance and inductance and enhance responsivity, by Susan R. Sloan, Tun S. Tan, David M. Braun, Tim L. Bagwell, Chris Kocot, Joseph Straznicky, pg 102-109

A 2.488-Gbit/s Silicon Bipolar Clock and Data Recovery Circuit for SONET Fiber-Optic Communications Networks...adjustment-free clock and data recovery for 2.488 Gbit/s SONET applications is provided by a 1.77W, 3.45x3.45-mm chip implemented in a 25-GHz fT silicon bipolar process. The chip has an on-chip VCO and operates from 2 to 3 Gbits/s over process, voltage, and temperature variations with a single off-chip filter capacitor. For network monitoring, a highly reliable loss-of-signal detector is provided. For good mechanical, thermal, and RF performance, a custom package was developed using HP's fine-line hybrid process, by Richard Walker, Cheryl Stout, Chu-Sun Yen, Lewis R. Dove, pg 111-119

Testing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers...EDFAs can overcome losses in long fiber-optic links independent of the digital bit rate, and can amplify multiple signals in a wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) systems architecture. As more and more EDFAs are deployed, designers, add new features, creating a need for more sophisticated testing. This paper provides a brief survey of the tests required to characterize EDFAs ,by James R. Stimple, pg 120-126



Cover: the HP 9000 J/K-class servers and workstations and the HP 3000 Series 9x9KS servers

Symmetric Multiprocessing Workstations and Servers System-Designed for High Performance and Low Cost...a new family of workstations and servers provides enhanced system performance in serveral price classes. The HP 9000 Series 700 J-class workstations provide up to 2-way symmetric multiprocessing, while the HP 9000 Series 800 K-class servers (technical servers, file servers) and HP 3000 Series 9x9KS business-oriented systems provide up to 4-way symmetric multiprocessing, by Brendan A. Voge, Badir M. Mousa, Loren P. Staley, Matt J. Harline, pg 8-17

K-Class Power System, by Gerald J. Nelson, James K. Koch, pg 16-17

A High-Performance, Low-Cost Multiprocessor Bus for Workstations and Midrange Servers...the Runaway bus, a synchronous, 64-bit, split-transaction, time multiplexed address and data bus, is a new processor-memory-I/O interconnect optimized for one-way to four-way symmetric multiprocessing systems. It is capable of sustained memory bandwidths of up to 768 megabytes per second in a four-way system, by Nicholas S. Fiduccia, William R. Bryg, Kenneth K. Chan, pg 18-24

Design of the HP PA 7200 CPU...the PA 7200 processor chip is specifically designed to give enhanced performance in a four-way multiprocessor system without additional interface circuits. It has a new data cache organization, a prefetching mechanism, and two integer ALUs for general integer superscalar executive, by Francis X. Schumacher, Gordon P. Kurpanek, Kenneth K. Chan, Cyrus C. Hay, Jason Zheng, John R. Keller, pg 25-33

Verification, Characterization, and Debugging of the HP PA 7200 Processor...to guarantee a high-quality product the HP PA 7200 CPU chip was subjected to functional and electrical verification. This article describes the testing methods, the debugging tools and approaches, and the impact of the interactions between the chip design and the IC fabrication process, by David N. Goldberg, James R. McGee, Thomas B. Alexander, Kent A. Dickey, Akshya Prakash, Nazeem Noordeen, Ross V. La Fetra, pg 34-43

A New Memory System Design for Commercial and Technical Computing Products...this new design is targeted for use in a wide range of HP commerical servers and technical workstations. It offers improved customer application performance through improvements in capacity, bandwiddth, latency, performance scalability, reliability, and availability. Two keys to the improved performance are system-level parallelism and memory interleaving, by Thomas R. Hotchkiss, Norman D. Marschke, Richard M. McClosky, pg 44-51

Hardware Cache Coherent Input/Output...hardware cache coherent I/O is a new feature of the PA-RISC architecture that involves the I/O hardware in ensuring cache coherence, thereby reducing CPU and memory overhead and increasing performance, by Helen Nusbaum, Michael K. Traynor, Todd J. Kjos, Brendan A. Voge, pg 52-59

A 1.0625-Gbit/s Fibre Channel Chipset with Laser Driver...this chipset implements the Fibre Channel FC-0 physical layer specification at 1.0625 Gbits/s. The transmitters features 20:1 data multiplexing with a comma character generator and a clock synthesis phase-locked loop, and includes a laser driver and a fault monitor for safety. The receiver provides the functions of clock recovery, 1:20 data demultiplexing, comma character detection, and word alignment, and includes redundant loss-of-signal alarms for eye safety. A single-chip version with both transmitter and receiver integrated is designed for disk drive applications using the Fibre Channel arbitrated loop protocol, by Benny W.H. Lai, Margaret M. Nakamoto, Richard Dugan, Justin S. Chang, pg 60-67

Applying the Code Inspection Process to Hardware Descriptions...the code inspection process from the software world has been applied to Verilog HDL (hardware description language) code. This paper explains the code inspection process and the roles and responsibilities of the participants. It explores the special challenges of inspecting HDL, the types of findings made, and the lessons learned from using the process for a year, by Joseph J. Gilray, pg 68-72

Overview of Code-Domain Power, Timing and Phase Measurements...Telecommunications Industry Association standards specify various measurements designed to ensure the compatibility of North American CDMA (code division multiple access) cellular transmitters and receivers. This paper is a tutorial overview of the operation of the measurement algorithms in the HP 83203B CDMA cellular adapter, which is designed to make the base station transmitter measurements specified in the standards , by Raymond A. Birgenheier, pg 73-93


Cover: a screen showing a typical collection of icons, panels, windows, and dialog boxes that make up the graphical user interface of the Common Desktop Environment

A Common Desktop Environment for Platforms Based on the UNIX Operating System...user interface technologies from four companies have been combined to create a single UNIX desktop standard that provides a common look and feel for end users and a common set of tools for system administrators and application developers, by Dana E. Laursen, Jon A. Brewster, Brian E. Cripe, pg 6-11

Appendix A: CDE Application Programming Interfaces, pg 11

Accessing and Administering Applications in CDE...setting up transparent access to applications and resources in a highly networked environment is made simplier by facilities that enable system administrators to integrate applications into the CDE desktop, by Anna Ellendman, William R. Yoder, pg 15-23

The CDE Action and Data Typing Services...several different types of databases and their associated APIs are involved in determining the look and behavior of icons presented in the Common Desktop Environment, by Arthur F. Barstow, pg 24-28

Migrating HP VUE Desktop Customizations to CDE...with CDE becoming the UNIX desktop standard, it is important to allow HP VUE users to preserve their customizations when moving over to the CDE desktop. A set of tools has been developed to make this transactions as complete and effortless as possible, by Molly Joy, pg 29-37

A Media-Rich Online Help System...based on an existing fast and easy-to-use online help system, the CDE help system extends this baseline to provide features that will work across all UNIX platforms, by Lori A. Cook, Steven P. Hiebert, Michael R. Wilson, pg 38-49

Managing a Multicompany Software Development Project...the development of the Common Desktop Environment version 1.0 involved a joint engineering project between four companies that normally compete in the marketplace, by Robert M. Miller, pg 50-53

Design and Development of the CDE 1.0 Test Suite...testing a product whose parts are being developed in four different environments that have different test tools and test procedures requires setting some rigorous test goals and objectives at the beginning of the project, by Paul R. Ritter, Kristann L. Orton, pg 54-61

Synlib: The Core of CDE Tests...Synlib is an application program interface for creating tests for graphical user interface applications. A collection of Synlib programs, each designed to verify a specific property of the target software, forms a test suite for the application. Synlib tests can be completely platform independent - an advantage for testing the Common Desktop Environment (CDE), which runs on the platforms of the four participating companies, by Sankar L. Chakrabarti, pg 62-65

A Hybrid Power Module for a Mobile Communications Telephone...this article describes a 3.5-watt power module designed for a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)handheld telephone. The design features proprietary silicon power bipolar devices, lumped elements for input, interstage, and output matching, thick-film alumina ceramic technology, and laser trimmed bias resistors. High-volume manufacturing was a design requirement, by Melanie M. Daniels, pg 66-72

Automated C-Terminal Protein Sequence Analysis Using the HP G1009A C-Terminal Protein Sequencing System...the HP G1009A is an automated system for the carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of protein samples. It detects and sequences through any of the twenty common amino acids. This paper describes a number of applications that demostrates its capabilities, by Jerome M. Bailey, Chad G. Miller, pg 7382

Measuring Parasitic Capacitance and Inductance Using TDR...time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is commonly used as a convenient method of determing the characteristics impedance of a transmission line or quantifying reflections caused by discontinuities along or at the termination of a transmission line. TDR can also be used to measure quantities such as the input capacitance of a voltage probe, the inductance of a jumper wire, the end-to-end capacitance of a resistor, or the effective loading of a PCI card. Element values can be calculated directly from the integral of the reflected or transmitted waveform, by David J. Dascher, pg 83-96


Cover: a rendition of the multiple views of time-correlated data provided by the HP 16505A prototype analyzer

Reducing Time to Insight in Digital System Integration...digital design teams are facing exponentially growing complexities and need processes and tools that reduce the time needed to gain insight into difficult system integration problems. This article describes modern digital systems in terms of the problems they create in the system integration phase. The debug cycle is described with special emphasis on the "insight loop", the most time-consuming phase of system integration. A case study from an HP workstation design effort is used to illustrate the principles. A new digital analysis tool, the HP 16505A prototype analyzer, is introduced as a means of solving these vexing problems more quickly by reducing time to insight, by Patrick J. Byrne, pg 6-14

Prototype Analyzer Architecture...the HP 16505A architecture allows multiple concurrent views of acquired logic analysis data. Markers on all views are correlated. The user only needs to place the marker on one view and the markers on the other views automatically relocate. thus a stack anomaly in one view can be immediately correlated with the software routine causing the violation, by Jeffrey E. Roeca, pg 15-21

Determining a Best-Fit Measurement Server Implementation for Digital Design Team Solutions...prototype analyzer customers wanted fast throughput, quick answers, a turnkey solution, an affordable base system price, connection to diverse open-systems networks and platforms, and interfaces to a wide variety of tools. An encapsulated measurement server architecture based on a dedicated workstation and a SCSI II interface best fit the requirements, by Gregory J. Peters, pg 22-29

A Normalized Data Library for Prototype Analysis...the goals was that each analysis and display tool to be included in the prototype analyzer should be designed and written only once. Therefore, the data library is designed to normalize the variety of basic logic analyzer data types and the variety of postacquisition data types generated by various analysis tools and to present this data to other analysis and display tools in a standard format, by Mark P. Schnaible, pg 30-37

A Full-Featured Pentium PCI-Based Notebook Computer...the HP OmniBook 5000 computer takes advantage of new technologies such as mobile Pentium, PCI, plug and play, lithium-ion batteries, and hot docking to give users the same capabilities as their desktop computers, by Timothy F. Myers, pg 38-44

A Graphing Calculator for Mathematics and Science Classes...the HP 38G calculator allows teachers to direct students and keep them focused while they explore mathematical and scientific concepts. It features aplets, which are small applications that focus on a particular area of the curriculum and can be easily distributed from the teacher's calculator to the students', by James A. Donnelly, Feng Yuan, Ted W. Beers, Diana K. Byrne, Robert W. Jones, pg 45-58

Creating HP 38G Aplets...this article explores a simple aplet and shows how to construct an aplet called PolySides, by James A. Donnelly, pg 59-63

HP PalmVue: A New Healthcare Information Product...the HP PalmVue system integrates personal computer, alphanumeric paging, and palmtop computer technology into an effective solution for delivering timely and high-quality patient data to mobile physicians - Page 64, by Jon D. Waisnor, Allan P. Sherman, Edward H. Schmuhl, pg 64-69

Constructing An Application Server...in a dynamic networked environment in which there are several hundred workstations and servers there is a constant demand for new versions of software. In this environment software installation procedures must be quick, flexible, and tolerant of change, by Jill E. Swenson, pg 70-75

Interface Translation for Reuse of Assembly-Language Modules in a Two-Language Environment...a mixture of low-level and high-level implementation languages is likely when old modules are reused. In a two-language system, some interfaces must be expressed in both languages. This paper describes the design and implementation of a production-quality software tool that solves this problem for the C programming language, by James R. Buffenbarger, pg 76-81


Cover: a computer-colorized and embossed photograph of a cracked 58Bi42Sn solder joint, showing that the brittle fracture of the Bi-rich phase was the cause of the brittle failure of the solder

Implementing the Capability Maturity Model for Software Development...continous support for a software development improvement effort requires at least two things: a clearly defined improvement model and success at applying the model in the organization. One HP division was able to apply one such model and achieve measurable success on several product releases, by Douglas E. Lowe, Guy M. Cox, pg 6-14

Software Failure Analysis for High-Return Process Improvement Decisions...software failure analysis and root-cause analysis have become valuable tools in enabling organizations to determine the weaknesses in their development processes and decide what changes they need to make and where, by Robert B. Grady, pg 15-24

Evolutionary Fusion: A Customer-Oriented Incremental Life Cycle for Fusion...creating and maintaining a consistent set of specifications that result in software solutions that match customer's needs is always a challenge. A method is described that breaks the software life cycle into smaller chunks so that customer input is allowed throughout the process, by Todd Cotton, pg 25-38

What Is Fusion?, by Derek Coleman, pg 27

Fusion in the Real World, by Ruth Malan, Reed P. Letsinger, pg 37

The Evolutionary Development Model for Software...the traditional waterfall life cycle has been the mainstay for software developers for many years. For software products that do not change very much once they are specificed, the waterfall model is still viable. However, for software products that have their feature sets redefined during development because of user feedback and other factors, the traditional waterfall model is no longer appropriate, by Barbara A. Zimmer, Elaine L. May, pg 39-45

HP Domain Analysis: Producing Useful Models for Reusable Software...early software resue efforts focused on libraries of general-purpose routines or functions. These fine-grained assets did not produce the hoped-for quality and productivity improvements. Recent software reuse efforts have shown that architecture-based, domain-specific reuse can yield greater quality and productivity improvements, by Patricia Collins Cornwell, pg 46-55

A Model for Platform Development...for many software and firmware products today, creating the entire architecture and design and all the software modules from the ground up is no longer feasible, especially from the point of view of product quality, ease of implementation and short product development schedules. Therefore, the trend is to create new product versions by intentionally reusing the architecture, design, and code from an estabilised software platform, by Emil Jandourek, pg 56-71

A Decision Support System for Integrated Circuit Package Selection...the package provides signal and power distribution, heat dissipation and environmental protection for an integrated circuit (IC). The process of selecting a package is complicated by the large number of packaging laternatives with overlapping capabilities. To handle these difficulties, a decision support system was developed. The Package Selection Systems (PASS) combines expert system tools and multiple-attribute decision making techniques. The expert system provides a list of technically feasible alternatives. The multiple-attribute decision making modules are used to rank the alternatives based on nontechnical criteria, by Craig J. Tanner, pg 72-79

Cycle Time Improvement for Fuji IP2 Pick-and-Place Machines...some of the major enhancements are eliminating head contention, reducing or eliminating nozzle changes, supporting user-defined nozzles, supporting large nozzles for holders 2 and 3, and being able to define multiple part data for a given part number. The cycle time improvement exceeds the original goal of 5%, and the result at one surface mount center was more than 16% over hand-created and optimized recipies. The solution helps both the high-volume and the high-mix centers, by Fereydoon Safai, pg 80-83

Reducing Setup Time for Printed Circuit Assembly...in 1994, HP's Man-Link recipe generation system was enhanced to reduce the time required for seeting up pick-and-place machines. This was done by ordering the products to exploit the commonality of parts among them and by creating sequences of setups that differ as little as possible from one another. This paper documents the issues and trade-offs and discusses the potential benefits, by Richard C. Palm, Jr., pg 84-90

Low-Temperature Solders...the application of low-temperature solders in surface mount assembly processes for products that do not experience harsh temperature environments is technically feasible. One single alloy may not be appropriate as a universal solutions, by Hubert A. Vander Plas, Zequn Mei, Helen A. Holder, pg 91-98

Assessment of Low-Temperature Fluxes...the subject of this paper is the evaluation of the wetting balance as a technique for studying the flux activity of newly developed low-temperature solder paste fluxes. The most effective configuration of the wetting balance was the standard configuration with only one change: the PbSn eutectic solder was replaced with a eutectic solder alloy with a melting point of 58 degree C. Since 58 degree C is significantly less than the proposed activation temperatures of the solder fluxes, wetting curves as a function of temperature could be studied for each of the fluxes. The resulting data was used to rank the fluxes in terms of the activation requirement, by Helen A. Holder, Zequn Mei, Russell B. Cinque, Hubert A. Vander Plas, pg 99-103


Cover: an artistic rendition of telecommunications, showing a satellite antenna in the background and an HP OEMF network map and alarm viewer for a mobile network in the foreground

A Platform for Building Integrated Telecommunication Network Management Applications...telecommunications companies today are faced with rapid technological change, large heterogeneous environments, and a greater need to provide customers with products that ensure reliable, cost-effective network service. This means that these companies need a platform that has a visionary strategy that enables them to develop standards-compliant network management solutions for a continually changing environment, by Prabha G. Chadayammuri, pg 6-16

Distributed Processing Environment: A Platform for Distributed Telecommunications Applications...vendors developing applications for a heterogeneous, distributed environment need to be able to build towards a platform that integrates all the management and control functions of distributed computing into a unified software architecture that allows their applications to be available from any point in the network regardless of the system or geographic location, by Trong Nguyen, Frank Quemada, Frank Leong, Satya P. Mylavarabhata, pg 17-21

HP OEMF: Alarm Management in Telecommunications Networks...this article explains the HP OpenView Element Management Framework concept, which is based on the HP OpenView Fault Management Platform (FMP) and complements the functionality of the FMP to provide an integrated network management solution. This article also explains the FMP, which facilities efficient management of alarms in a telecommunications network, and the open APIs provided in the FMP, which allow seamless integratoin with other applications - Page 22, by Sujai Hajela, pg 22-30

HP OpenView Event Correlation Services...when a fault occurs in a telecommunications system, it can cause an event storm of several hundred events per second for tens of seconds. HP OpenView Event Correlation Services (ECS) helps operators interpret such storms. It consists of an ECS Designer for the interactive development of correlation rules and an ECS engine for executive of these rules, by Kenneth R. Sheers, pg 31-42

A Modeling Toolset for the Analysis and Design of OSI Network Management Objects...to deal with the complexity of network management standards and the increasing demand to deploy network management applications quickly, analysts and designers need a set of tools to help them quickly and easily model, define, and develop new network management objects - Page 43, by Jacqueline A. Bray, pg 43-49

A Toolkit for Developing TMN Manager/Agent Applications...developing manager and agent applications for telecommunications network management that conform to standards can be a time-consuming task because of the number of APIs and data types involved in dealing with network data and protocols. The HP OpenView Managed Object Toolkit aids and accelerates the development of these TMN applications, by Lisa A. Speaker, pg 52-61

A Software Toolkit for Developing Telecommunications Application Components...to be effective, application developers must understand the data available to their applications, the operations required to access the data, and the steps required to turn their understanding into an implementation. A prototype development environment has been built that helps the developer explore and understand the data in the Management Information Base (MIB) and construct and deploy pieces of TMN management applications, by Alasdair D. Cox, pg 62-69

Business Process Flow Management and its Application in the Telecommunications Management Network...HP OpenPM is an open, enterprise-capable, object-oriented business process flow management system that manages business activities supporting complex enterprise processes in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment. It is a middleware service that represents a substantial evolution from traditional workflow technologies, by Qiming Chen, James W. Davis, Weimin Du, Ming-Chien Shan, pg 70-76

HP OpenView Agent Tester Toolkit...in developing HP OpenView agents, a major challenge is to develop and test both the agent and the manager simultaneously. To fill this need, the HP OpenView Agent Tester Toolkit generates tests and allows the developer to execute these tests individually or as a set, by Paul A. Stoecker, pg 77-80

Storage Management Solutions for Distributed Computing Environments...strategies for dealing with the vast amounts of data generated by today's information technology environments involve more than just larger and larger disk drives. They include the right combination of different storage devices to deal with offline, nearline, and online data storage and scalable management software, by Kelly A. Emo, Reiner Lomb, Roy M. Vandoorn, pg 81-89

An Introduction to Fibre Channel...Fibre Channel is a flexible, scalable, high-speed data transfer interface that can operate over a variety of both copper wire and optical fiber at data rates up to 250 times faster than existing communication interfaces. Networking and I/O protocols, such as SCSI commands, are mapped to Fibre Channel constructs, encapsulated, and transported within Fibre Channel frames, by Meryem Primmer, pg 94-98

Tachyon: A Gigabit Fibre Channel Protocol Chip...the Tackyon chip implements the FC-1 and FC-2 layers of the five-layer Fibre Channel standard. The chip enables a seamless interface to the physical FC-0 layer and low-cost Fibre Channel attachments for hosts, systems, and peripherals on both industry-standard and proprietary buses through the Tachyon system interface. It allows sustained gigabit data throughput at distance options from ten meters on copper to ten kilometers over single-mode optical fiber, by Meryem Primmer, Judith A. Smith, pg 99-112


Cover: a color-graded eye diagram produced by the HP 83480 digital communications analyzer, superimposed on a display of the frequency response of its optical channel

A New Instrument for Waveform Analysis of Digital Communications Signals...the HP 83480 digital communications analyzer combines an optical reference receiver with an oscilloscope and communications measurement firmware. Its measurements meet the requirements of the SONET and SDH fiber-optic communications standards, by Christopher M. Miller, Michael J. Karin, Stephen W. Hinch, pg 6-12

Firmware Measurement Algorithms for the HP 83480 Digital Communications Analyzer...parametric measurements measure waveform properties such as rise time, fall time, overshoot, period, and amplitude on either a pulse waveform or an eye diagram. Mask measurements compare the shape of the waveform to a predefined mask. Eye parameter measurements measure properties that are unique to eye diagrams, such as eye height, eye width, jitter, crossing height, and extinction ration, by Christopher P. Duff, Stephen W. Hinch, Michael G. Hart, pg 13-21

Design of Optical Receiver Modules for Digital Communications Analysis...these three bit-rate-specific optical plug-in modules are essential components of the HP 83480A Digital Communications Analyzer. They are for data rates of 155/622 Mbit/s, 2.488 Gbit/s, and 9.953 Gbit/s, by Christopher M. Miller, Randall King, Mark J. Woodward, Tim L. Bagwell, Joseph Straznicky, Naily L. Whang, Donald L. Faller, Jr., pg 22-31

Differential Time-Domain Reflectometry Module for a Digital Oscilloscope and Communications Analyzer...the HP 54754A differential TDR plug-in conjunction with the HP 54750 digital oscilloscope or the HP 83480 digital communications analyzer significantly improves the speed and ease of making critical measurements in today's high-speed systems, by Michael M. McTigue, Christopher P. Duff, pg 32-36

Frequency Response Measurement of Digital Communications Analyzer Plug-in Modules...it has been extremely difficult to characterize the SONET/SDH standard receiver with tolerances of +/- 0.3 dB. This paper describes a method for calibrating photoreceiver frequency response with the low inherent uncertainty of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Nd: YAG heterodyne system and transferring this calibration to a production test system while maintaining a low uncertainty, by Rin Park, Paul D. Hale, pg 37-40

Radially Staggered Bonding Technology...this new approach to fine-pitch integrated circuit bonding entails a new configuration of bonding pads on the die, dual-loop wire bonding, and a new leadframe design that minimizes wire lengths. The approach bypasses the usual obstacles to fine-pitch bonding that arise with the conventional in-line approach, thus providing appreciable die size and cost reduction with a minimal assembly cost penalty, by Rajendra D. Pendse, Rita N. Horner, Fan Kee Loh, pg 41-50

Implementation of Pad Circuitry for Radially Staggered Bond Pad Arrangements...one approach to pushing the limits of wire bonding pitch in IC packages is to use two rows of radially staggered bond pads. This paper discusses the design of pad circuitry to mesh with the radially staggered bond pad arrangement. A test chip that incorporates suitable test structures was designed, fabricated, packaged and tested to verify the viability of the approach, by Rajendra D. Pendse, Fan Kee Loh, Rita N. Horner, pg 51-54

A Miniature Surface Mount Reflective Optical Shaft Encoder...the HEDR-8000 Series encoders provide two-channel medium-resolution encoding performance in a very small SO-8 plastic package. Their small size, reflective operation, and low cost enable customers to design them into applications that were impossible for earlier encoders, such as feedback sensing for the miniature motors used in copiers, cameras, vending machines and card readers, by Ram S. Krishnan, Thomas J. Lugaresi, Richard Ruh, pg 55-59

The Global Positioning System and HP SmartClock...the U.S. Department of Defense Global Positioning Systems has inherent problems that limit its use as a source of timing. HP SmartClock is a collection of software algorithms that solve or greatly minimize these problems, by John A. Kusters, pg 60-67

The Third-Generation HP ATM Tester...breaking away from the traditional bounds of transmission and protocol analyzers, the HP E5200A broadband service analyzer redefines the way in which the interactions between protocol layers at multiple points in the network are analyzed and presented, leading to the new concept of service analyzsis, by Stewart W. Day, Thomas F. Cappellari, Geoffrey H. Nelson, pg 68-73

Managed Objects for Internal Application Control...managed objects are fundamental to the software architecture of the HP E5200A broadband service analyzer. Typically used to control remote network elements, managed objects are also used internally by the service analyzer's application to control application objects, by John P. Nakulski, pg 74-78

Developing a Design for Manufacturability Focus...the HP Australian Telecommunication Operation has rapidly evolved from a custom test instrument developer to an operation that develops and produces products in higher volumes. Significant cultural and technological hurdles have been overcome during the transition to an operation focused on design fro manufacturability, by John G. Fuller, pg 79-84

HP E5200A Broadband Service Analyzer EMC Design, by Cary J. Wright, pg 80

HP E5200A Broadband Service Analyzer Surface Mount Assembly, Wyatt Luce, pg 83

Production Test Strategy for the HP E5200A Broadband Service Analyzer...boundary scan and built-in self-test are supplemented by conventional testing techniques. Eight discrete levels of testing were implemented - Page 85, by Cary J. Wright, pg 85-87

Usable Usability...usability engineering aims to improve a product's ease of use by focusing on user needs. "Usable usability" also considers the needs of the product developers, by Peter G. Tighe, pg 88-93



Cover: this high-speed fiber-optic polarimeter is used in the HP 8509B polarization analyzer, an instrument that can characterize polarization-mode dispersion problems in long fiber system.

Broadband Frequency Characterization of Optical Receivers Using Intensity Noise...methods for enhancing the dynamic range of the intensity noise technique for high-frequency photreceiver calibration are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. These methods combine recently developed EDFA technology with spectral filtering techniques. The intensity noise calibration technique is portable, easy to use, and field deployable, by Wayne V. Sorin, Douglas M. Baney, pg 6-12

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Test System...the HP 81600 Series 200 EDFA test system combines various instruments with powerful software to characterize erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The system is a turnkey solution with fully specified uncertainty, by Christian Hentschel, Clemens Ruck, Edgar Leckel, Jurgen Sang, Rolf Muller, pg 13-19

Multi-Quantum-Well Ridge Waveguide Lasers for Tunable External-Cavity Sources...a new multi-quantum-well ridge waveguide laser enhanced for use in a grating-tuned external-cavity source has been developed. The device offers higher output power and wider turnability for improved performance in a new instrument. A core technology has been developed for use in a variety of light-emitting devices,by William H. Perez, David M. Brau, Michael J. Ludowise, Tim L. Bagwell, Tirumala R. Ranganath, Dennis J. Derickson, Patricia A. Beck, pg 20-26

Measurement of Polarization-Mode Dispersion...polarization-mode dispersion is defined and characterized, using Poincare sphere and Jones matrix concepts. Interferometric, wavelength scanning, and Jones matrix eigenanalysis measurement methods are described. Instrumentation, especially the HP 8509B lightwave polarization analyzer, is discussed, by Paul R. Hernday, Brian L. Heffner, pg 27-33

A New Design Approach for a Programmable Optical Attenuator...the new HP 8156A optical attenuator offers improved performance, low polarization dependent loss and polarization-mode dispersion, and increased versatility. It uses a birefrignence-free glass filter disk and a high-resolution, fast-settling filter driver system, by Halmo Fischer, Siegmar Schmidt, pg 34-39

Precision Reflectometer with Spurious-Free Enhanced Sensitivity...the HP 8504B precision reflectrometer has an improved sensitivity of -80 dB at both 1300-nm and 1550-nm wavelengths. All spurious responses generated within the instrumenet itself have been significantly reduced. The instrument offers fiber-optic component designerds and manufacturers the ability to pinpoint both large and small optical reflectances, by Luis M. Fernandez, David M. Braun, Greg D. LeCheminant, Dennis J. Derickson, pg 39-42

High-Power, Low-Internal-Reflection, Edge Emitting Light-Emitting Diodes...a new edge emitting LED has been developed for applications in optical low-coherence reflectrometry. It offers improved sensitivity without introducing spurious responses, by Julie E. Fouquet, Tim L. Bagwell, David M. Braun, Patricia A. Beck, Susan R. Sloan, Dennis J. Derickson, William H. Perez, Gary R. Trott, Forrest G. Kellert, TirumalaR. Ranganath, Michael J. Ludowise, pg 43-48

Jitter Analysis of High-Speed Digital Systems...the HP 71501B jitter and eye diagram analyzer performs industry-standard jitter tolerance, jitter transfer, and jitter generation measurements on Gbit/s telecommunication system components. It can display both the jitter spectrum and the jitter waveform to help determine whether jitter is limiting the bit error ratio of a transmission system, by Christopher M. Miller, David J. McQuate, pg 49-56

Automation of Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry Measurements...the HP 81700 Series 100 remote fiber test system is a first-generation system consisting of a personal computer controlling one or more OTDRs and optical switches. It is well-suited for automated testing of small fibert networks such as company networks, by Harald Seeger, Frank A. Maier, pg 57-62

Design and Performance of a Narrowband VCO at 282 THz...a single-mode optical signal source whose frequency can be voltage-controlled has been developed. We describe its design and performance, by Peter R. Robrish, Rory L. VanTuyl, Christopher J. Madden, William R. Trutna, Jr., pg 63-66

Surface Emitting Laser for Multimode Data Link Applications...a surface emitting laser has been developed for use in a multimode optical fiber data link. The laser can operate in a high-order spatial mode, resulting in a spectral width as wide as one nanometer and a relative intensity noise (RIN) lower than -125 dB/Hz in a multimode fiber system. Electrical and optical characteristics of the surface emitting laser and the epitaxial growth methods are discussed, by Shih-Yuan Wang, Kenneth H. Hahn, Michael R.T. Tan, Yu-Min D. Houng, pg 67-71

Generating Short-Wavelength Light Using a Vertical-Cavity Laser Structure...second-harmonic generation from a GaAs/AlAs vertical cavity fabricated on a (311)B GaAs substrate has been demonstrated. The experimental results and a theoretical analysis show that a GaAs/AlAs vertical cavity optimized both for efficient confinement of the fundamental power and for quasi-phase-matching can offer efficient second-harmonic generation, by Shigeru Nakagawa, Danny E. Mars, Norihide Yamada, pg 72-75

A New, Flexible Sequencer Architecture for Testing Complex Serial Bit Streams...based on a generic model of serial communication systems, this architecture dramatically reduces the time needed to program functional and in-circuit tests for devices with serial interfaces. It is implemented in a new Serial Test Card and Serial Test Language for the HP 3070 family of broad test systems, by Christopher B. Cain, James L. Benson, Robert E. McAuliffe, pg 76-90

Shortening the Time to Volume Production of High-Performance Standard Cell ASICs...coding guidelines for behavioral modeling and a process for generating wire load models that satisfy most timing constraints early in the design cycle are some of the techniques used in the design process for standard cell ASICs, by Jay D. McDougal, William E. Young, pg 91-96

A Framework for Insight into the Impact of Interconnect on 0.35-um VLSI Performance...a design and learning tool called AIM (advanced interconnect modeling) provides VLSI circuit and technology designers with the capability to model, optimize, and scale total delay in the presence of interconnect, by Prasad Raje, pg 97-104

Synthesis of 100% Delay Fault Testable Combinational Circuits by Cube Partitioning...high-performance systems require rigorous testing for path delay faults. A synthesis algorithm is proposed that produces a 100% path delay fault testable function with a minimal set of test pins, by William K. Lam, pg 105-109

Better Models or Better Algorithms? Techniques to Improve Fault Diagnosis...the simple stuck-at-fault model paired with a complex fault diagnosis algorithm is compared against the bridging fault model paired with a simple fault diagnosis algorithm to determine which approach produces the best fault diagnosis in CMOS VLSI circuits, by Robert C. Aitken, Peter C. Maxwell, pg 110-116


Cover: an artistic rendition of the interconnection between the three main VLSI chips that make up the hardware architecture for the HP 9000 Model 712 workstation. The die photos are for the PA 7100LC processor, the graphics chip and the LASI chip

A Low-Cost, High-Performance PA-RISC Workstation with Built-In Graphics, Multimedia, and Networking Capabilities...designing as a set the three VLSI components that provide the core functions of CPU, I/0, and graphics for the HP 9000 Model 712 workstation balanced performance and cost and simplified the interfaces between components, allowing designers to create a system with high performance at a low cost, by Roger A. Pearson, pg 6-11

The PA 7100LC Microprocessor: A Case Study of IC Design Decisions in a Competitive Environment...engineering design decisions made during the early stages of a product's development have a critical impact on the product's cost, time to market, reliability, performance and success, by David W. Quint, William L. Walker, Patrick Knebel, Mick Bass, pg 12-22

Design Methodologies for the PA 7100LC Microprocessor...product features provided in the PA 7100LC are strongly connected to the methodologies developed to synthesize, place and route, simulate, verify and test the processor chip, by Mick Bass, D. Douglas Josephson, Duncan Weir, Terry W. Blanchard, Daniel L. Halperin, pg 23-35

An I/O System on a Chip...the heart of the I/O subsystem for the HP 9000 Model 712 workstation is a custom VLSI chip that is optimized to minimize the manufacturing cost of the system while maintaining functional compability and comparable performance with existing members of the Series 700 family, by Brian K. Arnold, Joseph F. Orth, Curtis R. McAllister, Anthony L. Riccio, Frank J. Lettang, Thomas V. Spencer, pg 36-42

An Integrated Graphics Accelerator for a Low-Cost Multimedia Workstation...designing with a system focus and extracting as much performance and functionality as possible from available technology results in a highly integrated graphics chip that consumes very little board area and power and is 50% faster and five times less expensive than its predecessor, by Paul Martin, pg 43-50

HP Color Recovery Technology...HP Color Recovery is a technique that brings true color capability to interactive, entry-level graphics devices having only eight color planes, by Anthony C. Barkans, pg 51-59

Real-Time Software MPEG Video Decoder on Multimedia-Enhanced PA 7100LC Processors...with a combination of software and hardware optimizations, including the availability of PA-RISC multimedia instructions, a software video player running on a low-end workstation is able to play MPEG compressed video at 30 frames/s, by John P. Beck, Joel Lamb, Ruby B. Lee, Kenneth E. Severson, pg 60-68

HP TeleShare: Integrating Telephone Capabilities on a Computer Workstation...using off-the-shelf parts and a special interface ASIC, an I/0 card was developed that provides voice, fax, and data transfer via a telephone line for the HP 9000 Model 712 workstation, by S. Paul Tucker, pg 69-74

Product Design of the Model 712 Workstation and External Peripherals...a product design without fasteners and the use of environmentally friendly materials and low-cost parts with integrated functions provides excellent manufacturability, customer ease of use, and product stewardship, by Arlen L. Roesner, pg 75-78

Development of a Low-Cost, High-Performance, Multiuser Business Server System...using leveraged technology, an aggressive system team, and clearly emphasized priorities, several versions of low-end multiuser systems were developed in record time while dramatically improving the product's availability to customers, by Karen L. Murillo, Dennis A. Bowers, Gerard M. Enkerlin, pg 79-84

HP Distributed Smalltalk: A Tool for Developing Distributed Applications...an easy-to-use object-oriented development environment is provided that facilitates the rapid development and deployment of multiuser, enterprise-wide distributed applications, by Eileen Keremitsis, Ian J. Fuller, pg 85-92

A Software Solution Broker for Technical Consultants...a distributed client-server system gives HP's worldwide technical consultants easy access to the latest HP and non-HP software products and tools for customer demonstrations and prototyping, by Manny Yousefi, Wulf Rehder, Adel Ghoneimy, pg 93-101

Bugs in Black and White: Imaging IC Logic Levels with Voltage Contrast...voltage contrast imaging allows visual tracking of logical level problems to their source on operating integrated circuits, using a scanning electron microscope. This paper presents an overview of voltage contrast and the methods developed to image the failure of dynamic circuits in the floating-point coprocessor of the HP PA 7100LC processor chip, by Jack D. Benzel, pg 102-106

Component and System Level Design-for-Testability Features Implemented in a Family of Workstation Products...faced with testing over twenty new ASIC components going into four different workstations and multiuser computer models, designers formed a team that developed a common system-level desgin-for-testability (DFT) architecture so that subsystem parts could be shared without affecting the manufacturing test flow, by Michael Ricchetti, Bulent I. Dervisoglu, pg 107-113


Cover: heating a fused silica capillary in preparation for blowing a bubble in the capillary to improve detection sensitivity in capillary electrophoresis

Capillary Electrophoresis: A Product of Technological Fusion...an introduction to capillary electrophoresis (CE), its different forms and its applications, and the history of CE research at HP, leading to the new HP CE instrument described in this issue, by Robert R. Holloway, pg 6-9

A New High-Performance Capillary Electrophoresis Instrument...this instrument automates the CE sepration process with high reproducibility of analytical results such as peak areas and migration times. A diode array detector with an optimized optical path including a new extended lightpath capillary provides spectral information with high detection sensitivity. The liquid handling and sample injection systems are designed for flexibility and usability, by Fred Strohmeiery, pg 10-19

Capillary Electrophoresis Applications, by Martin L. Verhoef, pg 12

HP CE Technology Transfer, by Alfred Maute, pg 16

Industrial Design of the HP CE Instrument, by Raoul Dinter, pg 18

A High-Sensitivity Diode Array Detector for On-Column Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis...the small peak volumes in CE demand special optical design to maximize sensitivity. High light throughput, good stray light suppression, and precise alignment are necessary. The diode array detector design focused on good matching of the illumination system and the spectrometer, precise alignment of the capillary and optical elements, and mechanical and thermal stability, by Patrick Kaltenbach, pg 20-24

Capillary Handling in the HP Capillary Electrophoresis Instrument...capillaries are encased in cassettes for easy replacement and connections are made automatically when a cassette is installed. Air cooling of the capillary eliminates leak problems and lower costs. Vials containing samples and electrolyte are automatically lifted from a tray to either end of the capillary, by Hans-Peter Zimmermann, pg 25-31

Rapid Prototyping for the HP CE Project, by Martin Bauerle, pg 28

Sample Injection in HP CE...for flushing or conditioning the capillary or injecting a sample, air pressures or different values and durations are applied. The injection system provides precise closed-loop control of the integral of the air pressure over time for either direction of fluid flow. The replenishment system automates the exchange of used electrolytes for fresh ones, using a special double-needle design, by Werner Schneider, pg 32-35

HP CE Separation Control Electronics and Firmware...the HP CE instrument consists of a PC and a base unit consisting of detection and separation subnits. Methods are developed on the PC and downloaded to the base unit for independent execution. The control electronics and firmware of the separation subunit takes care of tray and vial movement, capillary voltage, current and power control, capillary temperature control, diagnostics, and related data capture, by Franz Bertsch, Klaus Witt, Fritz Bek, pg 36-43

A User Interface for Capillary Electrophoresis...the graphical user interface of the HP CE instrument is designed to be easily understood by users familiar with other separation methods but new to CE. It provides for method programming and simulation and for visualization of the status of the instrument and the running analysis, by Klaus Witt, Alwin Ritzmann, pg 44-49

Development of a Common ChemStation Architecture, by Herbert Wiederoder, pg 46

Reproducibility Testing of the HP CE Instrument...the final chemical test developed for the HP CE instrument implicitly checks various instrument functions by determining the reproducibility of migration time and peak area measurements for well-defined chemical samples. The injection type was selected by testing four different types in a series of reproducibility tests. The final test can be used in production, at a customer site, or for teaching CE classes, by Ulrike Jegle, pg 50-56

The Impact of Column Technology on Protein Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis: Surface Coatings and Analytical Approaches for Assessment...to avoid unwanted interactions between proteins being analyzed and the surface of the fused silica CE capillary, the surface must be deactivated. Four approaches to surface deactivation for protein analysis are presented. A method for determining the extent of protein absorption is discussed, by Monika Dittmann, Sally A. Swedberg, pg 57-61

A New High-Sensitivity Capillary Electrophoresis Detector Cell and Advanced Manufacturing Paradigm...by cicumventing laminar flow while expanding the cross section of the analyte, this detector cell greatly increases both the sensitivity and the linearity of capillary electrophoresis. Manufacturing is made feasible by an advanced computer-controlled miniature lathe using machine vision, by Richard P. Tella, Gary B. Gordon, Henrique A.S. Martins, pg 62-70

HP Disk Array: Mass Storage Fault Tolerance for PC Servers...in the process of offering a new technology to the marketplace the expertise of the user is often not considered. The HP Disk Array offers RAID technology with special installation and configuration features tailored for ease of use, by Tom A. Skeie, Michael R. Rusnack, pg 71-81

COBOL SoftBench: An Open Integrated CASE Environment...with the aid of a mouse and a menu-driven interface, COBOL programmers new to the UNIX operating system can improve their productivity with a tightly integrated toolset that includes an editor, compiler, debugger, profiler, and other software development tools, by Cheryl Carmichael, pg 82-87

Development and Use of Electronic Schematic Capture in the Specification and Simulation of a Structured-Custom ASIC...ASIC designers must sometimes provide the ASIC vendor with documentation describing the data path of the chip and its relationship to the control portion. This paper describes a method and attendant tools that facilitate the employment of commonly available electronic schematic capture software to ensure that the documentation given to the ASIC vendor always matches the Verilog HDL descriptions used by the ASIC designers for simulation - Page 88, by David A. Burgoon, pg 88-91

Design and Development of a 120-MHz Bus Interface Block Using Standard Cells and Automatic Place and Route Tools...the RW_IO block runs at 120 MHz and interfaces the master memory controller chip's 60-MHz core with the 120-MHz processor bus drivers. A design approach using standard cells, automatic place and route tools, and a powerful database management and build tool was used to contruct the RW_IO block. This approach was chosen over a full custom or data-path solution because of its reduced risk and the flexibility of the design tools, by Robert E. Ryan, pg 92-95


Cover: time-critical applications are represented as brightly colored data patckets as opposed to the blue normal-priority data

Introduction to 100VG-AnyLAN and the IEEE 802.12 Local Area Network Standard...100VG-AnyLAN provides a 100-Mbit/s data rate with guaranteed bandwidth and maximum access delay for time-critical applications such as multimedia, using existing building wiring. It uses demand priority protocol. Developed by Hewlett-Packard and now supported by over 30 companies ranging from integrated circuit vendors to systems suppliers, demand priority is well on its way to becoming the IEEE 802.12 standard, by Alan R. Albrecht, Patricia A. Thaler, pg 6-12

Demand Priority Protocol...in multiple-hub networks, demand priority ensures fairness of access for all nodes and guarantees access time for multimedia applications, by Alan R. Albrecht, pg 13-17

Physical Signaling in 100VG-AnyLAN...a physical layer has been developed for demand priority local area networks that accommodates different cable types by means of different physical medium dependent (PMD) sublayers. The major goal was to provide 100-Mbit/s transmission on existing cables, including Category 3, 4 and 5 UTP, STP, and multimode optical fiber, by Alistair N. Coles, David G. Cunningham, Steven G. Methley, Daniel J. Dove, Joseph A. Curcio, Jr., pg 18-26

Coding in 100VG-AnyLAN...a 5B/6B coding scheme in which five data bits are encoded into six-bit codewords is used in conjunction with offsetting the data on different channels by three bits in quartet signaling. It provides the level of error detection necessary, produces a signal balanced within narrow limits, and restricts strings of consecutive Os or 1s to a maximum length of 6. It is also efficient, by Jonathan Jedwab, Simon E.C. Crouch, pg 27-32

Multimedia Applications and 100VG-AnyLAN...networks must guarantee bandwiddth for multimedia traffic and must control end-to-end delay and delay jitter (fluctuation in the arrival time of packets). The new campus network, 100VG-AnyLAN, can meet these requirements in many circumstances through the basic operation of the protocol. More flexibility can be obtained through the use of bandwidth allocators and the target transmission time protocol. Until either the Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (B-ISDN) or reliable Internet protocols become available, the use of dial-up remote bridges with existing WANs can accomodate multimedia traffic in the near term, by Michael P. Spratt, John R. Grinham, pg 33-38

100VG-AnyLAN 15-Port Hub Design...much of the intelligence and uniqueness of a 100VG-AnyLAN network is concentrated in the hub. Special repeater, transceiver, and end node chips implement the functionality of the HP J2410A AdvanceStack 100VG Hub 15, by Lisa S. Brown, pg 39-42

HP AccuPage 2.0: A Toolkit for High-Quality Document Scanning...working with commercially available OCR programs, the image processing transforms used in HP AccuPage 2.0 improve the accuracy of converting scanned images from a variety of documents to editable text and pictures at the same time, by Steven G. Henry, Steven L. Webb, George Prokop, Kevin S. Burke, pg 43-50

An 11.8-in Flat Panel Display Monitor...the HP S1010A flat panel display is designed to be a plug-compatible replacement for CRTs used with HP workstations. This compatibility is provided by an interface board that uses the same analog signals that drive the CRTs to create digital signals to drive a high-resolution, high-performance LCD color display, by Tom J. Searby, Bradly J. Foster, Steven J. Kommrusch, David J. Hodge, pg 51-60

Applying an Improved Economic Model to Software Buy-versus-Build Decisions...the decision to buy or build software is a business decision that should be made using a sound economic model. A comprehensive economic model has been developed and applied to actual and estimated data to compare the costs of using a third-party software package to the costs of internal development, by Wesley H. Higaki, pg 61-65

Benchmark Standards for ASIC Technology Evaluation...two benchmark circuits are used for objectively evaluating ASIC supplier performance claims. The method applies first-order equations relating capacitive discharge currrents and transitor saturation current to arrivve at a technology constant. The method has been used to survey 14 ASIC suppliers with over 76 different technologies. Results are shown for 48 CMOS technologies, by Aloke S. Bhandia, Henry H.W. Lie, Antonio A. Martinez, pg 66-70


Cover: a solid model created and displayed using the HP Precision Engineering SolidDesigner 3D solid modeling system

HP PE/SolidDesigner: Dynamic Modeling for Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Design...in most solid modeling CAD systems, knowledge of the history of the design is necessary to avoid unanticipated side-effects when making changes. With dynamic modeling, local geometry and topology changes can be made independently of the model creation at any time, using both direct and dimension-driven methods. The core components enabling dynamic modifications are the tool body and the relation solver, by Klaus-Peter Fahlbusch, Thomas D. Roser, pg 6-13

User Interaction in HP PE/SolidDesigner...the HP PE/SolidDesigner user inteface is modeled after the successful, easy-to-use, easy-to-learn interface of earlier HP CAD products. All commands are coded as Common Lisp action routines. A user interface builder helps command programmers by hiding details of the X Window System and the OSF/Motif graphical user interface. Prototyping was done using a specially developed Lisp-based interface to OSF/Motif called HLCX, by Markus Kuhl, Berthold Hug, Gerhard J.Walz, pg 14-23

Enhancements in Blending Algorithms...this article describes a rounding operation for a 3D CAD boundary representation (B-Rep) solid model. Complex combinations of convex and concave edges are handled predictably and reliably. At vertices the surfaces are smoothly connected by one or more surface patches. An algorithm for the creation of blending surfaces and their integration into the model is outlined. The sequence of topological modifications applied to the solid model is illustrated by examples including some special case handling, by Stefan Freitag, Karsten Opitz, pg 24-34

Open Data Exchange with HP PE/SolidDesigner...surface and solid data can be imported from HP PE/ME30 and exchanged with systems supporting the IGES, STEP, and ACIS formats. Imported data coexists with and can be manipulated like native data, by Wolfgang Klemm, Gerhard J. Walz, Peter J. Schild, Hermann J. Ruess, pg 35-50

Providing CAD Object Management Services through a Base Class Library...HP PE/SolidDesigner's data structure manager makes it possible to save a complex 3D solid model and load it from file systems and databases. Using the concepts of transactions and bullentin boards, it keeps track of changes to a model, implements an undo operation, and notifies external applications of changes, by Claus Brod, Max R. Kublin, pg 51-60

Freeform Surface Modeling...there are two methods for creating freeform surfaces in HP PE/SolidDesigner: blending and lofting. This article describes the basics of lofting. The geometry engine, which implements the lofting functionality, uses a single-data-type implementation for its geometric interface, but takes a multiple-data-type, hybrid approach internally, by Michael Metzger, Sabine Eismann, pg 61-68

Common Lisp as an Embedded Extension Language...a large part of HP PE/SolidDesigner's user interace is written in Common Lisp. Common Lisp is also used as a user-accessible extension language, by Jens Kilian, Heinz-Peter Arndt, pg 69-73

Boolean Set Operations with Solid Models...the Boolean engine of HP PE/SolidDesigner applies standard and nonstandard Boolean set operations to solid models to perform an impressive variety of machning operations. Parallel calculation boosts performance, especially with multiprocessor hardware, by Peter H. Ernst, pg 74-79

A Microwave Receiver for Wide-Bandwidth Signals...the HP 71910A wide-bandwidth receiver extends modular spectrum analyzer operation for more effective measurements on modern communications and radar signals, by Robert J. Armantrout, pg 80-88

Firmware Design for Wide-Bandwidth IF Support and Improved Measurement Speed, by Thomas A. Rice, pg 84

The HP 89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzers, by Robert T. Cutler, pg 87

An IF Module for Wide-Bandwidth Signals...the HP 70911A IF module provides the HP 71910A receiver with wideband demodulation and variable bandwidths up to 100 MHz, while maintaining the gain accuracy of a spectrum analyzer - Page 89, by Leonard M. Weber, Terrence R. Noe, Christopher E. Stewart, and Robert J. Armantrout, pg 89-103

The Log Weighted Average for Measuring Printer Throughput...the log weighted average balances the different time scales of various plots in a test suite. It prevents an overemphasis on plots that take a long time to print and allows adjustments according to the expected user profile weighting. It is based on percentage changes rather than absolute plot times, by John J. Cassidy, Jr, pg 104-106


Cover: a highly internetworked distributed computing environment made up of clients and servers is shown in the background. In the foreground is the software architecture for one pair of client and server systems

DCE: An Environment for Secure Client/Server Computing...the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment provides an infrastructure for developing and executing secure client/server applications that are portable and interoperable over a wide range of computers and networks - Page 6, by Michael M. Kong, pg 6-15

Adopting DCE Technology for Developing Client/Server Applications...HP's information technology community has adopted DCE as the infrastructure for developing client/server information technology applications. The team developing the DCE service has discovered that putting an infrastructure like DCE in place in a legacy environment is more than just technology and architecture, by Samuel D. Horowitz, Paul Lloyd, pg 16-22

DCE Directory Services...the DCE directory services provide access for applications and users to a federation of naming systems at the global, enterprise and application levels, by David Truong, Michael M. Kong, pg 23-27

X/Open Federated Naming...the X/Open Federated Naming (XFN) specification defines uniform naming interfaces for accessing a variety of naming systems. XFN specifies a syntax for composite names, which are names that span multiple naming systems, and provides operations to join existing naming systems together into a relatively seamless naming federation, by Elizabeth A. Martin, pg 28-33

HP Integrated Login...HP Integrated Login coordinates the use of security systems and improves the usability of computer systems rnning the HP-UX operating system, by Navaneet Kumar, Lawrence J. Rose, Jane B. Marcus, pg 34-40

The DCE Security Service...a security protocol consisting of encryption keys, authentication credentials, tickets, and user passwords is used to provide secure transmission of information between two transacting parties in a DCE client/server enterprise, by Frederic Gittler, Anne C. Hopkins, pg 41-48

An Evolution of DCE Authorization Services...one of the strengths of the Open Software Foundation's Distributed Computing Environment is that it allows developers to consider authentication, authorization, privacy, and integrity early in the design of a client/server application. The HP implementation evolves what DCE offers to make it easier for server developers to use, by Deborah L. Caswell, pg 49-54

An Object-Oriented Application Framework for DCE-Based Systems...using the Interface Definition Language compiler and the C++ class library, the HP OODCE product provides objects and abstractions that support the DCE model and facilitate the development of object-oriented distributed applications - Page 55, by Luis M. Maldonado, Mihaela C. Gittler, Michael Z. Luo, pg 55-60

HP Encina/9000: Middleware for Constructing Transaction Processing Applications...a transaction processing monitor for distributed transaction processing applications maintains the ACID (Atomicity, consistency, isolation and durability) properties of the transactions and provides recovery facilities for aborting transactions and recovering from system or network failures, by Pankaj Gupta, pg 61-74

Object-Oriented Perspective on Software System Testing in a Distributed Environment...a flexible object-oriented test system was developed to deal with the testing challenges imposed by software systems that run in distributed client/server environments, by Stephen J. McFarland, David S. Levin, Mark C. Campbell, J. Scott Southworth, Ana V. Kapetanakis, David J. Miller, David K. Hinds, pg 75-81

A New, Lightweight Fetal Telemetry System...the HP Series 50 T fetal telemetry system combines both external and internal monitoring of the fetus in a small, lightweight transmitter that is easy and comfortable for the patient to carry. It is useful for monitoring in labor, monitoring of high-risk patients, monitoring in transit, antepartum nonstress testing, and monitoring in the bath, by Jurgen W. Hausmann, Michelle Houghton Jagger, Andreas Boos, Gunter W. Paret, pg 82-93

Zero Bias Detector Diodes for the RF/ID Market...Hewlett Packard's newest silicon detector diodes were developed to meet the requirements for receiver service in radio frequency identification tags. These requirements include portability, small size, long life, and low cost - Page 94, by Rolando R. Buted, pg 94-98



Cover: the business send of an HP DeskJet 1200C print cartridge, showing the 104-nozzle orifice plate. The backdrop, printed by the DeskJet 1200C printer, shows the vivid colors available

High-Quality Color Inkjet Office Printers...the HP DeskJet 1200C and 1200C/PS printers are a new class of HP DeskJet printers for office applications. They offer black and color printing, fast print speeds, scalable typefaces, expandable memory, networking options, PCL 5 and PostScript languages, and HP LaserJet printer compatibility, by Douglas R. Watson, Hatem E. Mostafa, pg 6-8

Laser-Comparable Inkjet Text Printing...the HP DeskJet 1200C printer achieves laser quality by means of pigmented black ink and precise, mode dependent control of drop volume. Contributing to laser printing speed are an intelligent print mode forecaster, a large memory capacity, heated drying, improved media handling, a larger printhead, and a high firing rate made possible by careful attention to refill dynamics, by Jaime H. Bohorquez, Brian P. Canfield, Kenneth J. Courian, Frank Drogo, Corrina A.E. Hall, Clayton L. Holstun, Aneesa R. Scandalis, Michele E. Shepard, pg 9-17

Modifying Office Papers to Improve Inkjet Print Quality, by David W. Brooks, pg 16-17

High-Quality Inkjet Color Graphics Performance on Plain Paper...realizing the color graphics performance of the HP DeskJet 1200C printer required simultaneous optimization of many interacting parameters of the ink and the architecture to deliver significant improvements in print quality, color gamut, throughput, and cost per copy, by Catherine B. Hunt, Ronald A. Askeland, Leonard Slevin, Keshava A. Prasad, pg 18-27

Polyester Media Development for Inkjet Printers...a discussion of the mechanisms and ink/printer/media interactions that must be considered in the design of special media for a printer system, and of the methods available for optimizing them, by Daniel L. Briley, pg 28-34

Inkjet Printer Print Quality Enhancement Techniques...five print modes, each optimized for quality and throughput, HP Resolution Enhancement technology, heaters to dry the ink and the paper, and accurate print cartridge alignment and paper advance schemes contribute to the high print quality of the HP DeskJet 1200C printer, by Corinna A.E. Hall, Aneesa R. Scandalis, Damon W. Broder, Shelley I. Moore, Reza Movaghar, W. Wistar Rhoads, William H. Schweibert, pg 35-40

The Third-Generation HP Thermal InkJet Printhead...the monolithic integration of driver transistors with the thermal inkjet heater resistors leads to vastly improved performance with reduced cost per page for the customer, by J. Stephen Aden, Jaime H. Bohorquez, Douglas M. Collins, M. Douglas Crook, Andre Garcia, Ulrich E. Hess, pg 41-45

Development of the HP DeskJet 1200C Print Cartridge Platform...the platform includes all of the parts of the print cartridge except the printhead assembly and ink. It is designed to accept different printheads and inks to support different print applications. It features a slim form factor, a spring-bag ink reservoir, and an ink level indicator, by The Platform Development Team, pg 46-54

Print Cartridges for a Large-Format Color Inkjet Drafting Plotter, by Jaime H. Bohroquez, Scott W. Hock, Susan H. Tousi, David Towery, Development Engineers, Inkjet Supplies Business Unit, pg 50-51

Environmentally Friendly Packaging, by Debbie R.B. Hockley, pg 53

HP DeskJet 1200C Printer Architecture...the product architecture of the HP DeskJet 1200C printer - mechancial, electrical, and firmware - played a key role in addressing the technical challenges demanded by the office color printer market, by Kevin M. Bockman, Anton Tabar, Erol Erturk, Robert R. Giles, William H. Schwiebert, pg 55-66

Product Design Effect on Environmental Responsibility and Distribution Costs, by Donald Clugston, pg 59

Print Cartridge Fixturing and Maintenance in the HP DeskJet 1200C Printer...the carriage assembly locates and transports the four print cartridges precisely. The service station provides capping, wiping and priming functions for print cartridge maintenance and recovery, by Michael T. Dangelo, Reza Movaghar, Arthur K. Wilson, pg 67-71

Media Path for a Small, Low-Cost Color Thermal Inkjet Printer...the DeskJet 1200C media path is heated for media independence, requiring development of a new grit drive roller and pinch wheel combination. A new stepper motor was developed to attain the target speed and accuracy. Media flatteners and precise gearing with an antibacklash device contribute to accuracy, by Damon W. Broder, David C. Burney, Shelley I. Moore, Stephen B. Witte, pg 72-78

Automated Assembly and Testing of HP DeskJet 1200C Print Cartridges...the assembly system is flexiable and modular. A performance monitor collects data for quality control. A standardized print engine is used in several applications, by William S. Colburn, Randell A. Agadoni, Michael M. Johnson, Edward Wiesmeier, III, Glen Oldenburg, pg 79-84

Connectivity of the HP DeskJet 1200C Printer...the connectivity components include the language firmware, a language interface to the mechanical firmware, software printer drivers, and tools for various environments and for driver developers. A screen calibrator tool enlists the user's help in making the printed output match the screen, by Anthony D. Parkhurst, Ramchandran Padmanabhan, Steven D. Mueller, Kirt A. Winter, pg 85-97


Cover: a workstation screen shoing the HP MPower media panel and the HP MPower applications Image-View, which provides capabilities for manipulating and viewing different types of images, MailEditor for creating multimedia email and Whiteboard, which enables two or more user to collaborate on the same image from different workstations

Development of a Multimedia Product for HP Workstations...providing multimedia capability on HP's workstations was an evolutionary process that was paced according to customer needs and the avaliablity of quality multimedia hardware and software technology and low-cost workstations, by Gary P. Rose, Jeffery T. Oesterle, Joseph E. Kasper, Robert J. Hammond, pg 6-9

HP MPower: A Collaborative Multimedia Environment...multimedia capability on a workstation enables users to interact with their applications and communicate with others in a variety of formats (textual and nontextual). HP MPower provides an environment in which users have easy access to the multimedia facilities at their workstations, and application developers can easily add new multimedia tools, by William R. Yoder, pg 10-19

The HP Instant Ignition Program, by Sue Magenis, pg 17

Diagnosing and Reporting Problems in the Multimedia Environment, by John V. Peterson, pg 18

A Graphical User Interface for a Multimedia Environment...the HP Visual User Environment, or HP VUE, provides not only a friendly user interface to the HP-UX operating system but also a framework for the HP MPower system, by Charles V. Fernandez, pg 20-22

HP SharedX: A Tool for Real-Time Collaboration...with this real-time communication product, two or more remote users can share and interact with the same X-protocol-based applications from their workstations. Windows are shared in such way that it almost seems as if all the participants in the shared session are sitting at the same workstation, running the same application, by Daniel Garfinkel, Bruce C. Welti, Thomas W. Yip, pg 23-36

Imaging Services in a Multimedia Environment...image manipulation tools, compression and decompression functions, picture quality adjustment techniques, and support for industry standards are some of the features included in the HP Image Library, by Andrew Munro, Ahmad H. Shekarabi, pg 37-43

A Printing Solution for a Multimedia Environment...for environments in whcih users are confronted with a myriad of printers to choose from, HP SharedPrint provides a simple graphical interface that enables users to select a target printer and a set of options without encountering the typical problems associated with this process, by Joh Mandler, pg 44-52

Faxing Documents in HP MPower...the ability to transmit documents via standard telephone lines is greatly enhanced with the HP MPower fax utility which provides automatic dialing, transmission, and delivery of fax documents from a workstation, by Francis P. Sung, Mark A. Johnson, pg 53-61

Audio Support in HP MPower...multimedia capability promises to enhance the communication and presentation of information through the use of real-world data types such as audio and video. Compac-disk-quality audio is the first of such data types to be offered as a standard feature on all of HP's new workstations, by Ellen N. Brandt, Thomas G. Fincher, Monish S. Shah, pg 62-67

Video Support in a Multimedia Environment...combining video with the computing power of a workstation adds an extra level of interpretation, detail, and perception to information seen and manipulated on a workstation desktop, by Craig S. Richard, pg 68-70

Mail Facilities in a Multimedia Environment...providing a multimedia email facility required that the well-established processes of creating, sending, receiving, printing, and replying to email messages be maintained and applied to messages containing multimedia objects, by Robert B. Williams, Harry K. Phinney, Kenneth L. Steege, pg 71-78

A Fast and Intuitive Online Help System...the HP Help System provides application developers with the tools to create and integrate rich online help information into their OSF/Motif-based applications, by Michael R. Wilson, Lori A. Cook, Steven P. Hiebert, pg 79-89

WYSIWYG Printing in an X Application, by Axel Deininger, pg 86-87

Developing Online Application Help...the primary goal for an application help system is to provide the capability for the end user to get useful help information and get back on task as quickly and successfully as possible, by Dex Smith, pg 90-95


Cover: the processor board designed for the new high-end HP corporate business server has up to two processor modules based on PA 7100 superscalar PA-RISC chips

Corporate Business Servers: An Alternative to Mainframes for Business Computing...with expandable hardware, PA-RISC architecture, symmetric multi-processing, a new bus structure, and robust error handling, these systems provide a wide range of performance and configurability within a single cabinet. Standard features include one to twelve symmetric PA-RISC 7100 multiprocessors optimized for commercial workloads, main memory configurations from 128M to 2G bytes, and disk storage up to a maximum of 1.9 terabytes, by Thomas B. Alexander, Kenneth G. Robertson, Dean T. Lindsay, Donald L. Rogers, John R. Obermeyer, John R. Keller, Keith Y. Oka, Marline M. Jones II, pg 8-30

PA-RISC Symmetric Multiprocessing in Midrange Servers...by making a series of simplifying assumptions and concentrating on basic functionality, the performance advantages of PA-RISC symmetric multi-processing using the HP PA 7100 processor chip were made available to the midrange HP 9000 and HP 3000 multiuser system customers, by Kirk M. Bresniker, pg 31-33

SoftBench Message Connector: Customizing Software Development Tool Interactions...Software developers using the SoftBench Framework can customize their tool interaction environments to meet their individual needs, in seconds, by pointing and clicking. Tool interaction branching and chaining are supported. No user training is required, by Joseph J. Courant, pg 34-39

Six-Sigma Software Using Cleanroom Software Engineering Techniques...virtually defect-free software can be generated at high productivity levels by applying to software development the same process discipline used in integrated circuit manufacturing, by Grant E. Head, pg 40-50

Fuzzy Family Setup Assignment and Machine Balancing...fuzzy logic is applied to the world of printed circuit assembly manufacturing to aid in balancing machine loads to improve production rates, by Jan Krucky, pg 51-64


Cover: the HP 48GX advanced scientific graphing calculator displays a wireframe plot of the suface z=x3y-xy3

An Advanced Scientific Graphic Calculator...the HP 48G/GX combines an easy-to-learn graphical user interface with advanced mathematics and engineering functionality, expanded memory capability, and seven new plot types, by Diana K. Bryne, Charles M. Patton, David Arnett, Ted W. Beers, Paul J. McClellan, pg 6-22

HP-PAC: A New Chassis and Housing Concept for Electronic Equipment...HP-PAC replaces the familiar metal chassis structure with expanded polypropylene (EPP) foam. Large reductions are realized in mechanical parts, screw joints, assembly time, disassembly time, transport packaging, and housing development costs, by Johannes Mahn, Jurgen Haberle, Siegfried Kopp, Tim Schwegler, pg 23-28

High-Speed Digital Transmitter Characterization Using Eye Diagram Analysis...the eye diagram analyzer constructs both conventional eye diagrams and special eyeline diagrams to perform extinction ratio and mask tests on digital transmitters. It also makes a number of diagnostic measurements to determine if such factors as waveform distortion, intersymbol interference, or noise are limiting the bit error ratio of transmission system, by Christopher M. Miller, pg 29-37

Thermal Management in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography...in supercritical fluid chromatography, very high degrees of accuracy are required for temperature control. On the fluid supply end of the system, cooling is critical. On the separation end, heating is important. This paper discusses temperature control in the HP G1205A supercritical fluid chromatograph, by Connie Nathan, Barbara A. Hackbarth, pg 38-42

Linear Array Transducers with Improved Image Quality for Vascular Ultrasonic Imaging...this project not only achieved its goal of improving the near-field image quality of an existing transducer design, but also added two-frequency operation, by Matthew G. Mooney, martha Grewe Wilson, pg 43-51

Structured Analysis and Design in the Redesign of a Terminal and Serial Printer Driver...the project team felt that the objectives could not be met with a traditional design approach. Structured analysis with real-time extensions and structured design provided an effective alternative, by Catherine L. Kilcrease, pg 52-61

Data-Driven Test Systems...in a data-driven test system, all product-specific information is stored in files. Within a product classification, the test software contains no product-specific information and does not have to be changed to test a new product. This concept lowers new product introduction costs, by Adele S. Landis, pg 62-66


Cover: the HP E1413 scanning ADC VXIbus module with two of its signal conditioning plug-ons removed and one of its application areas shown in the background

Customer-Driven Development of a New High-Performance Data Acquistion System...the HP HD2000 data acquisition system provides C-size VXIbus modules, that are tailored to provide fast and accurate acquisition of temperature, pressure, strain, volts, and resistance data for turbine and piston engine testing applications, by Von C. Campbell, pg 6-8

A Compact and Flexible Signal Conditioning System for Data Acquisition...because turbine test setups can have up to 1000 test points, special demands are placed on a data acquisition system that must fit a large number of measurement channels into a C-size VXIbus module, by John M. da Cunha, pg 9-15

High-Throughput Amplifier and Analog-to-Digital Converter...high system throughput in converting analog signals to digital format in the HP E1413 is achieved by not relying on downstream digital processing hardware and software to compensate for analog anomalies and instabilities, by Ronald J. Riedel, pg 16-20

On-the-Fly Engineering Units Conversion...an algorithm has been developed that provides engineering units conversion in real time (10 microseconds) in the HP E 1413 scanning analog-to-digital converter instrument. The algorithm converts numbers to IEEE 754 standard 32-bit floating-point format, by Christopher P.J. Kelly, pg 21-24

Built-In Self-Test and Calibration for a Scanning Analog-to-Digital Converter...onboard calibration capability enables the HP E1413 to calibrate all 64 input channels in under 15 minutes, many times faster than the manual calibration techniques previously required in similar systems, by Gerald I. Raak, Christopher P.J. Kelly, pg 25-29

Manufacturing Test Optimization for VXI-Based Scanning Analog-to-Digital Converters...the high density of the hardware for the HP E 1413 scanning analog-to-digital converter, the low cost per channel, and the wide variety of optional signal conditioning plug-ons require a production test strategy that is fast, flexible, and efficient, by Bertram S. Kolts, Rodney K. Village, pg 30-34

Design Leverage and Parterning in the Design of a Pressure Scanning Analog-to-Digital Converter...the HP E1414 pressure scanning VXIbus analog-to-digital converter completes HP's VXIbus offering for jet engine and wind tunnel test applications by providing the ability to make pressure measurements, by Richard E. Warren, Conrad R. Proft, pg 35-41

Integrated Pin Electronics for Automatic Test Equipment...a single integrated circuit provides complete pin electronics for the HP 9493 mixed signal LSI test system. It contains a high-speed digital driver, an active load, a window comparator, and a parametric tester for setting a voltage and measuring current, by James W. Grace, David DiPietro, Akito Kishida, Kenji Kinsho, pg 42-50

CMOS Programmable Delay Vernier...in the HP 9493 LSI test system, CMOS delay verniers replace the usual bipolar technology and are integrated with digital circuitry to produce a high-performance timing generator in a single monolithic CMOS VLSI formatter chip. This solution achieves bipolar-equivalent resolution, skew, and jitter performance with significantly lower power, cost and circuit board space, by Masaharu Goto, James O. Barnes, Ronnie E. Owens, pg 51-58

Real-Time Digital Signal Processing in a Mixed-Signal LSI Test System...in test subsystems based on digital signal processing, the HP 9493 test system emulates the analog and digital signals of the device under test, thereby reducing test time and increasing test coverage compared to a memory-based test system, by Keita Gunji, pg 59-63

Vector Error Testing by Automatic Test Equipment...mixed-signal testers are frequently used as specialized automatic test equipment in various test applications. The real-time digital signal processors in the HP 9493 mixed-signal LSI test system can perform complex tests for next-generation telecommunication devices, by Koji Karube, pg 64-66

High-Frequency Impedance Analyzer...a new one-port impedance analyzer measures high-frequency devices up to 1.8 GHz. Using a current-voltage method, it makes precise measurements over a wide impedance range. A special calibration method using a low-loss capacitor realizes an accurate high-Q device measurement. Many types of test fixtures are introduced because they are a key element in any test system, by Takanori Yonekura, pg 67-74

Virtual Remote: The Centralized Expert...remote operation of bit error test sets using a X Windows based "virtual instrument" allows network operators to monitor remote sites from a central office. The extensive use of a common firmware development platform allowed the fast-track development of virtual remote software and rapid integration into all instruments built using the platform, by Hamish Butler, pg 75-82

Frame Relay Conformance Testing...at HP's Protocol Test Center, an automatic translator was developed to transform abstract test suites into executable test suits for HP IDACOM protocol analyzers, by Martin Dubuc, pg 83-87

The FDDI Ring Manager for the HP Network Advisor Protocol Analyzer...the FDDI Ring Manager application takes the knowledge burden from the user and puts it on the network management tool. It pulls ring status information from station management frames and presents it in a logically ordered display. It gathers ring topology information from neighbor information frames and status information frames and presents that information in a graphical map and a textual report, by Sunil Bhat, Robert H. Kroboth, Anne L. Driesbach, pg 88-96

FDDI Topology Mapping...for the FDDI verion of the HP Network Advisor protocol analyzer, ring mapping algorithms were devidsed to provide topological views of FDDI networks. These algorithms are designed to handle many problem situations that are characteristic of emerging LAN technologies, by Sunil Bhat, pg 97-105

Automation of Electrical Overstress Characterization for Semiconductor Devices...an automatic test system has been developed to characterize semiconductor devices and interconnect failures caused by electrical overstress (EOS). Electrical stress in the form of current pulses of increasing amplitude is applied to a device until it reaches a prespecified failure criterion. The system was developed for monitoring EOS robustness in advanced CMOS processess, by Carlos H. Diaz, pg 106-111


Cover: an exploded view of the interior of the HP C1553A DDS tape autoloader, showing the C1533A DDS-2 tape drive and the small amount of space around it that was available to the autoloader designers

Fast DDS-2 Digital Audio Tape Drive...running at data transfer rate of 510 kbytes/s, the HP C1533A tape drive can record a full 4-Gbyte DDS-2 cartridge in just over two hours, almost an hour less than typical DDS-2 drives. Its development required improvements in tape material, length, and thickness, new read and write heads, a new drum design, and new methods for linearity measurement and adjustment, by Damon R. Ujvarosy, pg 6-11

DDS-2 Tape Autoloader: High-Capacity Data Storage in a 5 1/4 Inch Form Factor...the autoloader holds six 4-gigabyte cartridges. With data compression, it can back up typically 48 Gbytes of data overnight or 8 Gbytes every day for six days, unattended, by Steven A. Dimond, pg 12-20

Autoloader Control Electronics, by Greg K. Trezise, pg 13

Autoloader Firmware Design, by Mark Simms, pg 15-16

Network Backup with the HP C1553A DDS Autoloader, by Michael G. Bertagne, pg 18-19

Automatic State Table Generation...the HP C1553A DDS tape autoloader requires a complex sequence of simple operations to carry out mechanical retries. These sequences are defined in tables. Cadre's Teamwork was used for input and an automatic tool was used to generate the tables to go in ROM, by Mark J. Simms, pg 21-26

Using State Machines as a Design and Coding Tool...the wide acceptance of real-time extensions to structured analysis techniques have led to the use of state machine descriptions for the specification of systems in which state or sequence is a vital part. However, the techniques for implementing these specificaitons have remained poorly understood and haphazard, leading to implementations that are difficult to verify against the specification. This paper examines different approaches to the use of state machines and explores their advantages and disadvantages, by Mark J. Simms, pg 27-32

An Event-Based, Retargetable Debugger...remote and event-based debugging capability, a sophisticated graphical user interface, and adaptability to different languages and target platforms are some of the features provided in this debugger, by Arun K. Iyengar, Thaddeus S. Grzesik, Valerie J. Ho-Gibson, Tracy A. Hoover, John R. Vasta, pg 33-43

Wavelet Analysis: Theory and Applications...Wavelet analysis has attracted attention for its ability to analyze rapidly changing transient signals. Any application using the Fourier transform can be formulated using wavelets to provide more accurately localized temporal and frequency information. This paper gives an overview of wavelet analysis and describes a software toolbox created by HP Laboratories Japan to aid in the development of wavelet applications, by Daniel T.L. Lee, Akio Yamamoto, pg 44-54

Approaches to Verifying Operational Test Release Vectors...five techniques are employed to minimize the time to develop the test vectors used to test manufactured parts on an IC component tester, by Joy Xiao Han, pg 55-59

Estimating the Value of Inspections and Early Testing for Software Projects...a return-on-investment model is developed and applied to a typical software project to show the value of doing inspections and unit and module testing to reduce software defects, by Louis A. Franz, Jonathan C. Shih, pg 60-67

Clock Design and Measurement Issues in Pentium Systems...design difficulties in producing a statistically stable 66-MHz Pentium system are reviewed. The information is pertinent to many other new, high-speed processors as well. A new, more informed approach to designing well-timed systems in this performance class is proposed. Measurements that support this approach are examined, particularly those made with the HP 8133A pulse generator, by Michael K. Williams, Andreas M.R. Pfaff, pg 68-77

Enterprise Modeling and Simulation: Complex Dynamic Behavior of a Simple Model of Manufacturing...simulating a structually simple model of a manufacturing enterprise revealed complex dynamic behavior. Enterprise modeling and simulation provided estimates of end-of-life inventory and order delivery performande based on interactions of forecast quality, quoted product availability, material procurement and safety stock policies, vendor lead times, product life cycles, and part commonality. An unexpected result was that end-of-life inventory can exist even under ideal environmental conditions. Prospective applications of these methods include estimating the effects of incremental improvements, verifying impacts of process changes and generating enterprise behavior information, by M. Shahid Mujtaba, pg 80-107

The Simple Model: Sponsor's Perspective, by Jerry Harmon, pg 105

Appendix I: Mathematics of Production and Material Planning for the Simple Model, pg 108-110

Appendix II: Weekly Event Sequence, pg 110

Appendix III: Details of Part Commonality Experiments, pg 111

Appendix IV: Details of Explanations for Experiments 0 and 1a, pg 112



Cover: a diffraction grating, a piece of glass with 1200 grooves per millimeter etched into its surface.

Photonic Technology for Lightwave Communications Test Applications...state-of-the-art fiber-optic, integrated-optic, and optoelectronic devices and subsystems provide a technology base for high-speed, high-performance lightwave communications test instrumentation, by Waguih S. Ishak, Kent W. Carey, William R. Trutna, Jr., Steven A. Newton, pg 6-10

Tunable Laser Sources for Optical Amplifier Testing...two models of laser sources tune over wavelength ranges of 50 and 65 nanometers using grating-tuned external-cavity lasers with precisely controlled wavelength and power level. They are designed for testing wibeband components such as erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, by Bernd Maisenbacher, Edgar Leckel, Michael Pott, Robert Jahn, pg 11-19

External-Cavity Laser Design and Wavelength Calibration...sophisticated tuning and calibration methods coordinate the effects of a diffraction grating wavelength selector and a Fabry-Perot etalon side-mode suppression filter to ensure accurate wavelength selection and single-mode operation in the HP 8167A and 8168A tunable laser sources, by Emmerich Muller, Clemens Ruck, Rolf Steiner, Wolfgang Reichert, pg 20-27

External-Cavity Laser Temperature Stabilization and Power Control...the theory and operation of the laser temperature control and meaurement circuits and the output power control and calibration of the HP 8167A/68A tunable laser sources are presented, by Edgar Leckel, Horst Schweikardt, pg 28-31

Dual Output Laser Module for a Tunable Laser Source...this reliable, hermetically sealed laser module is a key component in the HP 8167A and HP 8168A tunable laser sources. The semiconductor laser chip is precisely and stably aligned to two output lenses. One facet of the laser chip is antireflection-coated and has very low residual reflectivity, by Kari K. Salomaa, David M. Braun, Roger L. Jungerman, pg 32-34

Research on External-Cavity Lasers...the external-cavity laser is more complicated than it seems, showing both bistability and multimoding behavior. Through detective work was needed to understand this behavior and develop the light source for the HP 8167A and HP 8168A tunable laser sources, by Paul Zorabedian, William R. Trutna, Jr., pg 35-38

Design of a Precision Optical Low-Coherence Reflectometer...the HP 8504A precision reflectometer uses the classic Michelson interferometric measurement technique to allow designers and manufacturers to measure reflections easily in optical components and assemblies. Spatial resolution is on the order of tens of micrometers, by Rollin F. Rawso, Harry Chou, Michael G. Hart, D. Howard Booster, Steven J. Mifsud, pg 39-48

Fabrication of Diffused Diodes for HP Lightwave Applications...the simple but robust p-i-n dual detector used in the receiver of the HP 8504A precision reflectometer has -17 dB return loss (2% reflection) operating at both 1300 nm and 1550 nm, by Patricia A. Beck, pg 49-51

High Resolution and High Sensitivity Optical Reflection Measurements Using White Light Interferometry...in the HP 8504A precision reflectometer white-light interferometry is used as a nondestructive measurement technique for probing closely spaced reflections in optical devices, by Wayne V. Sorin, Harry Chou, pg 52-59

A Modular All-Haul Optical Time Domain Reflectometer for Characterizing Fiber Links...the HP 8146A optical time-domain reflectometer provides good dynmaic range and dead-zone performance and user interface features such as comprehensive documentation capabilities and automatic link characterization, by Wilfried Pless, Josef Beller, pg 60-62

A High-Performance Signal Processing System for the HP 8146A Optical Time Domain Reflectometer...three custom integrated circuits and a powerful 24-bit digital signal processor offload data processing from the instrument's host processor, by Josef Beller, pg 63-68

Design Considerations for the HP 8146A OTDR Receiver...low noise, high bandwidth, and good linearity are characteristics that guided the OTDR receiver circuit design, by Frank Maier, pg 69-71

User Interface Design for the HP 8146A OTDR...based on a multiprocessing operating system, the HP 8146A OTDR software can handle simultaneous executive of instrument operations, hide the complexity of instrument operations from the user, and provide a range of user-friendly features, by Harald Seeger, Robert Jahn, pg 72-78

Analyzing OTDR Traces on a PC with a Windows User Interface, by Wilfried Pless, pg 77

High-Performance Optical Return Loss Measurement...although high-performance optical return loss measurements pose some tough technical challenges for fiber optic engineers, careful selection of appropriate test equipment and correct setup make precise measurements readily achievable. A new return loss module for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter simplifies these measurements, by Siegmar Schmidt, pg 79-82

High-Speed Time Domain Lightwave Detectors...the HP 83440 Series unamplified p-i-n lightwave detectors are designed for the best possible pulse performance. They are dc coupled and have bandwidths of 6, 20, and 32 GHz. They mate directly with high-speed sampling oscilloscopes, by Stephen W. Hinch, David M. Braun, Karl Shubert, Randall King, pg 83-86

InP/InGaAs/InP P-I-N Photodetectors for High-Speed Lightwave Detectors, by Susan Sloan, pg 85

Calibration of Lightwave Detectors to 50 GHz...because they operate at much higher frequencies than previous products, new methods had to be found to test and calibrate the HP 83440 Series lightwave detectors. Three systems were developed. Their results agree closely, by Kok Wai Chang, Christopher J. Madden, David J. McQuate, pg 87-92


Cover: the advanced microwave synthesized signal generators, sweep oscillators, and pulse generator depend on state-of-the art hybrid microcircuit technology.

A New Family of Microwave Signal Generators for the 1990s...this family of generators includes both stand-alone and modular versions. A new architecture and state-of-the-art technologies result in advanced performance, by William W. Heinz, Ronald E. Pratt, Peter H. Fisher, pg 6-11

Broadband Fundamental Frequency Synthesis from 2 to 20 GHz...a broadband fundamental YIG-tuned oscillator is locked to a stable reference and controlled by four phase-locked loops to produce the low-phase-noise output signal of the HP 8370 and 70340 signal generators, by Edward G. Cristal, Thomas L. Grisell, Brian R. Short, pg 12-16

A New High-Performance 0.01-to-20-GHz Synthesized Signal Generator Microwave Chain...driven by a broadband YIG oscillator, the microwave chain only divides the oscillator output instead of multiplying and heterodyning like previous designs. The benefits include no subharmonics and higher-performance pulse and amplitude modulation. The major functions of the microwave chain are integrated on two microcircuits, by William D. Baumgartner, John S. Brenneman, John L. Imperato, pg 17-29

Internal Pulse Generator, by Douglas A. Larson, pg 27-28

Concurrent Signal Generator Engineering and Manufacturing...production tests were develooped early enough to be used for design characterization. Several new production processes were developed. The project had a design-for-assembly philosophy, an integrated assembly and pretest strategy, online video-image production procedures, and a networked computing test environment, by Kevin G. Smith, Camala S. Kolseth, Christopher J. Bostak, pg 30-37

A New Generation of Microwave Sweepers...the HP 83750 family of microwave sweepers achieves a new level of swept frequency accuracy by being full synthesized in all sweep modes, including fast analog sweeps. It also uses fundamental oscillators for improved singal purity, by Jason A. Chodora, Alan R. Bloom, James R. Zellers, pg 38-45

Microcircuits for the HP 83750 Series Sweepers...four custom microcircuits provide the basic output signal, the RF band, signal switching and distribution, amplification, ALC and pulse modulation, power amplification, and two stages of YIG filtering, by Rick R. James , Eric V.V. Heyman, Roger R. Graeber, pg 46-51

A Programmable 3-GHz Pulse Generator...this new one-or-two channel pulse generator provides precise edge placement, extensive functionality, and an interactive user interface. It is designed to help characterize and debug CMOS, ECL, and GaAs devices and signal integrity problems, by Hans-Jurgen Wagner, pg 52-55

Pulse/Data Channel Extends Programmable Pulse Generator Applications...this optional second channel for the HP 8133A pulse generator has a dividable square wave mode, a 32-bit data burst mode, and a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) mode. Its major components are a data gate array, a multiplexer, a phase-locked loop, an an output section. Most circuits are ECL., by Christoph Kalkuhl, pg 56-59

Design of a 3-GHz Pulse Generator...period, delay, and width generation for the HP 8133A pulse generator depend on several thick-film and thin-film hybrid circuits and custom GaAs and bipolar ICs. The high frequencies and fast transitions made radiated interference suppression challenging, by Peter Schinzel, Allan R. Armstrong, Thomas Fischer, Thomas Dippon , Andreas Pfaff, pg 60-72

A Multirate Bank of Digital Bandpass Filters for Acoustic Applications...real-time frequency analyzers have been used for over twenty years for acoustic noise measurements. Recent advances in digital signal processing technology have improved the performance and usefulness of these analyzers. The HP 3569A protable real-time frequency analyzer, for example, makes complex acoustical measurements easier and more affordable than ever before, by James W. Waite, pg 73-81

Continuous Monitoring of Remote Networks: The RMON MIB...an introduction to the capabilities of the Remote Monitoring Management Information Base of the Simple Network Management Protocol and its implementation in the HP LanProbe II network monitor, by Matthew J. Burdick, pg 82-89

The HP 64700 Embedded Debug Environment: A New Paradigm for Embedded System Integration and Debugging...the HP 64700 embedded debug environment gives embedded system developers complete access to state-of-the-art real-time measurements and controls in addition to C and C++ static debugging capabilities on HP and Sun workstations, by Robert D. Gronlund, Richard A. Nygaard Jr, pg 90-106

The Value of Usability, by John D'Alessandro, pg 91

The Debug Environment Connection to HP SoftBench, by David L. Neuder, pg 93

A Real-Time Operating System Measurement Tool, by Mike Dotseth, pg 97-98

A New Perspective on Emulation Hardware Modularity, by Thomas C. Ferguson, pg 102

Software Performance Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems...the HP B 1487 software performance analyzer is a plug-in card for the HP 64700 emulator system. It makes activity and interval measurements on instrumented code for embedded microprocessor systems. The design is able to deal with difficult analysis situations involving caches and prefetches, by Arnold S. Berger, David L. Neuder, Andrew J. Blasciak, pg 107-115


Cover: HP ORCA analytical robot in action

ORCA: Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis...this analytical PC peripheral is a congenial assistant, a sophisticated robotic teaching environment, and an interesting study of robotic architecture. Although optimized for the analytical laboratory, it also has applications in electronic test, quality assurance, and the clinical laboratory, where heavy commerical assembly robots are unsuitable, by Arthur Schleifer, Gary B. Gordon, Joseph C. Roark, pg 6-19

The HP ORCA System Outside the Analytical Laboratory, by Nancy Adams, pg 9

HP OpenODB: An Object Oriented Database Management System for Commercial Applications...the functionality of object-oriented technology and basic relational database features such as access control, recovery, and a query language are provided in HP OpenODB, by Tu Ting Cheng, Rafiul Ahad, pg 20-30

The HP Ultra VGA Graphics Board...by increasing the display memory to 1M byte and providing some local graphics processing, the HP Ultra VGA board is able to increase VGA resolution to 1024 by 768 pixel with 256 colors at all resolutions, by Myron R. Tuttle, Kenneth M. Wilson, Samuel H. Chau, Yong Deng, pg 31-40

POSIX Interface for MPE/iX...differences in directory structure, file naming conventions, and security were among the areas in which mechanisms had to be developed to enable the POSIX and MPE XL interfaces to coexist on one operating system, by Rajesh Lalwani, pg 41-46

A Process for Preventing Software Hazards...preventing software hazards in safety-critical medical instrumentation requires a process that identifies potential hazards early and tracks them throughout the entire development process, by Brian Connolly, pg 47-52

Configuration Management for Software Tests...to support software test reuse and to make it easier to ensure that the correct software versions are used to test printer products, a software test management system has been put in place, by Leonard T. Schroath, pg 53-59

Implementing and Sustaining a Software Inspection Program in an R&D; Environment...although software inspections have become a common practice in the software development process, introducing the inspection process and sustaining and measuring its success are still challenges, by Jean M. MacLeod, pg 60-63

The Use of Total Quality Control Techniques to Improve the Software Localization Process...by implementing a few inexpensive process improvement steps, the time involved in doing translations for text used in HP's medical products has been significantly reduced, by John W. Goodnow, William A. Koppes, Cindie A. Hammond, pg 64-70

Tools for the Language Translation Process, by George Rom, pg 68-69

A Transaction Approach to Error Handling...the transaction-based recovery concept used in databases can be applied to commercial applications to help provide more resuable and maintainable programs, by Bruce A. Rafnel, pg 71-77

User Interface Management System for HP UX System Administration Applications...developing applications to simplify HP-UX system administration has been made easier by the creation of a tool that addresses the needs of the developer, by Mark H. Notess, pg 80-84


Cover: this photograph illustrates many of the features of the new HP AllnGaP light-emitting diodes.

High-Efficiency Aluminum Indium Gallium Phosphide Light Emitting Diodes...these devices span the color range from red-orange to green and have the highest luminous performance of any visible LED to date. They are produced by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy, by Virginia M. Robbins, Timothy D. Osentowski, Chihping Kuo, Jiann Gwo Yu, Robert M. Fletcher, pg 6-14

HP Task Broker: A Tool for Distributing Computational Tasks...intelligent distribution of computation tasks, collective computing, load balancing, and heterogeneity are some of the features provided in the Task Broker tool to help make existing hardware more efficient and software developers more productive, by James J. Turne, John M. Lewis, Edward J. Sharpe, Renato G. Assini, Terrence P. Graf, pg 15-22

The HP-RT Real-Time Operating System...an operating system that is compatible with the HP-UX operating system through compliance with the POSIX industry standards uses a multi-threaded kernel and other mechanisms to provide guaranteed real-time response to high-priority operations, by Kevin D. Morgan, pg 23-30

Managing PA-RISC Machines for Real-Time Systems...in the HP-RT operating system, the interrupt-handling architecture is especially constructed to manage the high-performance timing requirements of real-time systems, by George A. Anzinger, pg 31-37

The HP Tsutsuji Logic Synthesis System...a new logic synthesis system has reduced the time to design ASICs by a factor of ten, by Yoshisuke Otsuru, J. Barry Shackleford, W. Bruce Culbertson, Motoo Tanaka, Toshiki Osame, pg 38-51

Designing a Scanner with Color Vision...the challenge for personal computer imaging today is to duplicate human color vision, not only in scanners but also in monitors and printers so that colors look the same in all media. The HP ScanJet IIc scanner ues a proprietary color separator design to provide fast, single-scan, 400-dpi, 24-bit color image scanning, by Michael J. Steinle, K. Douglas Gennetten, pg 52-58

Mechanical Considerations for an Industrial Workstation...besides being a compute and data processing engine, a workstation in an industrial and measurement environment must be mechanically designed to handle the special requirements of these environments, by Brad Clements, pg 62-67

Online CO2 Laser Beam Real Time Control Algorithm for Orthopedic Surgical Applications...new data obtained from treating polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a nonmoving, CW, 10-watt, C02 laser beam is presented. Guidelines based on this data can be used during precision laser surgery in orthopedics to avoid unnecessary mechanical and thermal trauma to healthy bone tissue. A computerized algorithm incorporating these guidelines can be implemented on an HP 9000 workstation connected to a central database for multiple-operating-room data collection, online consultation and analysis, by Franco A. Canestri, pg 68-72

Online Defect Management via a Client/Server Relational Database Management System...the ability to provide timely access to large volumes of data, ensure data and process integrity, and share defect data among related projects are the main features provided in this new defect management system, by David A. Keefer, Douglas K. Howell, Brian E. Hoffmann, pg 73-84

Realizing Productivity Gains with C++...although C++ contains many features for supporting highly productive software development, some characteristics of this object-oriented programming language tend to slow the realization of these productivity gains, by Timothy C. O'Konski, pg 85-89

Bridging the Gap between Structured Analysis and Structured Design for Real Time Systems...a real-time software design technique has been applied to the design of the software architecture for ultrasound imaging products, by Joseph M. Luszcz, Daniel G. Maier, pg 90-100


Cover: the acquisition hybrid microcircuit of the HP 54720D and HP 54710D oscilloscopes

An 8-Gigasample-per-Second Modular Digitizing Oscilloscope System...for the first time, a digitizing sampling oscilloscope achieves single-shot bandwidths exceeding even the fastest laboratory analog oscilloscopes. The HP 54720/10 oscilloscope combines a 2-GSa/s digitizer, plug-in modularity, and software flexibility to provide the application-specific and general-purpose capabilities needed by designers of high-speed digital devices and systems, by John A. Scharrer, pg 6-10

An 8-Gigasample-per-Second, 8-Bit Data Acquisition System for a Sampling Digital Oscilloscope...within the HP 54720/10 acquistion system are sixteen separate sampling and digitizing paths that can be allocated by the user to capture 16K samples at 8 GSa/s or 256K samples at 500 MSa/s or any of various other combinations of sample rate and memory depth. The sample-and-filter sampling technique is an alternative to the conventional sample-and-hold and track-and-hold techniques, by Patrick J. Byrne, Michael T. McTigue, pg 11-23

A Digitizing Oscilloscope Time Base and Trigger System Optimized for Throughput and Low Jitter...careful attention to low-noise coupling results in robust performance far exceeding what is normally considered possible with off-the-shelf ECL. A new interpolator design increases resolution by a factor of ten, reduces converion time by a factor of five, and reduces jitter by a factor of more than three compared with previous designs, by Reginald Kellum, Donald, David D. Eskeldson, pg 24-30

A Rugged 2.5-GHz Active Oscilloscope Probe...superior electrical performance is maintained by suspending a fragile electrical structure inside a rugged package and isolating the fragile parts from external abuse. The design required numerous trade-offs between performance, durability, aesthetics, and cost, with performance and ruggedness the primary goals, by Thomas F. Uhling, John R. Sterne, pg 31-37

Accuracy in Interleaved ADC Systems...the overall performance of the HP 54720 oscilloscope is the result of the synergistic effects of calibration, signal preconditioning, and data postprocessing, by Allen Montijo, Kenneth Rush, pg 38-46

A Study of Pulse Parameter Accuracy in Real Time Digitizing Oscilloscope Measurements...using the well-characterized 50-GHz HP 54124T oscilloscope as a standard, HP 54720A oscilloscope errors were measured for single-shot step rise time, pulse width, and pulse height measurements. The results suggest that the errors have systematic or bias components that may be characterizable and correctable, by Kenneth Rush, pg 47-50

Architectural Design for a Modular Oscilloscope System...optimum allocation of tasks to various software and hardware subsystems, a separate display processor, multiple lookthrough tables, flicker reduction techniques, and other design features support the performance of the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope and establish it as a platform for the future, by Christopher J. Magnuson, Dana L. Johnson, pg 51-58

A Survey of Processes Used in the Development of Firmware for a Multiprocessor Embedded System...in using structured design methods to develop a large multiprocessor embedded system, the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope design team learned that these methodologies can be very helpful if applied appropriately and supplemented with a few other processes and tools, by Christopher P. Duff, David W. Long, pg 59-65

Developing Extensible Firmware, by Rodney T. Schlater, pg 64-65

Mechanical Design of a New Oscilloscope Mainframe for Optimum Performance...a completely new mainframe deseign for the HP 54720/10 oscilloscopes includes a unibody chassis and four plug-in slots that provide superior EMI performance and anticipate future enhancements, by Wayne F. Helgoth, John W. Campbell, Kenneth W. Johnson, William H, pg 66-72

A Probe Fixture for Wafer Testing High-Performance Data Acquisition Integrated Circuits...this new probe fixture offers both a wide bandwidth and a high probe count, along with flexible interfacing and low maintenance. The fixture is used to perform at-speed wafer testing of the data acquisition circuits for the HP 54720/10 oscilloscope, by Daniel T. Hamling, pg 73-75

A High-Performance 1.8-GHz Vector Network and Spectrum Analyzer...network and spectrum analyzers are frequently used together for RF component and circuit evaluation. The HP 4396A vector network and spectrum analyzer exploits this natural union by combining the two measurement modes into one instrument, by Akira Nukiyama, Shigeru Kawabata, pg 76-84

Receiver Design for a Combined RF Network and Spectrum Analyzer...a low noise floor, reduction of distortion and local oscillator feedthrough, and removal of image frequencies and higher-order harmonic products were the main design objectives for the HP 4396A receiver, by Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, pg 85-94

DSP Techniques for Digital IF, by Akira Nukiyama, pg 90-91

A Fast-Switching, High-Isolation Multiplexer...a three-channel multiplexer with 140-db isolation between channels, fast switching transient settling time, steady low return loss, and low noise and distoration provide the front end to the single receiver of the HP 4396A network and spectrum analyzer, by Yoshiyuki Yanagimoto, pg 95-99

A 10-Megasample per-Second Analog-to-Digital Converter with Filter and Memory...in addition to analog-to-digital conversion, the HP E1430A addresses the problems of gain ranging, anti-aliasing protection, frequency band selection, triggering, data buffering and multichannel synchronization, by Howard E. Hilton, pg 100-104

A 10-MHz Analog-to-Digital Converter with 1100-dB Linearity...a classification outline is presented for the errors found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). A comparative analysis is done of errors caused by random noise, nonlinearities, and finite amplitude resolution (quantizing errors). An ADC implementation is presented that substantially reduces the nonlinearity errors and virtually eliminates the quantizing errors, by Howard E. Hilton, pg 105-112


Cover: this spectrogram display represents more than 300 spectrum measurements covering the first 20 milliseconds of the turn-on-transient of a marine-band handheld transmitter

Vector Signal Analyzers for Difficult Measurements on Time-Varying and Complex Modulated Signals...called vector analyzers for their ability to quadrature detect an input signal and measure its magnitude and phase, these new analyzers offer conventional spectrum analysis capabilities along with a full set of measurement based on digital signal processing. The three-processor architecture includes a frequency selective front end and a digital IF section, by Kenneth J. Blue, Robert T. Cutler, , Dennis P. O'Brien,pg 6-16

Applications for Demodulation, by Timothy L. Hillstrom, pg 12-13

A Firmware Architecture for Multiple High-Performance Measurements...the HP 894xxA vector signal analyzers perform fast, sophisticated measurements on complex waveforms. The firmware architecture provides access to multiple processors to meet the high-performance requirements while allowing individual measurements to share common features and protocol, by Dennis P. O'Brien, pg 17-30

Run-Time Configurable Hardware Drivers, by Glenn R. Engel, pg 20-21

Remote Debugging, by Glenn R. Engel, pg 29

Baseband Vector Signal Analyzer Hardware Design...the HP 89410A combines superior front-end linearity and high-speed data conversion with powerful digital signal processing to provide advanced measurement capabilities. Extensive calibration, flexible triggering and arbitrary source types provide the accuracy and versatility needed to make the sophisticated measurements required for complex signal analysis at RF information bandwidths, by David F. Kelley, Joseph R. Diederichs, Manfred Bartz, Keith A. Bayern, pg 31-46

ADC Bits, Distortion,and Dynamic Range, by Manfred Bartz, pg 38-39

What Is Dithering, by Manfred Bartz, pg 44-45

RF Vector Signal Analyzer Hardware Design...based on the HP 89410A baseband vector signal analyzer, the HP 89440A RF vector signal analyzer extends the frequency range of both receiver and source to 1.8 GHz with a 7-MHz information bandwidth. All of the vector capabilities of the 10-MHz baseband instrument (up to 1 7-MHz information bandwidth) can be translated to any frequency from 0 to 1.8 GHz, by Timothy L. Hillstrom, James, Roy L. Mason, William J. Ginder, Kevin L. Johnson, Robert T. Cutler, pg 47-59

Microwave Plate Assembly, by Roy L. Mason, pg 50

A Versatile Tracking and Arbitrary Source, by Don Hiller, pg 54-55

Vector Measurements beyond 1.8 GHz, by Joe Tarantino, pg 58

Optical Spectrum Analyzers with High Dynamic Range and Excellent Input Sensitivity...the diffraction-grating-based HP 71450A and 71451A optical spectrum analyzers provide the basic spectral measurement of optical power versus wavelength, and advanced functions for measuring and characterizing LEDs, DFB lasers, and Fabry-Perot lasers, by David A. Bailey, and James R. Stimple, pg 60-67

A Double-Pass Monochromator for Wavelength Selection in an Optical Spectrum Analyzer...the wavelength-selection scheme used in the HP 71450A and HP 71451A optical spectrum analyzers propagates the light from the device under test twice through the refraction and diffraction elements in the monochromator, by Kenneth R. Wildnauer, Zoltan Azary, pg 68-74

A High-Resolution Direct-Drive Diffraction Grating Rotation System...creating a high-resolution, high-speed positioning system that can provide over two million data points per revolution of the diffraction grating required a design that is much different from the gear-reduction positioning systems typically used in optical spectrum analyzers, by Joseph N. West, J. Douglas Knight, pg 75-79

A Two-Axis Micropositioner for Optical Fiber Alignment...a positioning system with submicron resolution is used to keep the output fiber accurately aligned with the light coming out of the monochromator during movement of the diffraction grating, by J. Douglas Knight, Joseph N. West, pg 80-84

A Standard Data Format for Instrument Data Interchange...this standard format allows many HP analyzers to exchange data with each other and with applications software. Utilities provide data conversion, editing, viewing, and plotting and a function library provides access to SDF data from programs, by Michael L. Hall, pg 85-89

North American Cellular CDMA...code division multiple access (CDMA) is a class of modulation that uses specialized codes to provide multiple communication channels in a designated segment of the electromagnetic spectrum. This article describes the implementation of CDMA that has been standardized by the Telecommunications Industry Association for the North American cellular telephone system, by Daivd P. Whipple, pg 90-97

DECT Measurements with a Microwave Spectrum Analyzer...an HP 8590 E-Series spectrum analyzer with DECT source, demodulator, and measurement personality can be used to provide a cost-effective solution to development, manufacturing, and pre-type-approval testing for compliance with the Digital European Cordless Telecommunications standard, by Mark A. Elo, pg 98-106



Cover: an artist's rendition of an analog oscilloscope display and an HP 54600A oscilloscope display of the output of a circuit designed to synchronize an asynchronous event.

Low Cost, 100-MHz Digitizing Oscilloscopes...the HP 54600 Series oscilloscopes combine the convenience, familiarity, and display responsiveness of analog oscilloscopes with the features, accuracy, and measurement power of a digital architecture, by Robert A. Witte, pg 6-11

A High Throughput Acquisition Architecture for a 100-MHz Digitizing Oscilloscope...two custom integrated circuits offload functions from the system microprocessor to increase waveform throughput and give the HP 54600 digitizing oscilloscopes the "look and feel" of an analog oscilloscope, by Daniel P. Timm, Matthew S. Holcomb, pg 11-20

Sample Rate and Display Rate in Digitizing Oscilloscopes, by Robert A. Witte, pg 18-19

A Fast, Built-In Test System for Oscilloscope Manufacturing...following a verification strategy instead of a screening or characterization strategy, a special module was designed to replace the computer input/output option module of the HP 54600 Series oscilloscopes. The resulting test system has reduced both equipment costs and test times to one tenth those of previous test systems, by Stuart O. Hall, Jay A. Alexander, pg 21-28

Stimulus/Response Defect Diagnosis in Production, by Chris J. Magnuson, pg 27

Measuring Frequency Response and Effective Bits Using Digital Signal Processing Techniques...frequency response and effective bits are informative measurements of digital oscilloscope performance, and can be calculated by efficient algorithms using the fast Fourier transform, by Martin B. Grove, pg 29-35

Mechanical Design of the HP 54600 Series Oscilloscopes...simplicity of manufacture and a minimum of parts were the approaches taken to achieve high quality and reliability. Robotic assembly wasn't a consideration, so rotating motions were often chosen to mate components in final assembly, by Robin P. Yergenson, Timothy A. Figge, pg 36-40

EMC Design of the HP 54600 Series Oscilloscopes...by a combination of electronic circuit design and mechanical shielding techniques, the design meets German FTZ standards and with optional shielding, most U.S. military standards for electromagnetic compatibility, by Kenneth D. Wyatt, pg 41-45

Digital Oscilloscope Persistence...Autostore, a storage technique for monochrome digital storage oscilloscopes, displays historical traces at half intensity and the most recent, or live, trace at full intensity. The technique allows new ways of viewing signals, by James A. Kahkoska, pg 45-47

A High-Resolution, Multichannel Digital-to-Analog Converter for Digital Oscilloscopes...this 16-bit, 16 channel DAC is used for microprocessor adjustment of fourteen dc signals that control the analog section of the main oscilloscope board in the HP 54601A digitizing oscilloscope. It also provides a high-accuracy dc reference for calibrating the vertical gain, by Grosvenor H. Garnett, pg 48-56

Using the High Resolution,Multichannel DAC in the HP 54601A Oscilloscope, Mark P. Schnaible, pg 54-55

Comparing Analog and Digital Oscilloscopes for Troubleshooting...the analog oscilloscope has remained the troubleshooter's instrument of choice even though the digital oscilloscope has replaced it for laboratory analysis. However, the analog oscilloscope has limitations, especially in digital troubleshooting, by Jerald B. Murphy, pg 57-59

An Introduction to Neural Nets...unlike conventional algorithms, neural net algorithms can learn the mapping between input and output. Neural nets represent information in a distributed, rather than local, way, and can have different topologies depending on the application. This paper explains these features, lists major application areas, and briefly discusses hardware and software for development, by John McShane, pg 62-65

Design Challenges for Distributed LAN Analysis...the design of a distributed local area network management system is primarily a problem of data reduction, data transmission, and data presentation. HP ProbeView software and LanProbe monitors continously monitor the health of an Ethernet or IEEE 802.3 network to allow the diagnosis of complicated problems without dispatched equipment, by William W. Crandall, pg 66-76


Cover: a view of a VXIbus module and the backplace of a VXIbus mainframe

VXIbus: A Standard for Test and Measurement System Architecture...the VXIbus standard defines an open architecture that allows instrumentation and processors from various manufacturers to operate together within a single chassis or mainframe, by Lawrence A. DesJardin, pg 6-14

The VXIbus From an Instrument Designer's Perspective...HP has defined a set of internal standards to compensate for some missing aspects of the VXIbus wtandard that are critical to instrument design, by Gregory A. Hill, Steven J. Narciso, pg 15-23

Examples of Message Based VXIbus Instruments, by Don Smith, Harald Mattes, Helmut Sennewald, Tony Lymer, pg 20-21

Small, Low Cost Mainframe with a Register-Based Interface, by Von Campbell, pg 22

Design of Mainframe Firmware in an Open Architecture Environment...compatibility, portability, expandability, usability, scalability, and compliance with SCPI are some of the attributes designed into HP's VXIbus mainframe firmware, by Paul B. Worrell, pg 24-28

Real Time Multitasking of Instruments in the VXIbus Command Modules...the operating system in HP's command modules uses two reentrant processes to handle communication between the user and instruments on the VXIbus, by Christopher P. Kelly, pg 29-34

VXI Programming in C...a library of C functions provides functionality that makes it easier for test program developers to create applications that communicate with HP-IB and VXIbus instruments, by Lee Atchison, pg 35-40

Achieving High Throughput with Register-Based Dense Matrix Relay Modules...with an onboard FIFO buffer and register-based programming, HP's VXIbus dense matrix relay modules provide high throughput and a downsized, low-cost solution to matrix switching, by James B. Durr, Sam S. Tsai, pg 41-51

Mass Interconnect for VXIbus Systems...the HP 75000 family of VXIbus products includes a set of interconnect hardware that enables automatic test system developers to mount DUTs easily to HP's VXIbus mainframe, by Calvin L. Erickson, pg 52-58

A Manufacturing Oriented Digital Stimulus/Response Test Instrument...this digital functional tester consists of pattern I/0, timing, and command modules configured in a VXIbus mainframe. The maximum pattern rate is 20 MHz and pin-to-pin skew is less than 6 ns, by David P. Kjosness, pg 59-68

Digital Test Development Software for a VXIbus Tester...this software provides ease of use and direct control for the complex hardware of the HP 75000 Model D20 tester. It uses a spreadsheet paradigm and separates the programming of pattern data from that of timing, by Kenneth A. Ward, pg 69-74

The VXIbus in a Manufacturing Test Environment...engineers at HP's Loveland Instrument Division have found that using the VXIbus and the SCPI programming language provides benefits such as reduced test development time and system support costs, by Larry L. Carlson, Wayne H. Willis, pg 75-77

The Peak Power Analyzer, a New Microwave Tool...gallium arsenide sensor design, a new calibration approach, switched amplificatio and processing of the envelope signals, leveraged digital oscilloscope technology, and microprocessor control provide calibration-free, accurate pulsed microwave power measurements, by Wayne M. Kelly, William E. Strasser, James D. McVey, Dieter Scherer, pg 81-89

Multilayer Shielding Protects Microvolt Signals in High Interference Environment, by James L. Bertsch, Charles W. Cook, pg 84

GaAs Technology in Sensor and Baseband Design...in the HP 8990A peak power analyzer design, the detector diodes for the sensors are GaAs planar doped barrier diodes, and the switches in the switchable-gain baseband ampifier use GaAs FETs, by Michael J. Schoessow, Michael C. Fischer, Peter Tong, pg 90-94

Harmonic Errors and Average versus Peak Detection, by Michael C. Fischer, pg 94

Automatic Calibration for Easy and Accurate Power Measurements...changes in input power, carrier frequency, and sensor temperature are automatically compensated for. The user is not required to disconnect the sensor from the device under test and connect it to a calibration source, by James A. Thalmann, David L. Barnard, Henry Black, pg 95-100

Testing the Peak Power Analyzer Firmware, by Jayesh K. Shah, pg 99

An Advanced 5-Hz-to-500-MHz Network Analyzer with High Speed, Accuracy, and Dynamic Range...a three-processor design provides a measurement speed of 400 microseconds per point, fast enough to keep up with manual adjustments. Maximum frequency resolution is 0.001 Hz. Dynamic accuracy is +/- 0.05 dB in amplitude and +/- 0.3 degree in phase. Sensitivity of the three receiver channels is -130 dBm, and dynamic range is 110 dB or 130 dB, depending on the sweep mode, by Koichi Yanagawa, pg 101-109

A High Performance Measurement Coprocessor for Personal Computers...this plug-in card brings test and measurement coprocessing power to ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) personal computers with greater calculation spped and better HP-IB performance than its predecessor. It also has DMA capability, by Mike Moore, Eric N. Gullerud, pg 110-116


Cover: an artist rendition of the transformation that take place when source code through register reassociation and software pipelining compiler optimizations

HP UX Operating System Kernel Support for the HP 9000 Series 700 Workstations...because much of the Series 700 hardware design was influenced by the system's software architecture, engineers working on the kernel code were able to make changes to the kernel that significantly improved overall system performance, by Jeffrey R. Glasson, Karen Kerschen, pg 6-10

Providing HP UX Kernel Functionality on a New PA-RISC Architecture...to ensure customer satisfaction and produce a high-performance high-quality workstation on a very aggressive schedule, a special management structure, a minimum product feature set, and a modified development process were established, by Dawn L. Yamine, Donald E. Bollinger, Frank P. Lemmon, pg 11-14

New Optimizations for PA-RISC Compilers...extensions to the PA-RISC architecture exposed opportunities for code optimizations that enable compilers to produce code that significantly boosts the performance of applications running on PA-RISC machines, by Robert C. Hansen, pg 15-23

Link Time Optimizations, by Carl Burch, pg 22

HP 9000 Series 700 FORTRAN Optimizing Preprocessor...by combining HP design engineering and quality assurance capabilities with a well-established third party product, the performance of Series 700 FORTRAN programs, as measured by key workstation benchmarks, was improved by more than 30%, by Daniel J. Magenheimer, Alan C. Meyer, Sue A. Meloy, Robert A. Gottlieb, pg 24-32

Register Reassociation in PA-RISC Compilers...optimization techniques added to PA-RISC compilers result in the use of fewer machine instructions to handle program loops, by Vatsa Santhanam, pg 33-38

Software Pipelining in the PA-RISC Compilers...the performance of programs with loops can be improved by having the compiler generate code that overlaps instructions from multiple iterations to exploit the available instruction-level parallelism, by Sridhar Ramakrishnan, pg 39-45

Shared Libraries for HP UX...transparency is the main contribution of the PA-RISC shared library implementation. Most users can begin using shared libraries without making any signficant changes to their existing applications, by Michelle A. Ruscetta, Cary A. Coutant, pg 46-52

Deferred Binding, Relocation,and Initialization of Shared Library Data, by Marc Sabatella, pg 52

Integrating an Electronic Dictionary into a Natural Language Processing System...this paper discusses the types of electronic dictionaries available and the trends in electronic dictionary technology, and provides detailed discussion of particular dictionaries. It describes the incorporation of one of the electronic dictionaries into Hewlett-Packard's natural language understanding system and discusses various computer applications that could use the technology now available, by Diana C. Roberts, pg 54-65

Application of Spatial Frequency Methods to Evaluation of Printed Images...contrast transfer function methods, applied in pairwise comparisons, differentiated between print algorithms, dot sizes, stroke widths, resolutions (dpi), smoothing algorithms, and toners. Machine judgements based on these methods agreed with the print quality judgement of a panel of trained human observers, by Dale D. Russell, pg 68-75

Parallel Raytraced Image Generation...simulations of an experimental parallel processor architecture have demonstrated that four processors can provide a threefold improvement in raytraced image rendering speed compared to sequential rendering, by Ronald W. Pulleyblank, Susan S. Spach, pg 76-83


Cover: the PCX-S chipset for the Apollo 9000 Series 700 workstations includes a CPU, a floating-point-co-processor, and a memory and system bus controller.

Midrange PA-RISC Workstations with Price/Performance Leadership...the HP 9000 Models 720, 730 and 750 workstations achieve exceptional performance ratings on industry-standard benchmarks through a combination of a high CPU clock rate (up to 66 MHz) and tuning of the subsystem, compiler, and operating system designs. This article presents an overview of the hardware design, by Andrew J. DeBaets, Kathleen M. Wheeler, pg 6-11

HP 9000 Series 700 Workstation Firmware, by Deborah A. Savage, pg 9

VLSI Circuits for Low-End and Midrange PA-RISC Computers...the major VLSI chips for the HP 9000 Series, 700 workstations include a central processing unit with 577,000 transistors, a floating-point coprocessor with 640,000 transistors, and a memory and input/output controller with 185,000 transistors, by Thomas O. Meyer, Craig A. Gleason, Mark A. F, Leith Johnson, Steven T. Mangelsdorf, pg 12-22

PA-RISC Performance Modeling and Simulation, by Richard G. Fowles, pg 21

ECL Clocks for High-Performance RISC Workstations...in the HP 9000 Series 700 workstations, clock signals are distributed using differential ECL circuits, and the VLSI chips have CMOS inputs operating at ECL levels. Critical clock delay signals are routed on 50-ohm striplines on printed circuits board inner layers, by Frank J. Lettang, pg 23-25

HP 9000 Series 700 Input/Output Subsystem...integrated on a single 8.5-by-11 inch I/0 board is hardware support for the SCSI, the Centronics parallel printer interface, two RS-232 ports, the IEEE 802.3 LAN, the HP-HIL, four audio tone generators, and a real-time clock. An application-specific IC serves as I/0 subsystem controller, by Daniel Li, Audrey B. Gore, pg 26-33

Design Verification of the HP 9000 Series 700 PA-RISC Workstations...first a high-level system model was stimulated and compared with a reference machine running both HP standard and pseudorandom test programs. Then the same tests were run on hardware prototypes. All chips were able to boot the operating system on first silicon, by Steve W. LaMar, Gregory D. Burroughs, Ali M. Ahi, Chi Yen R., Audrey B. Gore, pg 34-42

Mechanical Design of the HP 9000 Models 720 and 730 Workstations...the CPU board, I/0 board, graphics board, power supply, mass storage tray and EISA board assembly are designed as easily accessible modules to support the design goals of low cost, accessibility, serviceability, and manufacturability. The appearance is new, attactive, and compatible with existing HP computer products, by John P. Hoppal, Arlen L. Roesner, pg 43-48

Meeting Manufacturing Challenges for PA-RISC Workstations...to meet the time-to-market goals for the HP 9000 Series 700 workstations, major contributions were made in design for manufacturability and in expediting standard processes. One manufacturing operation installed a new surface mount production facility and developed a new printed circuit production process simultaneously, by Kevin W. Allen, Paul Roeber, Samuel K. Hammel, Spencer M. Ure, Anna M. Hargis, pg 49-54

High Performance Designs for the Low-Cost PA-RISC Desktop...this paper presents the processor, memory, graphics, multimedia, and built-in-core I/0 design of the new HP 9000 Models 705 and 710 entry-level, scalable PA-RISC workstations. The use of a buffered CPU/memory interconnect is important for scaling the high-frequency, high-performance processor design to the entry-level desktop, by John A. Dykstal, Don C. Soltis, Jr., Robert J. Hammond, Craig R. Frink, pg 55-63

Low-Cost Plain-Paper Color Inkjet Printing...the HP DeskWriter C and DeskJet 500C are based on advanced thermal inkjet technology in the form of a 300-dpi three-color inkjet print cartridge. The printers and software drivers that use this cartridge wre developed on an aggresive one-year schedule, by Daniel A. Kearl, Michael S. Ard, pg 64-68

Thermal Inkjet Review,or How Do Dots Get from the Pen to the Page, by James P. Shields, pg 67

Ink and Print Cartridge Development for the HP DeskJet 500C/DeskWriter C Printer Family...a new trichamber print cartridge allows the low-cost HP DeskJet printer platform to print in color. The ink vehicle, dye concentrations, and interactions had to be carefully traded off to optimize performance with respect to color bleed, color saturation, composite black production, edge acuity, drying time, and resistance to crusting, by Daniel A. Kearl, Loren E. Johnson, Craig Maze, James P. Shields, pg 69-76

Color Science in Three Color Inkjet Print Cartridge Development, by John M. Skene, pg 71-72

Making HP Print Cartridges Safe for Consumers Around the World, by Michael L. Holcomb, pg 76

Automated Assembly of the HP DeskJet 500C/DeskWriter C Color Print Cartridge...roughly 60% of the assembly technology had to be developed especially for the color print cartridge. Plastic welding, adhesive dispensing, TAB circuit staking, and ink fill were among the challenges, by Mark C. Huth, Lee S. Mason, pg 77-83

Color Inkjet Print Cartridge Ink Manifold Design, by Gregory W. Blythe, pg 82-83

Adhesive Material and Equipment Selection for the HP DeskJet 500C/DeskWriter C Color Print Cartridge...the adhesive joins the printhead to the cartridge body and maintains color ink separation at the interface. The encapsulant protects the electrical bonds. Special equipment was designed to dispense these materials with high precision in very small volumes, by Terry M. Lambright, Douglas J. Reed, pg 84-86

Machine Vision in Color Print Cartridge Production...in production of the tricolor print cartridges for the HP DeskJet 500C and DeskWriter C printers, machine version is used for filter stake inspection, adhesive and encapsulant dispenser calibration, structural adhesive inspection, and automatic print quality evaluation, by Michael J. Monroe, pg 87-92

HP DeskWriter C Printer Driver Development...running on the host computer, the driver provides all of the intelligent formatting, rasterizing, color matching, and dithering for this affordable black and color printer, by William J. Allen, Steven O. Miller, Toni D. Courville, pg 93-102

An Interactive User Interface for Material Requirements Planning...for planners and buyers in the manufacturing business environment, HP MRP Action Manager is an online, interactive tool that automates many of the traditional paper-intensive activities of material requirements planning, by Barbara J. Williams, Alvina Y. Nishimoto, William J. Gray, pg 103-110


Cover: the HP 4980 Network Advisor can be connected to a network like any other node to monitor the health of the network. This rendition depicts a token ring network with several workstations and the Network Advisor connected to it.

The HP Network Advisor: A Portable Test Tool for Protocol Analysis...this network protocol analysis tool combines expert system technology with a comprehensive set of network statistics and protocol decodes to speed problem resolution for token ring and Ethernet network, by Edmund G. Moore, pg 6-10

Embedding Artificial Intelligence in a LAN Test Instrument...the knowledge and processes used by a skilled LAN troubleshooter are built into an interactive expert system application that runs of HP 4980 Series Network Advisor protocol analyzers, by Rod Unverrich, Stephen Witt, Scott Godlew, pg 11-21

The User Interface for the HP 4980 Network Advisor Protocol Analyzer...a PC-based, object-oriented software architecture forms the underpinning for the HP 4980 Network Advisor's user interface, by Thomas A. Doumas, pg 22-28

The Forth Interpreter, by Robert L. Vixie, pg 24

The Network Advisor Analysis and Real-Time Environment...the user interface and protocol decode applications of the HP 4980 Network Advisor use the services of a software platform that provides real-time protocol analysis and an interface to the network under test, by Sunil Bhat, pg 29-33

Network Advisor Protocol Analysis: Decodes...the decodes feature of the Network Advisor allows users to traverse from a high-level summary of protocol information to a bit-level interpretation of the protocol data, by Rona J. Prufer, pg 34-40

Mechanical Design of the HP 4980 Network Advisor...the package design for the Network Advisor was guided by the electrical, mechancial, and ergonomic requirements of a PC-based protocol analyzer, by Kenneth R. Krebs, pg 41-47

The Microwave Transition Analyzer: A New Instrument Architecture for Component and Signal Analysis...the microwave transition analyzer brings time-domain analysis to RF and microwave component engineers. A very wide-bandwidth, dual-channel front end, a precisely uniform sampling interval, and powerful digital signal processing provide unprecedented measurement felxibility, including the ability to measure magnitude and phase transitions as fast as 25 picoseconds, by David J. Ballo, John A. Wendler, pg 48-62

Design Considerations in the Microwave Transition Analyzer...digital signal processing is used extensively to improve the performance of the microwave sampler, the sample-rate synthesizer and the high-speed analog-to-digital converter, and to extract and display input signal characteristics in both the time domain and the frequency domain, by John A. Wendler, Michael Dethlefsen, pg 63-71

A Visual Engineering Environment for Test Software Development...software development for computer-automated testing is dramatically eased by HP VEE, which allows a problem to be expressed on the computer using the conceptual model most common to the technical user: the block diagram, by Douglas C. Beethe, William L. Hunt, pg 72-77

Developing an Advanced User Interface for HP VEE...simplicity and flexibility were the primary attributes that guided the user interface development. Test programs generated with HP VEE can have the same advanced user interface as HP VEE itself, by William L. Hunt, pg 78-83

HP VEE: A Dataflow Architecture...HP VEE is an object-oriented implementation. Its architecture strictly separate views from the underlying models. There are two types of models: data models and device modelss. Special devices allow users to construct composite devices, by Douglas C. Beethe, pg 84-88

A Performance Monitoring System for Digital Telecommunications Networks...this system collect CCITT G.821 performance statistics on CEPT 2, 8, 34, and 140-Mbit/s data streams and alarm data on network elements. A demux capability permits monitoring of tributary streams within a data stream. Data is collected nonintrusively by peripheral units, which are modular VXIbus systems, by Alberto Vallerini, Fernando M. Secco, Giovanni Nieddu, pg 89-99

G Link: A Chipset for Gigabit-Rate Data Communication...two easy-to-use IC chips convert parallel data for transmission over high-speed serial links. A special encoding algorithm ensures dc balance in the transmitted data stream. A binary-quantized phase-locked loop is used for clock recovery. An on-chip state machine manages to link startup automatically, by Cheryl Stout, Wil, Richard C. Walker, Benny W.H. Lai, Chu Sun Yen, Patrick T. Petruno, pg 103-116


Cover: the pen carriage of the HP DesignJet large-format thermal inkjet drafting plotter is shown with a DesignJet plot. A Large-Format Thermal Inkjet Drafting Plotter...the HP DesignJet drafting plotter combines the low cost of pen plotters with the speed of electrostatic plotters. Throughput is almost independent of drawing complexity. The plotter uses the same roll and sheet media as pen plotters, and in roll mode, automatically cuts and stack plots for unattended operation, by John F. Meyer, Samuel A. Stodder, Robert A. Boeller, Victor T. Escobedo, pg 6-15

DesignJet Plotter User Interface Design: Learning the Hard Way about Human Interaction, by P. Jeffrey Wield, pg 12

Electronic and Firmware Design of the HP DesignJet Drafting Plotter...high-performance vector-to-raster conversion and print engine control are provided by a RISC processor, two single-chip processors, and three custom integrated circuits. Development of the electronics and firmware made extensive use of emulation and simulation, by Anne P. Kadonaga, James R. Schmedake, Iue Shuenn Chen, Alfred Holt Mebane IV, pg 16-23

Pen Alignment in a Two Pen, Large Format, Inkjet Drafting Plotter...misalignments are found by using a quad phtodiode sensor to measure test patterns printed on the media. Scan-direction errors are corrected by timing adjustments. Media-direction errors are corrected algorithmically and mechanically, by Robert D. Haselby, pg 24-27

DesignJet Plotter Chassis Design: A Concurrent Engineering Challenge...instead of the expensive prestraightened slider rods used in previous designs to form the guideway for the pen carriage, the DesignJet chassis uses rods that are straightened during assembly and held in place by a low-cost rigid structure. The chassis components, assembly process, and assembly tooling had to be developed concurrently, by Timothy A. Longust, pg 28-31

DesignJet Plotter End Covers Produced by Coinjection, by Steven R. Card, pg 31

DesignJet Plotter Mechanical Architecture Development Process...by investing several months in designer communication before beginning detailed prototype design, an architecture was developed that was subsequently never changed, allowing the project to reach manufacturing release a month early. Costs for most subsystems were lower than expected, by Chuong Ta, David M. Petersen, pg 32-34

Improved Drawing Reliability for Drafting Plotters...the SurePlot drawing system, a feature of the HP DraftMaster Plus drafting plotter, significantly enhances drawing reliability and unattended plotting ability. The system is based on a noncontract color optical line sensor that verifies the writing of the pens, by Isidre Rosello, Joan Uroz, Josep Giralt Adroher, Robert W. Beauchamp, pg 35-41

An Automatic Media Cutter for a Drafting Plotter...this simple, reliable, low-cost cutter is a classical rotating and linear blade design. It requires no separate drive motors and does not interfere with normal plotting performance. To quantify its performance, cut quality parameters and measurement methods were defined, by David Perez, Josep Abella, Ventura Caamano Agrafojo, pg 42-48

Reengineering of a User Interface for a Drafting Plotter...an existing user interface has been successfully reengineered and plotter usability enhanced by selecting, combining, and adapting software prototype techniques and standard software development methodologies, by Jordi Gonzalez, Jaume Ayats Ardite, Carles Castellsague Pique, pg 49-55

A Multiprocessor HP-UX Operating System for HP 9000 Computers...the system supports up to four processors in the HP 9000 Model 870 computer, significantly increasing online transaction processing (OLTP) performance without degrading uniprocessor performance, by Douglas V. Larson, Kyle A. Polychronis, pg 56-61

Advances in Integrated Circuit Packaging: Demountable TAB...state-of-the-art IC packaging, particularly with RISC architecturess, demands performance at a high lead count. This paper presents some of the fundamental topics in IC pacakaging, formulates the principal criteria by which single-chip IC packages are judged, and evaluates existing industry-standard packages. A new packaging technology is described that addresses the unsatisfatied packaging needs of modern digital systems, by Farid Matta, pg 62-77

The EISA Standard for the HP 9000 Series 700 Workstations...the EISA interface on the HP 9000 Series 700 workstations provides a high-performance, expandable architecture that allows peripherals using different I/0 standards to communicate with the system on the same I/0 bus, by Vicente V. Cavanna, Christopher S. Liu, pg 78-82 EISA Cards for the HP 9000 Series 700 Workstations...the EISA specification's high-performance, burst-cycle protocol for data transfer is provided on the Series 700 EISA cards through the implementation of DMA and EISA bus master interfaces, by David S. Clark, Andrea C. Lantz, Christopher S. Liu, Thomas E. Parker, Joseph H. Steinmetz, pg 83-96

Software for the HP EISA SCSI Card...two software architectures, one offline and the other online, are used to provide EISA SCSI support for the HP 9000 Series 700 workstations, by Bill Thomas, Alan C. Berkema, Eric G. Tausheck, Brian D. Mahaffy, pg 97-108

An Architecture for Migrating to and Open Systems Solution...a process and a model have been developed that provide an easy growth path to a client/server, open systems architecture for information technology applications, by Michael E. Thompson, Gregson P. Siu, Jonathan van den Berg, pg 109-114



Cover: superimposed on a photograph of the optical modulator are a simulated light beam (blue) and microwave energy (yellow) interacting in the modulator (green region) to produce a modulated light beam, represented by a wavy blue line.

High-Speed Lightwave Component Analysis to 20 GHz...a new family of instruments - analyzer, test set, souces, receivers, and modulator - characterizes electrical, electrooptical, and optical components of fiber optic communications systems at modulation rates to 20 GHz, by Daniel R. Harkins, Paul R. Hernday, Roger W. Wong, pg 6-13

Design of a 20-GHz Lightwave Component Analyzer...the HP 8703A is a fully integrated and calibrated instrument for lightwave component characterization. It offers a choice of wavelengths and laser types, both internal and external, by Paul R. Hernday, Geraldine A. Conrad, Michael G. Hart, Rollin F. Rawson, pg 13-22

Measurement Capabilities of the HP 8703A Lightwave Component Analyzer and the HP 8703A Lightwave Signal Analyzer, by Jack Dupre, Roger Wong, pg 17-18

20-GHz Lightwave Test Set and Accessories...with this lightwave test set and a compatible HP microwave network analyzer, users have the same key 20-GHz lightwave component analysis capabilities as with the integrated HP 8703A analyzer. The microwave network analyzer can still be used for its normal functions, by Joel P. Dunsmore, John V. Vallelunga, pg 23-33

Accuracy Considerations and Error Correction Techniques for 20-GHz Lightwave Component Analysis...an understanding of factory calibration techniques, system capabilities, and device-under-test sensitivities can result in more accurate and repeatable measurements using the HP 8703A lightwave component analyzer, by Daniel R. Harkins, Michael A. Heinzelman, pg 34-40

Development of an Optical Modulator for a High-Speed Lightwave Component Analyzer...the design and characterization of the first integrated optic modulator for commercial instrument application are described, including the advantages of titanium-in-diffused lithium niobate, device geometries for both phase modulators and Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators, stability considerations including bias drift and acoustic resonances, wavelength sensitivity, packaging and pigtailing, reliability and testing, by David J. McQuate, Roger L. Jungerman, pg 41-45

High-Performance Optical Isolator for Lightwave Systems...this compact, rugged, two-stage design uses birefringent rutile crystals and Bi-YIG films to achieve high isolation, low insertion loss, high return loss, and polarization independence, by Harry Chou, Kok-Wai Chang, Siegmar Schmidt, Wayne V. Sorin, Jimmie L. Yarnell, Steven A. Newton, pg 45-50

A Broadband, General-Purpose Instrumentation Lightwave Converter...converting lightwave signals with wavelengths of 1200 to 1600 nanometers to electrical signals, this device serves as an optical front end for spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, bit error rate testers, and oscilloscopes, by Christopher M. Miller, Roberto A. Collins, pg 51-57

A Lightwave Multimeter for Basic Fiber Optic Measurements...this new instrument can replace separate optical power meters, dedicated loss test sets, and stable light sources for measurements of absolute power, relative power, and loss, by Bernd Maisenbacher, Wolfgang Reichert, pg 58-63

Design of a Series of High-Performance Lightwave Power Sensor Modules...the power sensor modules for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter feature a new optical interface, new detectors, an analog-to-digital converter based on a voltage-to-frequency converter, and a custom gate array. They offer excellent absolute accuracy and fast autoranging, by Jochen Rivoir, Emmerich Muller, Horst Schweikardt, pg 63-69

Calibration of Fiber Optic Power Meters...this paper describes the proposed IEC standard and HP's implementation, by Christian Hentschel, pg 70-72

Semiconductor Laser Sources with Superior Stability for Optical Loss Measurements...temperature stabilization and output power control provide excellent stability in the plug-in laser source modules for the HP 8153A lightwave multimeter, by Frank A. Maier, pg 73-76

Lightwave Multimeter Firmware Design...flexibility and modularity were challenges in the firmware development of teh HP 8153A lightwave multimeter. Built-in applications software automates many commonly needed measurements, by Wilfried Pless, Michael Pott, Robert Jahn, pg 77-83

A Visual User Interface for the HP-UX and Domain Operating Systems...this graphical user interface provides a friendly and pleasant front end for the HP-UX and Domain operating systems. It makes these subsystems less intimidating for new users and at the same time provides features that appeal to experienced users, by Mark A. Champine, pg 88-99

HP Visual User Interface, Version 2.0, by David A. Williams, pg 97-98


Cover: In the background is a photomicrograph of a microwave monolithic integrated circuit. In the foreground are examples of thick-film and thin-film microwae hybrid microcircuits, waveguide components and various amplifier, multiplier and modulator microcircuit assemblies

A Family of High-Performance Synthesized Sweepers...elven modesl offer frequency coverage to 50 GHz in coax, extendable to 100 GHz in waveguide with millimeter heads. Swept frequency accuracy is ten times better than previous designs. A menu-based user interface simplifies operation, by James E. Bossaller, Roger P. Oblad, John R. Regazzi, pg 6-17

Designing for Low Cost of Ownership, by James R. Stead, pg 10-11

Strife Testing the Alphanumeric Display, by James R. Stead, pg 13

Built-in Synthesized Sweeper Self-Test and Adjustments...a combination of hardware features and firmware routines makes it possible to isolate most failures to the assembly level and make many adjustments without external test equipment, by Michael J. Seibel, pg 17-23

A High-Performance Sweeper Output Power Leveling System...a feedforward ALC design gives HP 8360 sweepers improved flatness, power accuracy, and modulation performance. Factory calibration techniques minimize measurement errors so as not to degrade the improved specifications, by Glen M. Baker, Mark N. Davidson, Lance E. Haag, pg 24-30

A 0.01-to-40-GHz Switched Frequency Doubler...this microcircuit doubler has a passthrough mode for 0.01 to-20-GHz input signals and a doubler mode for 20 to 40 GHz. An integrated RF switch changes modes. Slotline filters reduce spurious outputs to -40dBc or less, by James R. Zellers, pg 31-33

A High-Speed Microwave Pulse Modulator...this optional fast pulse modulator uses an unequally spaced diode topology to achieve a wide bandwidth and a high on-off ration without resorting to performance-limiting diode saturation, by Mary K. Koenig, pg 34-36

New Technology in Synthesized Sweeper Microcircuits...a new packaging technology using thick-film hybrids and contacts integral to the package simplifies testing and rework and reduces RFI. New circuit designs include a triple balanced mixer and quasi-elliptic low-pass filters. New approaches reduce video feedthrough and harmonic generation, by Ronald C. Blanc, Richard S. Bischof, Patrick B. Harper, pg 36-46

DC-to-50-GHz Programmable Step Attenuators...based on HP's proven edgeline technology, these attenuators provide the HP 8360 sweepers with up to 90 dB of attenuation in 10-dB steps, by David R. Veteran, pg 47-49

50-to-110-GHz High-Performance Millimeter-Wave Source Modules...state-of-the-art microcircuit technologies and development tools were employed to produce a W-band amplifier tripler, a V-band amplifier doubler, an R-band amplifier double, and a coupler detector for two new frequency multiplier modules, by Giovonnae F. Anderson, Mohamed M. Sayed, pg 50-64

The Use of HP ME 10/30 in the W-Band Tripler Design, by Roy Marciulionis, pg 57

Flatness Correction, by Lon Dearden, pg 59

An Instrument for Testing North American Digital Cellular Radios...the HP 11846A is designed to produce filtered /4 DQPSK modulated I and Q baseband signals needed to test digital cellular radios, by David M. Hoover, pg 72

Measuring the Modulation Accuracy of /4 DQPSK Signals for Digital Cellular Transmitters...using digital signal processing techniques, this software accurately verifies the RF performance of digital cellular transmitters conforming to the North American Dual-Mode Cellular System standard, by Raymond A. Birgenheier, pg 73-82

A Test Verification Tool for C and C++ Programs...the HP Branch Validator provides an automated tool that enables software developers to test and verify the branch coverage of their modules as they are created, by David L. Neuder, pg 83-92


Cover: Two HP 48SX scientific expandable calculators can use their infrared input/output link to exchange data and programs along with a seral RS-232 cable link.

HP 48SX Scientific Expandable Calculator: Innovation and Evolution...many of the features of this advanced handheld calculator have evolved from its predecessors, the HP 41C and HP 28S. Others, such as its unit management system, are new, by William C. Wickes, Charles M. Patton, pg 6-12

The HP 48SX Interfaces and Applications...the HP 48SX scientific expandable calculator provides support for multiple applications, both built-in and externally developed, with customized user interfaces. The Equation-Writer and interactive plotting are two of the built-in applications, by Diana K. Byrne, Robert W. Jones, Patrick J. Megowan, Gabe L. Eisenstein, Ted W. Beers, pg 13-21

HP Solve Equation Library Application Card...the card contains a library of 315 equations, the periodic table of the elements, a constants library, a multiple equation solver, a finance application, and engineering utilities, by Eric L. Vogel, pg 22-25

Hardware Design of the HP 48SX Scientific Expandable Calculator...leveraging an earlier design resulted in prototypes with 90% production tooled parts only nine months after the start of the project. The HP 48SX includes an 8-line-by-22 character super-twisted nematic liquid crystal display, two expansion ports for ROM or battery-backed RAM cards, and two I/O ports: RS-232 and infrared, by M. Jack Muranami, James P. Dickie, Preston D. Brown, Mark A. Smith, Lester S. Moore, Thomas B. Lindberg, David L. Smith, pg 25-34

Industrial Design of the HP 48SX Calculator, by Michael Derocher, pg 27-28

The HP 48SX Calculator Input/Output System...an RS-232 link allows communication with personal computers. An infrared link provides for printing and for two-way calculator-to-calculator communication, by Steven L. Harper, Robert S. Worsley, pg 35-40

Manufacturing the HP48SX Calculator...sharing manufacturing processes with earlier, simpler calculators shortened development time and improves manufacturing efficiency. The HP 48SX and the simpler calculators also share the same production line at the same time - a concept known as coproduction, by Richard W. Riper, pg 40-43

A 10-Hz-to-150-MHz Spectrum Analyzer with a Digital IF Section...the HP 3588A's digital resolution bandwidth filters offer better shape factors and can be swept four times faster than their analog counterparts. Narrowband zoom measurements using fast Fourier transform analysis can be hundreds of times faster. Extensive self-calibration, a help system with hypertext, and adaptive data acquistion also improve performance , by James H. Cauthorn, Kirsten C. Carlson, Roy L. Mason, Eric J. Wicklund, Jay M. Wardle, Timothy L. Hillstrom, Joseph F. Tarantino, pg 44-60

Help System with Hypertext, by Mark M. Smith, pg 53-54

User Interface Compiler, Bryan P. Murray, pg 57-58

Easy-to-Use Performance Tools with a Consistent User Interface Across HP Operating Systems...by involving customers in the product development process and incorporating their feedback into the product, HP GlancePlus has eliminated the mystique commonly associated with performance tools. Exception-based reporting displays only the interesting data, by Rex A. Backman, pg 65-70

Design Prototyping for HP GlancePlus, by Joe Thomas, pg 69

Improving the Product Development Process...to define, design, and product prodcuts and services that will be successful in the marketplace, it's necessary to understand the product development process and employ tools to measure and improve the process, by Douglas Daetz, William P. Carmichael, Edith Wilson, Spencer B. Graves, pg 71-76

DSEE: A Software Configuration Management Tool...HP Apollo provides a software tool that helps to manage development and maintenance of the many components that make up large-scale software systems, by David C. Lubkin, pg 77-83

A Mechanism to Support Parallel Development via RCS...HP's Imaging Systems Division uses the HP-UX revision control system utility, RCS, to implement a configuration management system that allows stable, released software to remain unchanged while modifications are made to some of its components, by John W. Goodnow, pg 84-89

Building and Managing an Integrated Project Support Environment...HP's Roseville Networks Division has developed an integrated, cost-effective computing environment that fosters cooperative computing and provides R&D; engineers with easy access to the tools and methodologies for product development, by Ronald F. Richardson, pg 90-96


Cover: HP's Component Monitoring System

Introduction to the HP Component Monitoring System...this fourth-generation patient monitoring system offers a set of hardware and software building blocks from which functional modules are assembled to tailor the system to the application and the patient, by Christoph Westerteicher, pg 6-10

Medical Expectations of Today's Patient Monitors, by Frank Rochlitzer, pg 9

Component Monitoring System Hardware Architecture...up to 23 function cards residing in a computer module communicate over a message passing bus. The computer module, the display, and the parameter modules that measure vital signs can be in separate locations as needed by the application, by Christoph Westerteicher, Werner E. Heim, pg 10-13

Component Monitoring System Software Architecture...a modular design leads to a complex but easily manageable system that ensures economical resource utilization, by Martin Reiche, pg 13-18

Component Monitoring System Parameter Module Interface...this interface is the link between the component Monitoring System computer module and the patinet parameter modules. It provides fast response, optimum use of the available bandwidth, configuration detection, and parameter module synchronization, by Winfried Kaiser, pg 19-21

Measuring the ECG Signal with a Mixed Analog-Digital Application-Specific IC...putting the ECG data acquisition subsystem into a Componenet Monitoring System parameter module mandates high-density packaging and low power consumption, and was only possible by implementing major elements of the circuit in a large mixed analog-digital ASIC, by Wolfgang Grossbach, pg 21-24

A Very Small Noninvasive Blood Pressure Measurement Device...this small assembly covers the entire bllod pressure measurement spectrum from neonates to adults. The packaging of the air pump assembly makes several contributions to the objectives, by Rainer Rometsch, pg 25-26

A Patient Monitor Two-Channel Stripchart Recorder...small enough to fit in a double-width HP Component Monitoring System parameter module, this recorder embodies simplicity of design, a highly tooled mechanism, and sophisticated printhead power management, by Leslie Bank, pg 26-28

Patient Monitor Human Interface Design...a design based on human factors leads to an intuitive and easy-to-use human interface for the HP Component Monitoring System, by Gerhard Tivig, Wilhelm Meier, pg 29-36

Globalization Tools and Processes in the HP Component Monitoring System...software design and localization are decoupled. All languages are treated in the same way. A database contains the text strings for all languages, and automated tools aid the translator, by Gerhard Tivig, pg 37-40

The Physiological Calculation Application in the HP Component Monitoring System...this application converts raw real-time data into derived values the clinician can use to assess the patient's hemodynamic, oxgenation, and ventilatory condition, by Paul Johnson, Steven J. Weisner, pg 40-43

Mechanical Implementation of the HP Component Monitoring System...the part count and the number of different parts are dramatically lower than for previous designs. Fewer than ten vendors are used for purchased mechanical parts, by Erwin Flachslander, Karl Daumuller, pg 44-48

An Automated Test Environment for a Medical Patient Monitoring System...the AUTOTEST program controls a keypusher and patient simulators to automate the testing of the software for the HP Component Monitoring System, by Dieter Goring, pg 49-52

Production and Final Test of the HP Component Monitoring System...a vertically oriented material flow minimizes handling and simplifies customization. Automated final test systems minimize human errors and collect data for monitoring process quality, by Otto Schuster, Joachim Weller, pg 52-54

Calculating the Real Cost of Software Defects...using data from a well-established software metrics database and an industry profit loss model, a method is developed that computes the real cost of dealing with software defects, by William T. Ward, pg 55-58

A Case Study of Code Inspections...the code inspection process is a tool that can be used early in the software development cycle to help improve the quality of software products and the productivity of development engineers, by Mark E. Boles, Frank W. Blakely, pg 58-63

The HP Vectra 486 Personal Computer...the HP Vectra 486 series of computers uses the Intel486 microprocessor, a custom-designed burst-mode memory controller, and the HP implementation of the Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA), by Larry Shintaku, pg 69-73

The HP Vectra 486 EISA SCSI Subsystem, by Mike Jerbic, pg 70

The HP Vectra 486/33T, by Mark Linsley, pg 72

The EISA Connector...providing backward compatibility in the EISA connector hardward for ISA I/0 boards resulted in a bilevel connector design that provides pins for both bus standards in the same connector, by Douglas M. Thom, Michael B. Raynham, pg 73-77

EISA Configuration Software, by Tony Dowden, pg 75

The HP Vectra 486 Memory Controller...the memory subsystem architecture and the memory controller in the HP Vectra 486 personal computer provide a high-performance burst-mode capability, by Gary W. Lum, Marilyn J. Lang, pg 78-83

The HP Vectra 486 BASIC I/O System...an Intel486 processor, the EISA bus standard, and a new memory subsystem all required enhancements to the Basic I/0 System to ensure that the HP Vectra 486 made the possible use of these new features, by Irvin R. Jones, Jr., Philip Garcia, Viswanathan S. Narayanan, Thomas Tom, Christophe Grosthor, pg 83-92

Performance Analysis of Personal Computer Workstations...the ability to analyze the perfomance of personal computers via noninvasive monitoring and simulation allows designers to make critical design trade offs before committing to hardware, by David W. Blevins, John D. Graf, Christopher A. Bartholomew, pg 92-96


Cover: an artist's rendition of a typical HP Sockets domain

HP Software Integration Sockets: A Tool for Linking Islands of Automation...the task of integrating diverse applications over a network of HP and non-HP machines is made easier with this software tool, by Mark Ikemoto, Mitchell J. Amino, Irene S. Smith, Alan C. Miranda, Scott A. Gulland, Cynthia Givens, Kathleen A. Fulton, pg 6-23

Rigorous Software Engineering: A Method for Preventing Software Defects...formal specification languages enable software engineers to apply the rigorous concepts of discrete mathematics to the software development process, by Stephen P. Bear, Tony W. Rush, pf 24-31

Specifying an Electronic Mail System with HP-SL...starting with a list of system features and capabilities, an HP-SL specification for a simple mail system is developed and the steps involved in this process are analyzed, by Patrick G. Goldsack, Tony W. Rush, pg 32-39

Specifying Real-Time Behavior in HP-SL...using the event and history specification features of HP-SL, the software for a real-time alarm monitor is specified, by Paul D. Harry, Tony W. Rush, pg 40-45

Using Formal Specification for Product Development...in one product development project, the use of precise software specifications helped to uncover potential problems that might ordinarily be overlooked, and raised some interesting issues about using formal techniques, by Curtis W. Freeman, B. Robert Ladeau, pg 46-50

Formal Specification and Structured Design in Software Development...HP-SL history specifications and techniques from structured analysis are used to create a formal specification for a critical portion of the code for a medical instrument, by J. Daren Bledsoe, Paul D. Harry, Judith L. Cyrus, pg 51-58

Telecommunications Network Monitoring System...this system supervises any telephone network using the 2-Mbit/s CEPT primary rate interface and the CCITT R2 or #7 signaling system. It automatically collects and analyzes data on CCITT-specified and other parameters related to the calls flowing through the network nodes, by Nicola De Bello, Marco Silvestri, Giuseppe Mazzucato, Antonio Posenato, pg 59-65



Cover: the seven layers of the International Organization for Standardization's OSI Reference Model on the HP OSI Express caard and the communication path between two end systems over a network

An Overview of the HP OSI Express Card...the OSI Express card provides on an I/O card teh networking services defined by the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnections) Reference Model, resulting in off-loading much of the network overhead from the host computer. This and other features set the OSI Express card apart from other network implementations in existence today, by William R. Johnson, pg 6-8

The HP OSI Express Card Backplane Handler...the backplane on the HP OSI Express card is handled by a pair of VLSI chips and a set of firmware routines. These components provide the interface between the HP OSI Express card driver on the host machine and the common OSI networking environment, or CONE, on the OSI Express card, by Glenn F. Talbott, pg 8-18

CONE: A Software Environment for Network Protocols...the common OSI network environment, or CONE, provides a network-specific operating system for the HP OSI Express card and an environment for implementing OSI protocols, by H. Michael Wenzel, Steven M. Dean, David A. Kumpf, pg 18-28

The Upper Layers of the HP OSI Express Card Stack...the upper three layers of the HP OSI Express card share the same architecture and use tables to simplify their implementations of the OSI stack. The applications and presentation layers are implemented in the same module, by Michael A. Ellis, Kimball K. Banker, pg 28-36

Implementation of the OSI Class 4 Transport Protocol in the HP OSI Express Card...the HP OSI Express card's implementation of the transport layer protocol provides flow control, congestion control, and congestion avoidance, by Rex A. Pugh, pg 36-44

Data Link Layer Design and Testing for the HP OSI Express Card...the modules in the data link layer occupy the bottom of the OSI Reference Model. Therefore, it was imperative that they be finished first and that their reliability be assured before use by the upper layers of the OSI stack, by Judith A. Smith, Bill Thomas, pg 45-51

HP OSI Express Design for Performance...network standards are sometimes associated with slow networking. This is not the case with the HP OSI Express card. Because of early analysis of critical code paths, throughput exceeds 600,000 bytes per second, by Elizabeth P. Bortolotto, pg 51-58

The HP OSI Express Card Software Diagnostic Program...the software diagnostic program is a high-level mnemonic debugger. The structure definition utility isolates the diagnostic program from compiler differences and data definition changes, by Joseph R. Longo Jr, pg 59-67

Support Features of the HP OSI Express Card...the HP OSI Express card offers event logging and tracing to facilitate troubleshooting in multivendor networks, by Charles L. Hamer, Jayesh K. Shah, pg 67-72

Integration and Test for the HP OSI Express Card's Protocol Stack...special test tools and a multidimensional integration process enabled engineers to develop, test, and debug the firmware for the OSI Express card in two different environments. In one environment an emulation of the OSI Express card was used and in another the real hardware was used, by Neil M. Alexander, Randy J. Westra, pg 72-77

High-Speed Lightwave Signal Analysis...this analyzer measures the important characteristics of high-capacity lightwave systems and their components, including single-frequency or distributed feedback semiconductor lasers and braodband pin photodectors, by Christopher M. Miller, pg 80-91

A Broadband Instrumentation Photoreceiver, by Dennis Derickson, pg 84-85

Linewidth and Power Spectral Measurements of Single-Frequency Lasers...a special fiber optic interferometer preprocesses optical signals for a lightwave signal analyzer to measure laser characteristics using delayed and gated delayed self-homodyne techniques, by Douglas M. Baney, Wayne V. Sorin, pg 92-96


Cover: Behind the front door of the HP 1050 Series liquid chromatograph quaternary pump module is the four-way proportioning valve and the dual-piston pump

A New Modular High-Performance Liquid Chromatograph...the HP 1050 Series of modules refines and extends HP's LC technology, emphasizing a common architecture and a standard design for all modules, by Herbert Wiederoder, pg 6-10

An Introduction to Liquid Chromatography, by Henry J. van Nieuwkerk, pg 7-8

Industrial Design and Ergonomics, by Raoul Dinter, pg 9-10

Quality Engineering for a Liquid Chromatography System...for the HP 1050 Series LC system, customer expectations were translated into measurable quality goals, which were then verified by special test methods, by Helge Schrenker, Wolfgang Wilde, pg 11-16

Design for Manufacturing, by Heiko Breckwoldt, Manfred Seltz, pg 14-15

A Compact, Programmable Sample Injector and Autosampler for Liquid Chromatography...the HP 1050 Series autosampler is capable of manual or automatic injection from up to 119 sample vials at injection volumes up to 2000 microliters, by Wolfgang Kretz, Gerhard Ple, pg 17-23

Flexible, Precise Solvent Delivery for Liquid Chromatography...the HP 1050 Series LC pump merges reliable, known technology with powerful control capabilities that compensate for solvent properties and physical side effects. A custom IC implements the motor and pump control functions, by Klaus Witt, Fred Strohmeier, pg 24-35

A New Generation of LC Absorbance Detectors...two absorbance detectors are available for the HP 1050 Series modular LC system: a high-sensitivity programmable scanning detector and a high-speed, multiple wavelength diode array detector, by Gunter Hoschele, Volker Brombacher, Konrad Teitz, Hubert Kuderer, Axel Wiese, pg 36-43

Firmware Development for a Modular Liquid Chromatography System...more than half of the firmware for the HP 1050 Series High-Performance Liquid Chromatography System is common to all modules. It is customized for individual modules by means of module-specific tables, by Christian Buttner, Fromut Fritze, Gerhard Ple, pg 44-50

HP OpenView Network Management...HP OpenView is HP's first set of integrated hardware and software products designed to address the needs of managing open, standards-based, multivendor networks in a consistent, user-friendly manner , by Anthony S. Ridolfo, pg 51-53

HP OpenView Network Management Architecture...this article highlights the principal objectives of the architecture and the reference models used to support the HP OpenView product development, by Mark L. Hoerth, Keith S. Klemba, Hui-lin Lim, Maureen C. Mellon, pg 54-59

HP OpenView Windows: A User Interface for Network Management Solutions...HP OpenView Windows provides a consistent graphics-based user interface for users of network management applications, and a set of utilities that enable developers to create network management applications for the HP OpenView Windows environment, by Arthur J. Kulakow, Kathleen L. Gannon, Catherine J. Smith, pg 60-65

HP OpenView Bridge Manager: Network Management for HP Lan Bridges...since LAN bridges receive all the data packets transmitted on the LAN segments they interconnect, they are an ideal focal point for monitoring packet integrity, and the number of packets forwarded and filtered, by Andrew S. Fraley, Tamra I. Perez, pg 66-70

HP OpenView Data Line Monitor...monitoring large and complex network configurations is crucial to maintaining the integrity and performance of data communication lines. The HP OpenView Data Line Monitor is a hardware and software solution for monitoring these data communication lines, by Michael S. Hurst, pg 71-76

Network Management for the HP 3000 Datacom and Terminal Controller...the HP OpenView DTC Manager software is responsible for controlling, monitoring, and diagnosing the DTCs on a local area network. Its functions can be exercised either from a local workstation on the LAN or from an HP Response Center or other remote workstation, by Michele A. Prieur, Serge Y. Amar, pg 76-84

Developing a Distributed Network Management Application Using HP OpenView Windows...using concepts from the HP OpenView architecture and the facilities provided by the HP Openview Windows, netowrk management services and distributed applications were developed for user feedback and validation of the architecture, by Lisa M. Cole, Atul R. Garg, pg 85-91


Cover: An HP SoftBench window environment, showing the OSF/Motif 3D Appearance

Making Computer Behavior Consistent: The HP OSF/Motif Graphical User Interface...Window-oriented user interfaces provide knowledge workers with powerful tools to control their computer environments and increase productivity. The OSF/Motif graphical user interface provides standards and tools to ensure consistency in the appearance and behavior of applications running in the X Window System, by Axel O. Deininger, Charles V. Fernandez, pg 6-12

The HP OSF/Motif Window Manager...the HP OSF/Motif window manager, which is built on top of the X Window System, is a window management interface that provides a 3D enhanced Presentation Manager appearance and behavior using HP OSF/Motif widgets, by Keith M. Taylor, Brock C. Krizan, pg 12-26

Programming with HP OSF/Motif Widgets...the HP OSF/Mtif widget library makes it easy for a developer to create applications with a graphical user interface that has a consistent appearance and behavior, by Benjamin J. Ellsworth, Donald L. McMinds, pg 26-35

The HP Softbench Environment: An Architecture for a New Generation of Software Tools...the HP SoftBench product improves programmer productivity by integrating software development tools into a single unified environment, allowing the program developer to concentrate on tasks rather than tools, by Martin R. Cagan, pg 36-47

Architecture Support for Automated Testing, by Jack Walicki, pg 37-38

Distributed Execution, Data, and Display, by Gerald P. Duggan, pg 40

Schemes: Interface Consistency, by John R. Diamant, Colin Gerety, pg 41

Pervasive Editing in the HP SoftBench Environment, by William A. Kwinn, pg 42

Native Language Support, by Warren J. Greving, Kathryn Y. Kwinn, pg 43-44

Mechanisms for Efficient Delivery, by Sam Sands, pg 45

Application of a Reliability Model to the HP SoftBench Environment, by Tim Tillson, pg 46

A New Generation of Software Development Tools...the HP SoftBench environment's development manager, program editor, program builder, static analyzer, program debugger, and mail collaborate to support task-oriented program construction, test, and maintenance, by Colin Gerety, pg 48-58

Development Manager, by Anthony P. Walker, pg 49

Program Builder, by James W. Wichelman, pg 52-53

Static Analyzer, by Gary L. Thunquest, John P. Dutton, pg 54

Program Debugger, by Robert A. Morain, Robert B. Heckendorn, pg 55-56

Integrated Help, by John R. Diamant, pg 57

HP Encapsulator: Bridging the Generation Gap...by means of the Encapsulator description language, a user can integrate tools into the HP SoftBench environment without modifying their source code, and can tailor the HP SoftBench environment to support a particular software development process, by Brian D. Fromme, pg 59-68

HP Encapsulator CASE Case Study, by Bob Desinger, pg 65

Introduction to Particle Beam LC/MS...particle beam liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) yields classical, library-searchable electron impact spectra for compounds that are too thermally labile or nonvolatile to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), by Robert G. Nordman, James A. Apffel Jr, pg 69-76

Advances in IC Testing: The Membrane Probe Card...conventional integrated circuit wafer test probes have mechanical and electrical weaknesses, especially for testing high-frequency or high-speed devices and chips that have large numbers of input and outputs. Membrane probe technology overcomes most of these limitations, by Farid Matta, pg 77-85


Cover: An automated workcell with robots and controllers at the General Motors Corporation facility in Oshawa, Canada. Providing the communication links between the components in the workcell is a typical application of the Manufacturing Automation Protocol 3.0 (MAP 3.0)

HP Manufacturing Automation Protocol 3.0...the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) is an intervendor program that addresses the problems that have plagued factory automation in the past. HPs MAP 3.0 product provides international standard network services and protocols and a multivendor MAP programmatic interface, by Bruce J. Talley, Collin Y. W. Park, pg 6-10

Upper Layer Architecture for HP MAP 3.0 OSI Services...based on the OSI standard for the application layer, the HP MAP 3.0 upper layer architecture provides a standardized structure that allows network application developers to focus on the services provided by their applications rather than the architecture necessary to interface to network protocols, by Sanjay B. Chikarmane, pg 11-15

Directory Services in the HP MAP 3.0 Environment...to provide a standardized implementation of a directory service for locating resources in the HP MAP 3.0 environment, the ISO X.500 directory standard is used, by Darrell O. Swope, Colleen S. Fettig, Beth E. Cooke, Roy M. Vandoorn,Paul B. Koski, pg 15-23

HP MAP 3.0 File Transfer, Access, and Management/800...File Transfer, Access, and Management, of FTAM, is an OSI standard that defines the framework upon which layer seven file transfer services can be built for accessing and managing files across the open systems, by Steven W. Manweiller, pg 24-30

HP MAP 3.0 Manufacturing Message Specification/800...the first release of HP's implementation of the MMS standard offers powerful communication tools for monitoring and controlling robots, PLCs and other factory-floor devices in the manufacturing environment, by Thomas G. Bartz, Peter A. Lagoni, Christopher Crall, pg 31-39

HP-UX Kernel Communications Modules for a Card-Based OSI Protocol Stack...HP MAP 3.0 products are based on the HP OSI Express card, which implements most of the OSI protocol stack on an I/O card. The kernel modules provide reliable data transfer between the host computer and the HP OSI Express card, by Kimberly K. Scott, Eric C. Scoredos, Richard H. Van Gaasbeck, pg 40-49

Interoperability Testing for HP MAP 3.0...interoperaility testing is used to ensure that HP MAP 3.0 OSI services can communicate with other vendors' systems and to uncover errors both in HP's and other vendors' OSI implementations, by Jeffrey D. Meyer, pg 50-53

The HP MAP 3.0 Software Integration Lifecycle...The HP MAP 3.0 program was a large multidivisonal effort with project teams spread over different geographical locations and working under different organizations. To manage the integration of the hardware and software components from these different project teams, a generic integration lifecycle was developed for the HP MAP 3.0 product, by Douglas R. Gregory, pg 54-60

500-MHz and 300-MHz Programmable Pulse Generators...these instruments are capable of testing the most advanced CMOS, ECL and GaAs devices. A custom bipolar IC generates the timing parameters, by Patrick Schmid, Gerd Koffmane, Frederick L. Eatock, Heino Hopke, Werner Berkel, Hans-Jurgen Snackers, pg 64-78

A 500-MHz Pulse Generator Output Section...surface mount, thick-film hybird, and gallium arsenide technologies contribute to the advanced output capabilities of the HP 8131A pulse generator, by Hans-Jurgen Wagner, Stefan G. Klein, pg 79-84

A 300-MHz, Variable-Transition-Time Pulse Generator Output Section...the design includes separate fast and slow slope generators and custom GaAs and bipolar ICs, by Volker Eberle, Peter Schinzel, Gunter Steinbach, pg 85-92


Cover: the flat plate is the iris plate from a magnetically tuned preselection filter used in the HP 11974 Series preselected mixers. In the middle are two tiny barium ferrite resonator spheres. Also shown are the top and bottom halves of the tuning magnet, the magnet body and the two parts of the waveguide assembly

An Overview of the HP Interactive Visual Interface...the HP Interactive Visual Interface (HP IVI) product uses object-oriented and window technologies to provide interactive and programmatic tools for building graphical user interfaces, by Roger K. Lau, Mark E. Thompson, pg 6-10

HP IVI Project Management, by Chuck Robinson, Robin Ching, pg 7

Quality Function Deployment and HP IVI, by Mark Thompson, Kent Chao, pg 9-10

The HP IVI Object-Oriented Toolkit...using object-oriented design techniques, a minimum set of functions is provided with the HP IVI product for manipulating widgets and graphic objects to create a graphical user interface, by David G. Wathen, Mydung Thi Tran, pg 11-20

HP IVI Application Program Interface Design...to provide the features available in HP IVI, the internal design and implementation of the application program interface leveraged concepts and software from graphics packages, window technology, widgets, Xt Intrinsics, and object-oriented design, by Gary D. Thomsen, Pamela W. Munsch, Warren I. Otsuka, pg 21-31

Object-Oriented Design in HP IVI, by Pam Munsch, Steven Witten, pg 29-30

HP IVIBuild: Interactive User Interface Builder for HP IVI...using the facilities provided by HP IVI's application program interface, HP IVIBuild allows developers to create and experiment with different types of application user interfaces, save them in files, and bind them to the functionality of the application at run time, by Steven P. Witten, Hai-Wen L. Bienz, pg 32-38

Creating an Effective User Interface for HP IVIBuild...the HP IVIBuild user interface was a collaborative effort between the software engineers developing the code for the product and a group of industrial designers who understand the requirements of an effective graphical user interface, by Steven R. Anderson, Jennifer Chaffee, pg 39-44

26.5-to-75-GHz Preselected Mixers Based on Magnetically Tunable Barium Ferrite Filters...a new resonator material - barium ferrite - and a new four-sphere design are featured in a series of magnetically turnable preselection filters for the milimeter-wave frequency range, by Michael J. Levernier, Robert J. Matreci, Dean B. Nicholson, pg 49-58

Hexagonal Ferrites for Millimeter-Wave Applications...Scandium-doped, M-phase barium ferrite has the necessary properties. Crystals are grown and spheres are processed and tested in-house, by Dean B. Nicholson, pg 59-61

HP DIS: A Development Tool for Factory-Floor Device Interfaces...the HP Device Interface System provides a development facility that includes a high-level Protocol Specification Language, a testing facility, and a run-time facility for device interfaces that run in an HP-UX environment on HP 9000 computers, by Kathleen A. Fulton, Kent L. Garliepp, Irene Skupniewicz,John U. Frolich, pg 62-72

Measurement of R, L, and C Parameters in VLSI Packages...developed to verify the electrical models of a 408-lead multilayer ceramic package, this measurement technique can measure the very small inductances, capacitances, and resistances that are typical of high-performance packages. It does not require extraction of RLC parameters from time-domain reflectometer measurements, by Frank J. Perezalonzo, David W. Quint, Asad Aziz, Ravi Kaw, pg 73-77

Statistical Circuit Simulation of a Wideband Amplifier: A Case Study in Design for Manufacturability...statistical variations of integrated circuit parameters are often correlated, not independent. Examples are side-by-side resistor values and matched transistor gains. Accounting for these correlations using principal component analysis can make statistical simulation an accurate predictor of manufacturing data, by Chee K. Chow, pg 78-81

System Level Air Flow Analysis for a Computer System Processing Unit...numerical simulation of particle traces using finite element modeling and supercomputers gives a good qualitative picture of air flow features. Computer velocity profiles and pressure drops have reasonable good accuracy, by Vivek Mansingh, Kent P. Misegades, pg 82-87


Cover: Magnetooptical disk cartridges are shown with various mechanical parts designed for the HP Series 6300 Model 20GB/A 20-gigabyte rewritable optical disk library system

A Rewritable Optical Disk Library System for Direct Access Secondary Storage...this autochanger system can store up to 20.8 Gbytes of data on-line. Applications include archival storage, automated backup and recovery, and document storage and retrieval, by Donald J. Stavely, Mark E. Wanger, Kraig A. Proehl, pg 6-13

Magnetooptical Recording Technology, by Ed Sponheimer, pg 8-9

Integrating the Optical Library Unit into the HP-UX Operating System, by Daryl C. Stolte, Bruce A. Thompson, David Ellis, pg 11-12

Mechanical Design of an Optical Disk Autochanger...the autochanger moves 32 disk cartridges between two magnetooptical drives and two stacks of storage positions using only two motors and three optical sensors, by Raymond C. Sherman, Daniel R. Dauner, Jennifer L. Methlie, Michael L. Christensen, Leslie G. Christie, Jr., pg 14-23

Optical Disk Autochanger Servomechanism Design...a "sense of touch" and error recovery routines contribute to reliability. Data capture, error injection, andmechanical regression testing facilities improved the productivity of the designers, by Mark J. Bianchi, Thomas C. Oliver, pg 24-34

Error Injection, by Rick Kato, pg 33

Qualification of an Optical Disk Drive for Autochanger Use...ninety-three design changes were made to the stand-alone drive to quality it for use in an autochanger, by Colette T. Howe, Kevin S. Saldanha, pg 35-37

A CD-ROM Drive for HP 3000 and HP 9000 Computer Systems...the HP Series 6100 Model 600/A HP-IB CD-ROM drive provides facilities that allow HP 3000 and HP 9000 computer system users to access data stored on CD-ROM disks, which can store up to 553 Mbytes of audio and digital information, by Edward W. Sponheimer, John C. Santon, pg 38-41

Error Correction Implementation and Performance in a CD-ROM Drive...the HP Series 6100 Model 600/A implements the error protection algorithm defined by the CD-ROM yellow book standard. This extra level of protection means that the error rate is improved from one error in 10/12 bits to one in 10/16, by John C. Meyer, pg 42-48

Providing Software Protection Capability for a CD-ROM Drive...the HP Series 6100 Model 600/A drive supports two levels of security for software protection: load-time security, which prevents loading a package without the proper authority, and scrambling data on the disk to prevent reading a protected disk with another CD-ROM , by Kenneth R. Nielsen, pg 49-53

Support for the ISO 9660/HSG CD-ROM File System Format in the HP-UX Operating System...to allow HP-UX users access to CD-ROM files, the ISO 9660/HSG file system format standard has been incorporated into the HP-UX 7.0 operating system, by Bruce A. Thompson, Dale K. McCluskey,Controller, by Marie-therese Sarrasin, Jean-pierre Allegre, pg 54-59

X.25 Packet Assembler/Disassembler Support in the HP 3000 Data Communications and Terminal Controller...the PAD support software implements the communications protocols specified in CCITT recommendations X.3 and X.29. For performande reasons, the software is in the datacom and terminal controller (DTC) rather than the host MPE XL System, by Jean-Pierre Allegre, Marie-Therese Sarrasin, pg 63-73

An Object-Oriented Message Interace for Testing the HP 3000 Data Communications and Terminal Controller...creating a general-purpose message compiler/decomplier using symbolic expressions, expert systems concepts, object classes, and inheritance reduces software testing overhead and improves test readability and portability, by Frederic Maioli, pg 74-80

Effect of Fiber Texture on the Anisotropic Dimensional Change of Cu 1.8 Wt% Be...the dimensional changes in cold-drawn Cu 1.8wt% (11.4 at%) Be rods resulting from aging are investigated. The dimensional changes are nearly isotropic for as-quenched specimens but are anisotrpic for cold-drawn specimens. The theoretical dimensional changes predicted based on the degree of preferred orientation, the crystallographic data of Cu-BE, and the geometry of the specimens agree with the experimental data, by Nguyen P. Hung, Frank E. Hauser, pg 88-91



Cover: The circuit diagram of a zero-dead-time-counter, a key component of the HP 5371A Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer

Characterization of Time Varying Frequency Behavior Using Continuous Measurement Technology...the HP 5371A Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer implements the continous measurement technique to provide advanced capabilities for measuring frequency and time interval variations, by Mark Wechsler, pg 6-12

Analyzing Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Signals, by Richard Schneider, pg 8

Firmware System Design for a Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer...built-in control and analysis firmware tailors the continous measurement technology of the HP 5371A to dynamic frequency and time interval applications, by Lisa B. Stambaugh, Terrance K. Nimori, pg 13-21

Table-Driven Help Screen Structure Provides On-Line Operating Manual...the structure and firmware were designed for ease of reuse, by Lisa B. Stambaugh, pg 21-24

Input Amplifier and Trigger Circuit for a 500-MHz Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer...two thick-film hybrid circuits provide precise, stable high-frequency triggering in manual trigger, single autotrigger, and repetitive autotrigger modes, by Johann J. Heinzl, pg 24-27

Phase Digitizing: A New Method for Capturing and Analyzing Spread-Spectrum Signals...by continuously counting and time-tagging zero crossings, a phase or time encoded signal can be digitized and analyzed with efficiency and precision, by David C. Chu, pg 28-35

Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer Measurement Hardware...examples of measurements on a frequency agile radio are used to illustrate the design and operation of the measurement hardware of the HP 5371A analyzer, by Paul S. Stephenson, pg 35-41

An Integrated Voice and Data Network Based on Virtual Circuits...developed as an HP Laboratories research project, this network offers true integration of voice and data, a single architecture for local and wide area networks, high throughput, low host overhead, very good cost/performance ratio, and effective interfacing to existing standards, by Robert Coackley, Howard L. Steadman, pg 42-49

Multifunction Synthesizer for Building Complex Waveform...the HP 8904A uses digital synthesis and VLSI technology to provide a highly reliable tool for demanding applications like VOR, ILS, FM stereo, and communication signaling, by Fred H. Ives, pg 52-57

Digital Waveform Synthesis IC Architecture...the digital waveform synthesis IC is the heart of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer. It provides a digital approach to the conventional analog functions of modulation and signal generation, by Mark D. Talbot, pg 57-62

Development of a Digital Waveform Synthesis Integrated Circuit...the digial waveform synthesis IC is an excellent example of using custom VLSI in an instrument to reduce cost and increase functionality, accuracy, and reliability, by Craig A. Heikes, James O. Barnes, Dale R. Beucler, pg 62-65

Analog Output System Design for a Multifunction Synthesizer...the analog output system for the HP 8904A takes the 12-bit data stream from the digital waveform synthesis IC and converts it to an analog signal with excellent frequency response and low distortion, by Thomas M. Higgins Jr, pg 66-69

Firmware Design for a Multiple-Mode Instrument...the firmware architecture of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer is designed to handle the existing operating modes efficiently and to facilitate evolutionary changes, by Mark D. Talbot, pg 70-73

Multifunction Synthesizer Applications...application areas for the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer include telecommunications, navigation, mobile radio communications, consumer electronics, sonar, and electromechanical systems, by Kenneth S. Thompson, pg 73-76

Testing and Process Monitoring for a Multifunction Synthesizer...ensuring the quality and reliability of the HP 8904A Multifunction Synthesizer required a twofold test strategy: undertanding the critical characteristics of the instrument and process control, by David J. Schwartz, Alan L. McCormick, pg 77-80

Assuring Reliability, by Donald Borowski, pg 80


Cover: A 3458A Digital Multimeter

An 8 1/2-Digit Digital Multimeter Capable of 100,000 Readings per Second and Two-Source Calibration...a highly linear and extremely flexible analog-to-digital converter and a state-of-the-art design give this DMM new performance and measurement capabilities for automated test, calibration laboratory or R&D; applications, by Scott D. Stever, pg 6-7

An 8 1/2-Digit Integrating Analog-to-Digital Converter with 16-bit, 100,000-Sample-per-Second Performance...this integrating-type AC uses multiscope runup, multislope rundown, and a two-input structure to achieve the required speed, resolution and linearity, by Wayne C. Goeke, pg 8-15

Precision AC Voltage Measurements Using Digital Sampling Techniques...instead of traditional DMM techniques such as thermal conversion or analog computation, the HP 3458A DMM measures rms ac voltages by sampling the input signal and computing the rms value digitally in real time. Track-and-hold circuit performance is critical to the accuracy of the method, by Ronald L. Swerlein, pg 15-21

Calibration of an 8 1/2-Digit Multimeter from only Two External Standards...internal transfer standards and autocalibration simplify external calibration and extend the period between external calibrations to two years, by Scott D. Stever, Wayne C. Goeke, Ronald L. Swerlein, Stephen B. Venzke, pg 22-30

Josephson Junction Arrays, by John Giem, pg 24-25

A High-Stability Voltage Reference, by David E. Smith, pg 28

Design for High Throughput in a System Digital Multimeter...high-speed custom gate arrays, microprocessors and supporting hardware and a substantial investment in firmware design contributed to the design of the HP 3458A DMM as a system for moving data efficiently, by Gary A. Ceely, David J. Rustici, pg 31-38

Firmware Development System, by Victoria K. Sweetser, pg 33-34

High-Resolution Digitizing Techniques with an Integrating Digital Multimeter...capabilities and limitations of the HP 3458A Digital Multimeter as a high-resolution digitizer are summarized. Performance data is presented for selected applications, by David A. Czenkusch, pg 39-49

Time Interpolation, by David E. Smith, pg 42-44

Measurement of Capacitor Dissipation Factor using Digitizing, by Ronald L. Swerlein, pg 46-47

A Structural Approach to Software Defect Analysis...an effective software defect analysis requires that the relationships between program faults, human errors, and flaws in the design process be understood and characterized before corrective measures can be implemented, by Takeshi Nakajo, Katsuhiko Sasabuchi, Tadashi Akiyama, pg 50-56

Dissecting Software Failures...beyond collecting software defect data just to study defect frequency, this paper outlines a quality data collection process, an effective analysis process, and a method to justify changes in the software development process based on the defect analysis, by Robert B. Grady, pg 57-63

Software Defect Prevention Using McCabe's Complexity Metric...HP's Waltham Division has started to use this methodology and its associated tools to catch defect prone software modules early and to assist in the testing process, by William T. Ward, pg 64-69

The Cyclomatic Complexity Metric, by Thomas J. McCabe, pg 66-67

Object-Oriented Unit Testing...HP's Waltham Division has taken a first stpe in applying new and traditional unit testing concepts to a software product implemented in an object-oriented language, by Steven P. Fiedler, pg 69-74

Validation and Further Application of Software Reliability Growth Models...after two years of use, a software reliability growth model has been validated with empirical data, and now it is being expanded to estimate test duration before it begins, by Gregory A. Kruger, pg 75-79

Comparing Structured and Unstructured Methodologies in Firmware Development...structured methodologies have been promoted as a solution to software productivity and quality problems. At HP's Logic Systems Division one project used both structured and unstructured techniques, and collected metrics and documented observations for comparing the two methodologies, by William A. Fischer, Jr., James W. Jost, pg 80-85

An Object-Oriented Methodology for Systems Analysis and Specification...a methodology is proposed that enables analysts to model and specify a system's data, interactions, processing and external behavior before design, by Donna Ho, Teresa A. Wall, Barry D. Kurtz, pg 86-90

VXIbus: A New Interconnection Standard for Modular Instruments...this standard will allow users to mix modules from different manufactures in a system contained in a single mainframe, by Kenneth Jessen, pg 91-95

VXIbus Product Development Tools...a VXIbus mainframe, a pair of modules, software, and accessories will help manufacturers develop VXIbus modules and systems more easily, by Kenneth Jessen, pg 96-97


Cover: A Veterinary Bolus assembly line at the ALZA Corporation in Palo Alto, California and Carol L. Hartstein with a simulated monitor screen

A Data Base for Real-Time Applications and Environments...HP Real-Time Data Baes is a set of subroutines and a query facility that enable real-time application developers to build and access a real-time, high-performance, memory-resident data management system. The software runs in an HP-UX environment on an HP 9000 Series 300 or 800 Computer, by Cynthia Givens, Michael J. Wright, Le T. Hong, Michael R. Light, Feyzi Fatehi, Ching-Chao Liu, pg 6-17

New Midrange Members of the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture Computer Family...higher performance comes from faster VLSI partds, bigger cache and TLB subsystems, a new floating-point coprocessor, and other enhancements. A new 16M-byte memory board is made possible by a double-sided surface mount manufacturing process, by John Keller, Thomas O. Meyer, Floyd E. Moore, Jeffrey G. Hargis, Russell C. Brockmann, pg 18-25

Double-sided Surface Mount Process, by Andy Vogen, pg 23-24

Data Compression in a Half-Inch Reel-to-Reel Tape Drive...a proprietary data compression algorithm implemented in a custom CMOS VLSI chip improves the throughput and data capacity of the HP 7980XC Tape Drive, by David J. Van Maren, Mark J. Bianchi, Jeffery J. Kato, pg 26-31

Maximizing Tape Capacity by Super-Blocking...interrecord gaps on the tape limit the capacity improvement attainable with data compression int he HP 7980XC Tape Drive. Super-blocking eliminates most of these gaps, by Jeffery J. Kato, Mark J. Bianchi, David J. Van Maren, pg 32-34

High-Speed Lightwave Component Analysis...a new analyzer system performs stimulus-response testing of electrical-to-optical, optical-to-electrical, optical-to-optical, and electrical-to-electrical components of high-speed fiber optic communications systems, by Roger W. Wong, Paul Hernday, Michael G. Hart, Geraldine A. Conrad, pg 35-51

Design and Operation of High-Frequency Lightwave Sources and Receivers...these compact, rugged modules are essential components of HP 8702A Lightwave Component Analyzer Systems, by Kent W. Leyde, Kenneth W. Shaughnessy, Rollin F. Rawson, Robert D. Albin, pg 52-57

High-Speed PIN Infrared Photodetectors for HP Lightwave Receivers, by Susan Sloan, pg 56

Videoscope: A Nonintrusive Test Tool for Personal Computers...the Videoscope system uses signature analysis techniques developed for digital troubleshooting to provide a tool that allows a tester to create an automated test suite for doing performance, compatibility, and regression testing of applications running on HP Vectra Personal Computers, by Danny Low, Myron R. Tuttle, pg 58-

Neural Data Structures: Programming with Neurons...networks of neurons can quickly find good solutions to many optimization problems. Looking at such problems in terms of certain neural data stuctures makes programming neural networks natural and intuitive, by J. Barry Shackleford, pg 69-78

A new 2D Simulation Model of Electromigration...electromigration in miniature IC interconnect lines is simulated in HP's sophisticated two-dimensional model, giving new quantitative and graphical insights into one of the most important metallization failure sources for VLSI chips, by Paul P. Merchant, Vladimir Naroditsky, Wulf D. Rehder, Paul J. Marcoux, pg 79-84


Cover: the displays that would appear when a NewWave Office user opens a file drawer, selects a folder, and chooses a document to edit

An Overview of the HP New Wave Environment...the NewWave environment allows users to concentrate on the task and not the computer system. For developers of new applications, it provides the facilities to integrate applications into the NewWave environment, by Ian J. Fuller, pg 6-8

An Object-Based User Interface for the HP NewWave Environment...the NewWave environment is designed to allow users to focus on their tasks and not the tools. To accomplish this, the NewWave environment presents users with a conceptual model based on an office metaphor that is built on an object-based architecture, by Peter S. Showman, pg 9-17

The NewWave Object Management Facility...an object-based file system is the foundation of the New Wave environment. This paper describes the concepts and features of teh system, by John A. Dysart, pg 17-22

The NewWave Office...the NewWave Office is the user interface for the NewWave environment. It provides the tools and methods to perform tasks found in a regular office environment, by Beatrice Lam, Scott A. Hanson, Anthony J. Day, pg 23-31

Agents and the HP NewWave Application Program Interface...in the NewWave environment, an agent is a software robot that acts as a personal assistant for the user. The agent interacts with the applications through the application program interface, by Glenn R. Stearns, pg 32-37

An Extensible Agent Task Language...with this language, users of the HP NewWave environment can create scripts to direct their NewWave agent to perform tasks for them. The language is designed for both novice and knowledgeable users, by Barbara B. Packard, Charles H. Whelan, pg 38-42

The HP NewWave Environment Help Facility...the NewWave environment provides a common, context sensitive, intuitive, unobtrusive help facility for NewWave applications, by Vicky Spilman, Eugene J. Wong, pg 43-47

NewWave Computer-Based Training Development Facility...computer-based training in the NewWave environment allows users to learn how to use the system at their own pace, and provides facilities for users to create their own computer-based training courseware, by R. Thomas Watson, Brian B. Egan, John J. Jencek, Lawrence A. Lynch-Freshner, pg 48-56

Encapsulation of Applications in the NewWave Environment...to allow non-NewWave applications to run in the NewWave environment, the NewWave encapsulation facilities provide features for the partial or full integration of these applications into the NewWave environment, by William M. Crow, pg 57-64

Mechanical Design of a New Quarter-Inch Cartridge Tape Drive...the design of the HP9145A Tape Drive required doubling both the track density and the tape speed of the existing HP 9144A, thereby doubling the older drive's 67-Mbyte capacity and 2-Mbyte-per-minute transfer rate, by Andrew D. Topham, pg 67-73

Reliability Assessment of a Quarter-Inch Cartridge Tape Drive...aggressive quality standards were verified by over 97,000 test hours before manufacturing release and are audited continually in production, by David Gills, pg 74-78

Use of Structured Methods for Real-Time Peripheral Firmware...HP's Computer Peripherals Bristol Division made some significant changes in their firmware development process to ensure that they met a demanding development schedule and still produced a quality product, by Tracey A. Hains, Paul F. Bartlett, Mark J. Simms, Paul F. Robinson, pg 79-86

Product Development Using Object-Oriented Software Technology...object-oriented technology is rapidly becoming an accepted technology for designing and developing software systems. This paper provides a brief history, a tutorial and a description of HP's Lake Stevens Instrument Division's experience using the technology for product development, by Thomas F. Kraemer, pg 87-100


Cover: The fractional-N module from HP's Performance Signal Generator family

40 Years of Chronicling Technical Achievement...over the last 40 years the HP Journal has created a record of HP's technical achievements by communicating technical information to professional people in all fields served by HP. With Hewlett-Packard celebrating his 50th anniversary it seems appropriate to take a look at the HP Journal, past and present, and some of the technological history of HP it has chronicled, by Charles L. Leath, pg 6-13

A Modular Family of High-Performance Signal Generators...three signal generators, each designed for a particular type of application and each offering several options, let the user choose and pay for exactly the capability required, by Michael D. McNamee, David L. Platt, pg 14-20

Firmware Development for Modular Instrumentation...of three major subsystems in the Performande Signal Generator control firmware, only one contains instrument-specific code. Additional hardware and firmware for calibration and diagnostic purposes provide important customer and production benefits, by Kerwin D. Kanago, Brian D. Watkins, Mark A. Stambaugh, pg 20-26

RF Signal Generator Single-loop Frequency Synthesis, Phase Noise Reduction, and Frequency Modulation...this signal generator design uses only a single phase-locked loop for frequency synthesis and one or more frequency-locked loops for phase noise reduction. The frequency-locked loops are based on delay line discriminators. Frequency modulation is introduced into all loops, by Earl C. Herleikson, Brad E. Andersen, pg 27-33

Fractional-N Synthesis Module, by Barton L. McJunkin, pg 28

Design Considerations in a Fast Hopping Voltage-Controlled Oscillator...the fast hopping requirement affected the design of the discriminator power amplifier, phase shifter, and delay line, the wideband feedback loop, and the VCO pretune circuit by Barton L. McJunkin, David M. Hoover, pg 34-36

High-Spectral-Purity Frequency Synthesis in a Microwave Signal Generator...a low-noise YIG-tuned fundamental oscillator and a GaAs divider contribute to the spectral purity of the HP 8665A 4.2 GHz Synthesized Signal Generator, by Douglas R. Snook, James B. Summers, pg 37-41

Microwave Signal Generator Output System Design...noise performance and level accuracy were major design concerns. Thick-film microcircuits, some "packageless" are used extensively, by Steve R. Fried, Keith L. Fries, John M. Sims, pg 42-50

"Packageless" Microcircuits, by Bennie E. Helmso, pg 44

Design of a High-Performance Pulse Modulation System...the pulse modulation option for the HP 8665A Synthesized Signal Generator adds a pulse modulator and an internal pulse generator. The pulse modulator uses gallium arsenide field-effect transistor switches on microwave monolithic integrated circuits, by Douglas R. Snook, G. Stephen Curtis, pg 51-59

Reducing Radiated Emissions in the Performance Signal Generator Family...two levels of radiated emissions are offered: one standard and one optional. The optional level - 133 dBm into a two-turn loop one inch away from any surface, is 26 dB lower than the standard specification, by Donald T. Borowski, Larry R. Wright, pg 59-65

Processing and Passivation Techniques for Fabrication of High-Speed InP/InGaAs/InP Mesa Photodetectors...proper surface preparation and a conformal mesa passivation covering are critical to the production of low-dark-current photodiodes. The best results have been obtained with a wet chemical etch followed by double-layer polyimide passivation, by Susan R. Sloan, pg 69-75

Providing Programmers with a Driver Debug Technique...symbolic debugging is difficult for programmers who are developing drivers to run under the HP-UX operating system but do not have HP-UX source licenses. A technique is described to use available compiler information to provide access to certain HP-UX debug records, by Eve M. Tanner, pg 76-80

Solder Joint Inspection Using Laser Doppler Vibrometry...good solder joints can be distinguished from bad joints by their vibration spectra. Vibration frequencies for bad joints are consistent for a given lead type, by Catherine A. Keely, pg 81-85

A Model for HP-UX Shared Libraries Using Shared Memory on HP Precision Architecture Computers...to meet the needs of the PORT/HP-UX product, a special model for shared libraries was developed and implemented on HP 9000 Series 800 Computers, by Anastasia M. Martelli, pg 86-90

User-Centered Application Definition: A Methodology and Case Study...this paper presents a practical user-centered methodology for application definition. The methodology encompasses interviewing strategies, task analysis, and storyboarding techniques. The need for systematic user analysis is demonstrated, and the methodology is illustrated by a case study, by Lucy M. Berlin, pg 90-97

Partially Reflective Light Guides for Optoelectronics Applications...the guides control the light from an array of light-emitting diodes in a high-performance, low-cost erase bar for electrophotographic copiers, by Carolyn F. Jones, pg 98-104


Cover: The HP 9000 Series 300 display shows the results obtainable using a Starbase/X11 Merge system display mode called combined mode

System Design for Compatibility of a High-Performance Graphics Library and the X Window System...the Starbase/X11 Merge system provides an architecture that enables Starbase applications and X Window System applications to coexist in the same window environment, by Kenneth H. Bronstein, David J. Sweetser, William R. Yoder, pg 6-12

Managing and Sharing Display Objects in the Starbase/X11 Merge System...to allow Starbase and X to share graphics resources, a special process called the graphics resource manager was created to manage access to the shared resources. An object-oriented approach was taken to encapsulate these shared graphics resources, by Courtney Loomis, Robert C. Cline, James R. Andreas, pg 12-19

Sharing Access to Display Resources in the Starbase/X11 Merge System...the Starbase/X11 Merge system provides features to allow Starbase applications direct access to the display hardware at the same time X server clients are running. There are also capabilities to allow sharing of cursors and the hardware color map, by Jens R. Owen, Steven P. Hiebert, Jeff R. Boyton, Sankar L. Chakrabarti, Keith A. Marchington, John A. Waitz, Peter R. Rob Inson, John J. Lang, Michael H. Stroyan, pg 20-32

Sharing Overlay and Image Planes in the Starbase/X11 Merge System...developing a method to take full advantage of the capabilities of display memory was one of the challenges of the Starbase/X11 Merge products, by John J. Lang, Keith A. Marchington, Steven P. Hiebert, pg 33-38

Sharing Input Devices in the Starbase/X11 Merge System...to provide support for the full set of HP input devices and to provide access to these devices for Starbase applications running in the X environment, extensions were added to the X core input devices: the keyboard and the pointer, by Ian A. Elliot, George M. Sachs, pg 38-41

Sharing Testing Responsibilities in the Starbase/X11 Merge System...the testing process for the Starbase/X11 Merge software involved setting realizable quality goals, and using extensive test suites and test tools to measure and automate the process, by John M. Brown, Thomas J. Gilg, pg 42-46

A Compiled Source Access System Using CD-ROM and Personal Computers...HP Source Reader is in use in virtually every HP support facility around the world, giving local support engineers fast access to complete source code listings for MPE, the HP 3000 Computer operating system, by Stephen J. Pearce, Michael B. Kalstein, B. David Cathell, pg 50-57

Transmission Line Effects in Testing High-Speed Devices with a High-Performance Test System...the testing of high-speed, high-pin-count ICs that are not designed to drive transmission lines can be a proble, since the tester-to-device interconnection almost always acts like a transmission line. The HP 82000 IC Evaluation System uses a resistive divider technique to test CMOS and other high-speed devices accurately, by Rainer Plitschka, pg 58-67

Custom VLSI in the 3D Graphics Pipeline...VLSI transform engine, z-cache, and pixel processor chips widen bottlenecks in the pipeline to allow the HP9000 Series 300 and 800 TurboSRX graphics subsystem to deliver enhanced performance compared to the earlier SRX design, by Larry J. Thayer, pg 74-77

Global Illumination Modeling Using Radiosity...radiosity is a complementary method to ray tracing for global illumination modeling. HP 9000 TurboSRX graphics workstations now offer three illumination models: radiosity, ray tracing and a local illumination model, by David A. Burgoon, ph 78-88



Cover: The ADC hybrid microcircuit of the HP 5185A Waveform Recorder in front of a display from a thermal modeling program

Precision Digital Oscilloscopes and Waveform Recorders...this precision instrument family consists of five digitizing oscilloscopes based on three waveform recorders and an analysis, display and I/O section, by James L. Sorden, pg 6-14

Waveform Recorder Software Design, by John Ketchum, pg 12-13

Signal Conditioning and Analog-to-Digital Conversion for a 4-MHz, 12-bit Waveform Recorder, by Albert Gee, Ronald W. Young, pg 15-22

Adaptive Sample Rate: A First-Generation Automatic Time Base, by Nancy W. Nelson, Richard W. Page, pg 23-25

Waveform Reconstruction Techniques for Precision Digitizing Oscilloscopes, by Allen S. Foster, Richard W. Page, pg 26-31

Digital Design of a High-Speed Waveform Recorder...operation from dc to 250 MHz, where a clock cycle is only four nanoseconds long, makes timing a major concern in the design of the HP 5185A Waveform Recorder, by Steven C. Bird, Rayman W. Pon, Patrick D. Deane, pg 32-38

Waveform Recorder Design for Dynamic Performance...quantizer on-chip delays and delay mismatches, low-order distortion in the input amplifier, and low levels of phase noise in the sampling clock can have significant effects on performance, by Bruce E. Peetz, Mark A. Unkrich, Steven C. Bird, Brian J. Frohring, pg 39-47

Fixed-Frequency Sine Wave Curve Fit, pg 48

Packaging a High-Performance 250-Megasample-per-Second Analog-to-Digital Converter, by Patrick D. Deane, Simcoe Walmsley, Jr., Farid Dibachi, pg 49-52

Precision Digitizing Oscilloscope Waveform Analysis, Display, and Input/Output, by Douglas C. Nichols, pg 53-64

Developing a Printed Circuit Board Design System...HP's Printed Circuit Board Design System (HP PCDS) was developed to meet the needs of electronic designers dealing with ever-incresing complexity and density, by Elaine C. Regelson, pg 65-67

Automating the Printed Circuit Board Design Process...using a computer to place components on a printed circuit board and route most connections greatly simplifies the design process. To accomplish this, careful selection of the algorithms is essential, by Gary Jackoway, pg 68-71

Managing HP PCDS with the Design System Manager...engineering and design organizations must effectively manage design information to reap the productivity benefits of CAE/CAD systems. The Design System Manager addressess the information management needs in the HP PCDS design environment, by Paul S. Reese, Mark E. Mayotte, pg 71-76

A Multidevice Spooler for Technical Applications...the variety and complexity of shared devices for CAD systems such as one used for printed circuit design require a flexible spooler with a common access method for all applications, by Deborah A. Lienhart, pg 77-80

Integrating Applications in a Design Management System...the many data files and applications involved in a CAD system required a sophisticated management system to preserve data integrity, prevent conflicts, and maintain design documentation, by Mark E. Mayotte, pg 80-83

Finding Paths in a Gridded Data Structure

HP PCDS Library Module, by John M. Agosta, pg 82-83

Software Quality Assurance on the HP Printed Circuit Design System Project, by David E. Martin, pg 84-86

Silicon-on-Insulator MOS Devices for Integrated Circuit Applications...several techniques for fabricating regions of crystalline silicone on insulating substrates are available. These methods are described briefly and device design considerations introduced by the use of SOI are discussed, by Jean-Pierre Colinge, pg 87-93


Cover: Millimeter-Wave Source Modules

Millimeter-Wave Sources and Instrumentation...the recent growth in developing and applying millimeter-wave systems has created a corresponding demand for millimeter-wave test instrumentation, by John R. Regazzi, Mohamed M. Sayed, pg 6-11

A New Generation of Millimeter-Wave Calibration and Verification Standards, by Julius K. Botka, Paul B. Watson, Doug Halbert, pg 8-9

Millimeter-Wave Vector Network Analysis, by Robert G. Dildine, James D. Grace, pg 12-18

Millimeter-Wave Source Modules...driven by a microwave source, these modules double or triple the input frequency to generate output frequencies in the millimeter-wave range, by Robert D. Albin, pg 18-25

Millimeter-Wave Source Module Interface, by John R. Regazzi, pg 20-21

2-GHz-to-20-GHz Amplifier, by Jeffrey W. Meyer, Mary K. Koenig, pg 22-23

High-Power Microwave Source for Millimeter-Wave Generation...this plug-in can serve directly as a high-power 8-to-20-GHz source or as a driver for a family of millimeter-wave sources, by Alan R. Bloom, Kenneth A. Richter, Andrew N. Smith, Roger R. Graeber, Ronald T. Yamada, pg 26-30

Millimeter-Wave Detectors Extend Range of Scalar Network Analyzer, by Herbert L. Upham, pg 31-34

Design and Performance of Millimeter-Wave Thermocouple Sensors, by Lee H. Colby, pg 35-38

Adapting UNIX Logon Mechanisms to Automation Applications...although originally intended for software development and document preparation, the utilities provided by the UNIX operating system can be adapted in various ways for use by novice operators in an automated environment, by Marvin L. Watkins, pg 39-47

A Virtual User Simulation Utility...the vuser utility makes it possible to simulate one or several users on a system. It is a useful tool for all types of testing, particularly interactive testing. vuser runs under the HP-UX operating system on HP 9000 Series 800 and 300 Computers, by Kjell A. Olsson, Mark Bergman, pg 48-53

An HP-UX Kernel Load and Measurement System...this system runs on HP Precision Architecture computers under the HP-UX operating system. It can be used to generate and measure different types of HP-UX kernel activities, by Kjell A. Olsson, Grace T. Yee, pg 54-60

Process Measures to Improve R&D; Scheduling Accuracy...improvement is possible if scheduling is regarded as a process subject to continuous measurement, by Richard M. Levitt, pg 61-65

An Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer for DC to 50 MHz...precision, flexibility, and repeatability of signals are ensured by a digital architecture. Two or more synthesizers can be synchronized to provide several sources of complex signals with an identical time reference, by Roland Hassun, Albert W. Kovalick, pg 69-77

Address Sequencer, by Matt Klein, pg 72-73

Sampling Clock Requirements, by Douglas A. Larson, pg 76

A 125-MHz 12-bit Digital-to-Analog Converter System...advanced IC DAC technology and a system design approach were needed to acheive the performance of the HP 8770A Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer, by Fred H. Ives, Thomas Hornak, Wilfredo T. Sagun, Gary L. Baldwin, pg 78-85

Arbitrary Waveform Synthezier Applications in Magnetic Recording and Radar, by Roland Hassun, Albert W. Kovalick, pg 86-93

A Waveform Generation Language for Arbitrary Waveform Synthesis...easier to use than conventional programming languages, WGL is the primary front-panel interface for the HP 8770A, by Rafael F. Miranda, Peter A. Thysell, Derrick T. Kikuchi, pg 94-96


Cover: The advanced one-gigasample-per-second analog to digital converter which is the key element in the HP 54111D Oscilloscope

Statistical Issues in Setting Product Specifications...a primer on the use of statistics in specification setting, by Sherry L. Read, Timothy R. C. Read, pg 6-11

Circuit Design Using Statistical Data Analysis...a methodology for setting limits of uncertainty on amplifier output power based on measured prototype data facilities the design of amplifiers that minimize output power variations. The result is a printed circuit board requiring no adjustments, by Karen Kafadar, Lynn M. Plouse, pg 1217

Statistical Calibration of a Vector Demodulator...circuit performance characteristics must be determined and accounted for in instrument calibration. This paper describes an algorithm for statistical demodulator calibration to guarantee high precision in the demodulated signal, by Karen Kafadar, pg 18-25

An Availability and Reliability Tool for Computer Systems...this software program helps R&D; engineers make trade-offs in designing for reliability. It also provides marketing representatives with a tool to evaluate the reliability and availability of customer-defined systems, by Wulf D. Rehder, pg 26-29

Project Management using Software Reliability Growth Models...at HP's Lake Stevens Instrument Division, the Goel-Okumoto software reliability growth model has provided a means for more accurately predicting the duration of system testing and determining when to release a new product, by Gregory A. Kruger, pg 31-35

A Reliable, Autoloading, Streaming Half-Inch Tape Drive...designed for rack mounting, this compact tape drvie cleverly channels air flow to load different-sized half-inch tape reels automatically. It also features higher performance and reliability than its predecessor, by Ronald L. Abramson, Leslie G. Christie, Jr., Douglas R. Domel, Kraig A. Proehl, John W. Dong, pg 36-42

Streaming Tape Drive Control Electronics, by Bradfred W. Culp, Kraig A. Proehl, Jeffery J. Kato, Douglas R. Domel, David W. Ruska, Virgil K. Russon, Gerod C. Melton, Peter Way, Wayne T. Gregory, pg 43-54

A One-Gigasample-per-Second Digitizing Oscilloscope...this instrument's high sampling rate makes it particularly useful for analyzing high-speed, one-shot occurances. A blend of state-of-the-art designs was required to achieve this performance, by Joe K. Millard, pg 58-59

A One-Gigasample-per-Second Analog-to-Digital Converter, by Ken Poulton, John J. Corcoran, Knud L. Knudsen, pg 59-66

Digitizer Hybrid, by Lewis R. Dove, Mark E. Mathews, pg 64-65

Front-end Signal Conditioning for a High-Speed Digitizing Oscilloscope, by Lewis R. Dove, Joe K. Millard, Thomas K. Bohley, David W. Bigelow, Mark E. Mathews, Donald D. Skarke, pg 67-69

Digital Filtering in a High-Speed Digitizing Oscilloscope, by B. Allen Montijo, pg 70-76


Cover: Print cartridges for the HP PaintJet Color Graphics Printer

Design and Development of a Color Thermal Inkjet Print Cartridge...the printhead has to tolerate bubbles, nucleation defects, and localized property changes. It must also have long print quality life and be manufacturable in high volume. Testing to verify reliability and manufacturability covered thousands of pens, by Stephen J. Nigro, David A. Johnson, Jeffrey P. Baker, Vyomesh Joshi, pg 6-15

Print Quality and Pen Development, by Dan Beamer, Mike Borer, May Fong Ho, Don Bergstedt, pg 14

Development of a Color Graphics Printer...full-color graphics, reliability, and software support received high priorities in the development of the HP PaintJet Color Graphics Printer, by Hatem E. Mostafa, James C. Smith, Emil Maghakian, David C. Tribolet, pg 16-20

Color Communication Standard, by Don Palmer, Emil Maghakian, Ricardo Motta, pg 18

Manufacturability of the Paintjet Printer, by Eric Clarke, pg 19

Mechanical Design of a Color Graphics Printer...among the issues were ensuring proper insertion of the print cartridge, making reliable electrical connections to it, moving the paper or film accurately, and designing a primer, by Lawrence W. Chan, P. Jeffrey Wield, Ruben Nevarez, Chuong Cam Ta, pg 21-27

The Second-Generation Thermal Inkjet Structure...changes in materials and processes increase resolution from 96 to 180 dots per inch and extend printhead life from 2 million drops to 7 million drops, by Ronald A. Askeland, Winthrop D. Childers, William R. Sperry, pg 28-31

High-Volume Microassembly of Color Thermal Inkjet Printheads and Cartridges...miniature parts and micrometer mechanical tolerances make high-volume assembly challenging. Adhesive selection was the first step. Sepcial fixtures, tools, automatic machines with vision, instrumentation, and sytems had to be developed, by Steven W. Steinfield, Peter M. Roessler, Timothy J. Carlin, Cheryl A. Boeller, pg 32-40

Automatic Alignment Machines, by Jeff Beemer, Mitch Levinson, Glen Oldenburg, Mick Trejo, Ed Wiesmeier, pg 34-35

JULIO, by Don Bergstedt, pg 37

Factory Systems, by Stan Evans, Carol Beamer, Mary Ann Beyster, Diane Fisher, Diane Armstrong, pg 39

Ink Retention in a Color Thermal Inkjet Pen...keeping the ink in the pen and off the user is a nontrival engineering problem, by Mary E. Haviland, Brian D. Gragg, W. Wistar Rhoads, Jim L. Ruder, Joseph E. Scheffelin, Erol Erturk, pg 41-45

Ink and Media Development for the HP Paintjet Printer...the ink, paper, overhead trasnparency film and printhead for the HP PaintJet Color Graphics Printer had to be designed as a system because of the complex interactions between these elements, by Donald J. Palmer, Mark S. Hickman, Peter C. Morris, Ronald J. Selensky, John Stoffel, M. Beth Heffernan, pg 45-50

Color Thermal Inkjet Printer Electronics...the design objectives were to minimize part count while maximizing cost/performance, by Philip C. Schultz, William J. Walsh, Jennie L. Hollis, pg 51-56

Low-Cost Servo Design, by Mark Majette, David Ellement, pg 54-55

HP-RL: An Expert Systems Language...HP-RL is an integrated set of artifical intelligence programming tools that has been used at HP for many types of expert systems experiments, by Steven T. Rosenberg, pg 57-65

Microscope: An Integrated Program Analysis Toolset...MicroScope supports evolutionary software development by helping programmers understand complex programs written in Common Lisp, by James P. Ambras, Randolph N. Splitter, Alan L. Foster, Mark L. Chiarelli, Lucy M. Berlin, Vicki O'Day, pg 71-82

Reader Forum: Pg 82-83

Red AlGaAs Light-Emitting Diodes...HP has recently released indicator and display products containing a new type of red-light-emitting diode (LED) based on the aluminum allium arsenide (AlGaAs)materials system. These LED's offer a significant improvement in efficiency over the red LED's that have previously been available but cost only slightly more., by Serge L. Rudaz, Chin-Wang Tu, Dennis C. Defevere, Louis W. Cook, David K. McElfresh, Frank M. Steranka, Michael D. Camras, Wayne L. Snyder, pg 84-88


Cover: The HP-UX 6.0 discless operating system

Discless HP-UX Workstations...HP-UX 6.0 provides low-cost discless workstation operation over a local area network. It also provides a single file system view, intervendor file sharing, and conformance to UNIX System V Interface Definition (SVID) semantics, by Scott W. Wang, pg 6-9

A Discless HP-UX File System, by Joel D. Tesler, Debra S. Bartlett, pg 10-14

Discless Program Execution and Virtual Memory Management, by William T. McMahon, Ching-Fa Hwang, pg 15-20

The Design of Network Functions for Discless Clusters, by Chyuan-Shiun Lin, David O. Gutierrez, pg 20-26

Crash Detection and Recovery in a Discless HP-UX System, by Annette Randel, pg 27-32

Boot Mechanism for Discless HP-UX, by Perry E. Scott, John S. Marvin, Robert D. Quist, pg 33-36

Discless System Configuration Tasks, by Kimberly S. Wagner, pg 37-39

Small Computer System Interface...The SCSI standard is the newest interface for the HP 9000 Series 300 family of HP-UX workstations. It offers improved performance, simplicity in design, a wide choice of controller chips, and wide acceptance in the UNIX community, by Paul Q. Perlmutter, pg 39-45

X: A Window System Standard for Distributed Computing Environments...the X Window System allows applications running in different environments and on different machines to communicate high quality, graphical user interfaces over a network, by James B. Byers, Frank E. Hall, pg 46-50

Managing the Development of the HP Deskjet Printer...forays into unexplored regions of technology are inevitable in the development of breakthrough products, but they must be limited and carefully managed, by John D. Rhodes, pg 51-54

Market Research as a Design Tool, by Alan Grube, pg 53

Human Factors and Industrial Design of the HP DeskJet Printer, by Don McClelland, pg 54

Development of a High-Resolution Thermal Inkjet Printhead...the HP DeskJet printer's 300-dot-per-inch resolution is fundamental to its ability to produce laser-quality output, by William A. Buskirk, Robert N. Low, Richard R. Van De Poll, David E. Hackleman, Stanley T. Hall, Kenneth E. Trueba, Paula H. Kanarek, pg 55-61

Integrating the Printhead into the HP DeskJet Printer...the printhead support systems provide signals to energize the ink-firing resistors, electrical connections to the pen, a carriage to hold and move the pen, and elements to protect and maintain the pen, by J. Paul Harmon, John A. Widder, pg 62-66

Deskjet Printer Chassis and Mechanism Design...one mechanism moves the carriage while another uses a single motor to pick, feed, and eject paper and prime the pen. The polycarbonate chassis supports everything, by Kieran B. Kelly, David W. Pinkernell, Steve O. Rasmussen, Larry A. Jackson, John A. Widder, pg 67-75

Data to Dots in the HP DeskJet Printer...a microprocessor-controlled custom IC manipulates dot data to provide double-width, half-width, compressed, half-height, draft-quality, bold, underlined, and tall characters and graphics too, by Claude W. Nichols, Mark D. Lund, Donna J. May, Thomas B. Pritchard, pg 76-80

DeskJet Printer Font Design, by Bruce Yano, pg 79

Firmware for a Laser-Quality Thermal Inkjet Printer...the firmware resident in the HP DeskJet printer is divided into generic printer code and printer specific code. An optional cartridge provides Epson FX-80 emulation, by Kevin R. Hudson, Claude W. Nichols, David J. Neff, Mark J. Divittorio, Brian Cripe, Michael S. Ard, pg 81-86

Robotic Assembly of HP DeskJet Printed Circuit Boards in a Just-in-time Environment...a high-speed machine places most of the surface mount components while a vision-guided robot places small components and plastic leaded chip carriers, by P. David Gast, pg 87-90

DeskJet Printer Design for Manufacturability, by Don Harring, pg 88

Fabricated Parts Tooling Plan, by Jeff Ward, pg 90

CIM and Machine Vision in the Production of Thermal Inkjet Printheads...machine vision systems for DeskJet printhead production range from open-loop go/no-go systems to process verification systems to completely integrated process control systems, by Brian L. Helterline, Mark C. Huth, Robert F. Aman, Timothy S. Hubley, Gregg P. Ferry, Robert A. Conder, pg 91-98

Economical, High-Performance Optical Encoders...these high-resolution optical encoders are inexpensive and easy to install, making closed-loop motion control feasible in high-volume, extremely cost-sensitive applications, by Robert Nicol, Mark G. Leonard, Howard C. Epstein, pg 99-106


Cover: the autocorrelation functions of two complementary Golay codes merge into their sidelobe-free sum in this representation of the signal processing technique implemented in the HP 8145A Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer

A High-Speed Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer with Improved Dynamic Range...this article presents basic information on optical time-domain reflectometry and introduces the HP 8145A which uses a data correlation technique to increase measurement speed and dynamic range, by Franz Sischka, Michael Fleischer-Reumannn, pg 6-13/

Complementary Correlation Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry...the autocorrelation function of a complementary Golay code pair has zero sidelobes, making these codes ideal for spread-spectrum optical time-domain reflectometry, by Mosche Nazarathy, Franz Sischka, Steven A. Newton, pg 14-21

Optical Component Design for a Correlation-Based Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer...the major requirements for the laser driver, optical system, and receiver were single-mode, two-wavelength operation, high linearity, low noise, and low insertion loss, by Jurgen Beck, Siegfried Gross, Robin Giffard, pg 22-28

Data Processing in the Correlating Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer...a powerful special-purpose digital signal processor, a general-purpose main processor, and pipelined measurement firmware work with the optical components to make measurements, by Jochen Rivoir, Wilfried Pless, pg 29-34

Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer User Interface Design...the firmware built into the HP 8145A OTDR is the invisible intelligence that makes a complex instrument easy to use, by Joachim Vobis, pg 35-38

Printing on Plain Paper with a Thermal Inkjet Printer...an understanding of "plain papers" and how their variability affects performance played a key role in the development of the HP DeskJet printer, by Steven J. Bares, pg 39-44

Host Independent Microprocessor Development Systems...a new architecture makes it possible to use this family of emulators with workstations, mainframes, or personal computers. The cabling technology and chassis design improve performance and usability, by Arnold S. Berger, pg 45-51

Host Independent Emulator Software Architecture...built into the firmware of the HP 64700 Series host independent emulators in an entire microprocessor development system, by William A. Fischer, Jr, pg 52-56

Expanded Memory for the HP Vectra ES Personal Computer...this memory subsystem provides high-performance expanded memory and extended memory support for HP Vectra Personal Computer applications while maintaining compatibility with industry standards, by Gary W. Lum, Milton J. Lau, Wesley H. Stelter, pg 57-63

Generalization of the Redfield-Kunz Treatment of Quadrature Phase Time Data...a prescription is given to computer the complex Fourier transform spectrum from quadrature phase time data when the x and y signals are sampled neither simultaneously nor alternately. This case applies to the sampling scheme of the HP 5180A Waveform Recorder, by Alexander Keller, Ulrich H. Haeberlen, pg 74-76



Cover: HP 3562A Analyzer

Low-Frequency Analyzer Combines Measurement Capability with Modeling and Analysis Tools...HP's next-generation two-channel FFT analyzer can be used to mdoel a measured network in a manner that simplifies further design, by Eric J. Wicklund, Michael L. Hall, Edward S. Atkinson, Gaylord L. Wahl, Jr., Steven K. Peterson, pg 4-16

Measurement Modes and Digital Demodulation for a Low-Frequency Analyzer...sept sine and linear and logarithmic resolution modes and demodulation using digital signal processing algorithms provide greater accuracy and measurement convenience, by Edward S. Atkinson, Ronald W. Potter, James A. Vasil, Raymond C. Blackham, pg 17-25

Analyzer Synthesizes Frequency Response of Linear Systems...pole-zero, pole-residue, or polynomial models can be synthesized for comparison with measured responses of low-frequency filters and closed-loop control systems, by James L. Adcock, pg 25-32

Curve Fitter for Pole-Zero Analysis...this curve fitting algorithm can derive the poles and zeros of measured frequency responses, by James L. Adcock, pg 33-36

Performance Analysis of the HP 3000 Series 70 Hardware Cache...measurements and modeling pointed the way to improved performance over the Series 68, by Craig W. Pampeyan, James R. Callister, pg 38-48


Cover: The detector assembly of the HP 81520A Optical Head

A New Family of Precise, Reliable, and Versatile Fiber Optic Measurement Instruments...the family members are an average power meter, two optical heads, three LED sources, two optical attenuators, and an optical switch, by Michael Fleischer-Reumann, pg 4-5

Stable LED Sources for a Wide Range of Applications...three models provide power at 850, 1300 and 1550 nm, by Michael Fleischer-Reumann, pg 6-8

An Accurate Two-Channel Optical Average Power Meter...accuracy is as high as +/- 0.15dB. Resolution is 1 pW, by Horst Schweikardt, pg 8-11

Optical Power Meter Firmware Development...objectives included a friendly operating concept and effective support for the hardware designers, by Bernhard Flade, Michael Goder, pg 12-15

Detectors for Optical Power Measurements...silicon is best for short wavelengths only. Germanium has broader bandwidth, by Josef Becker, pg 16-21

Precision Optical Heads for 850 to 1700 and 450 to 1020 Nanometers...on-board calibration data and a precision optical interface contribute to accurate measurements, by Hans Huning, Michael Fleischer-Reumann, Siegmar Schmidt, Emmerich Muller, pg 22-27

A High-Precision Optical Connector for Optical Test and Instrumentation...key characteristics are reliability, long lifetime, repeatability, temperature stability and low insertion loss, by Wilhelm Radermacher, pg 28-30

Design Approach for a Programmable Optical Attenuator...a fiberless design makes the long-wavelength model suitable for both single-mode and multimode applications, by Michael Schlicker, Bernd Maisenbacher, Siegmar Schmidt, pg 31-35

A Programmable Fiber Optic Switch...its main features are good repeatibility and low insertion loss, by Michael Fleischer-Reumann, pg 36

Quality Microwave Measurement of Packaged Active Devices...a special fixture, the HP 8510 Microwave Network Analyzer and the concept of de-embedding provide a solution to a formerly difficult measurement problem, by Louis J. Salz, Glenn E. Elmore, pg 39-48

HP 8510 Software Signal Processing, by Michael Neering, pg 47


Cover: Model 840/Series 930 Processor, an 8M-byte memory module and a system monitor

Hardware Design of the First HP Precision Architecture Computers...the HP 3000 Series 930 and the HP 9000 Model 840 are implemented with commercial TTL logic, by Allan S. Yeh, Ross V. La Fetra, Edward M. Jacobs, David A. Fotland, Simin I. Boschma, William R. Bryg, John F. Shelton, pg 4-17

An Automated Test System for the First HP Precision Architecture Computers...besides testing for proper operation, the system gathers specific failure information and generates summary statistics to be used in improving the manufacturing process, by Randy J. Teegarden, Long C. Chow, Thomas B. Wylegala, pg 18-20

A Distributed Terminal Controller for HP Precision Architecture Computers Running the MPE XL Operating System...up to 48 terminals or printers connected to each controller communicate with HP 3000 Series 930 or 950 Computers over an IEEE 802.3 local area network, by Olivier Krumeich, Eric Lecesne, Jean-Pierre Picq, Gregory F. Buchanan, Francois Gaullier, Heng V. Te, pg 21-28

Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture Compiler Performance...using a combination of simple instructions, optimized in-line code, and highly specialized Millicode routines, HP Precision Architecture machines perform any complex operations faster than CISC machines, by William B. Buzbee, Karl W. Pettis, pg 29-35

Viewpoints: A Viewpoint on Calculus...should the infintesimal calculus be taught at all?, by Zvonko Fazarinc, pg 38-40


Cover: Finite element analysis

Digital Signal Generator Combines Digital and Analog Worlds...this new generator provides 24 parallel or two serial data channels, two arbitrary waveform analog channels, or a combination of digital and analog outputs, by Michael Vogt, Friedhelm Brilhaus, Frank Husfeld, Uwe Neumann, pg 4-12

User Interface and Software Architecture for a Data and Arbitrary Waveform Generator...timing diagrams and arbitrary waveforms are easily created by means of a powerful graphic editor, by Wolfgang Srok, Rudiger Kreiser, Ulrich Hakenjos, pg 12-20

A Planning Solution for the Semiconductor Industry...semiconductor device manufacturing has several situations that complicate normal production scheduling and medium-range planning. PL-10, part of HP's Semiconductor Productivity Network, was developed to deal with these peculiarities, by Clemen Jue, Kelly A. Sznaider, Edward L. Wilson, pg 21-27

A Study of Panel Deflection of Partially Routed Printed Circuit Boards...finite element analysis was used to show that the stress and deflection of partially routed boards during handling will be within allowable limits, by George E. Barrett, John H. Lau, pg 29-34

Reliability Theory Applied to Software Testing...the execution-time theory of software reliability is extended to the software testing process by introduction of an accelerating factor. It is shown that the accelearating factor can be determined from repair data and used to make prerelease estimates of software reliability for similar products, by H. Dean Drake, Duane E. Wolting, pg 35-39

Reader Forum, pg 40


Cover: HP Design Center

State-of-the-Art CAD Workstations for Mechanical Design...part of HP's DesignCenter, the ME Series 5/10 workstations simplify the creation of part drawings and the design of mechanical assemblies. A shared data bases improves communication among designers on a project and the results can be formatted automatically for use by NC manufacturing machinery, by Heinz P. Arndt, Dieter Sommer, Karl-Heinz Werner, Dieter Deyke, Wolfgang Kurz, pg 4-15

ME Series 10 Link to HP-FE, by Guenter Voss, pg 14

The ME Series 10 NC Links, by Berthold Hug, pg 15

ME CAD Geometry Construction, Dimensioning, Hatching and Part Structuring...construction lines and circles aid layout, and dimensioning and hatching adapt automatically to part design changes, by Friedhelm Ottliczky, Harold B. Prince,Heinz Diebel, Karl-Heinz Werner, Stephen Yie, pg 16-29

Alpha Site Evaluation of ME Series 5/10...the best way to evaluate a CAD system is to design a real product with it, by Paul Harmon, pg 30-33

Intrabuilding Data Transmission using Power-Line Wiring...an investigation of the transfer and noise characteristics of intrabuilding power lines has indicated the feasability of their use of local data communication at data rates greater than 100kbits/s. Within certain constraints, data rates of 1Mbits/s or greater are possible. This paper discusses typical power-line characteristics in the 1-to-20-MHz region and one implementation of a 100-kbits/s spread spectrum data link operating in the 3.5-to-10.5-MHz range, by Robert A. Piety, pg 35-40


Cover: HP 45911A Graphics Tablet

Permuted Trace Ordering Allows Low-Cost, High-Resolution Graphics Input...a scheme that substantially reduces the number of trace drivers required provides an inexpensive, but high-performance graqphics tablet for HP's HP-HIL family, by Thomas Malzbender, pg 4-7

The Hewlett-Packard Human Interface Link...connecting human-input devices to personal computers and workstations is simplified by the definition of an interface link that adapts to the devices on the link and allows them to be added or disconnected during operation, by Robert R. Starr, pg 8-12

Software Verification Using Branch Analysis...imposing branch coverage requirements on a software testing project can be counterproductive unless a comprehensive branch analysis methodology is followed, by Daniel E. Herington, Paul A. Nichols, Roger D. Lipp, pg 13-22

Reader Forum: pg 22-23

Viewpoints: Direction of VLSI CMOS Technology...will CMOS ICs be the technology driver of the future, by Yoshio Nishi, pg 24-25

Software Architecture and the UNIX Operating System: An Introduction to Interprocess Communication...signals, pipes, shared memory, and message queues are some of the facilities provided by the UNIX operating system for communication among software modules. The strength and weaknesses of each facility are discussed, by Marvin L. Watkins, pg 26-36


Cover: HP 3709A Constellation Display

Dedicated Display Monitors Digital Radio Patterns...one way of displaying the complex waveforms generated in digital radio systems is the constellation display, a method that allows rapid visual evaluation of a system's performance, by John R. Pottinger, Murdo J. McKissock, David J. Haworth, pg 4-13

Constellation Measurement: A Tool for Evaluating Digital Radio...statistical analysis of displayed constellation clusters helps determine digital radio impairments, by Murdo J. McKissock, pg 13-17

A Digital Radio Noise and Interference Test Set...this instrument facilitates the measurement of the bit error ratio (BER) for a digital communication system under simulated path fade conditions. A desired C/N or C/I ratio can be established and maintained in the presence of received radio signal variations, by Geoffrey Waters, pg 19-26

Noise Crest Factor Enhancement, by Dayananda K. Rasaratnam, pg 22

Noise Bandwidth Measurement, by Ian M. Matthews, pg 23

Microprocessor-Enhanced Performance in an Analog Power Meter...a custom thermal converter and an autozero circuit are key design components, by Anthony Lymer, pg 26-30

An Accurate Wideband Noise Generator and a High-Stability Reference Source...these modules make it possible to adjust the injected noise level automatically to maintain a desired carrier-to-noise ratio, by Dayananda K. Rasaratnam, pg 30-36

General-Purpose Wideband Thick-Film Hybrid Amplifier, by Geoffrey Waters, pg 33-34

Automated Radio Testing Shortens Test Time and Enhances Accuracy...this system can reduce the time required to measure flat fade performance by 60 to 90 percent, by John A. Duff, pg 36-40


Cover: HPL-18C Business Consultant and the HP-28C Scientific Professional Calculator

A Handheld Business Consultant...the latest model in HP's line of calculators designed for business and financial applications features a menu-driven user interface for selecting any of its many built-in functions or custom equations entered by the user, by Susan L. Wechsler, pg 4-9

The Equation Solver Menu in the HP-18C, by Pau Swadener, pg 8-9

History and Inspiration of the Solve Interface, by Chris M. Bunsen, pg 10

An Evolutionary RPN Calculator for Technical Professionals...symbolic algebraic entry, an indefinite operation stack size, and a variety of data types are some of the advancements in HP's latest scientific calculator, by William C. Wickes, pg 11-17

HP-28C Plotting, by Gabe L. Eisentstein, pg 15

Mechanical Design of the HP-18C and HP-28C Handheld Calculators...a folding case and two keyboards enhance functionality while reducing label clutter, by Mark A. Smith, Judith A. Layman, pg 17-20

Symbolic Computation for Handheld Calculators...a special operating system was developed to allow processing of a variety of data types from simple numbers to alphanumeric expressions, by Charles M. Patton, pg 21-25

A Multichip Hybrid Printed Circuit Board for Advanced Handheld Calculators...all of the electronics and the display are mounted on a single 1.5-inch by 3-inch board, by Paul R. Van Loan, Robert E. Dunlap, Cornelis D. Hoekstra, Bruce R. Hauge, Chong Num Kwee, pg 25-30

An Equation Solver for a Handheld Calculator...a combination of direct and iterative solving algorithms is used, by Paul J. McClellan, pg 30-34

Electronic Design of an Advanced Technical Handheld Calculator...custom CPU, ROM, and display driver ICs are key elements, by Preston D. Brown, Megha Shyam, Gregory J. May, pg 34-39


Cover: Processor boards from the HP 9000 Model 825 Computer (smaller board) and the HP 9000 Model 850S/HP 3000 Series 950 (larger board)and an unmounted pin-grid array package housing an NMOS-III VLSI chip

A VLSI Processor for HP Precision Architecture...the processor uses a set of ten custom VLSI chips fabricated in HP's high performance NMOS-III technology, by Darius F. Tanksalvala, Steven T. Mangelsdorf, Darrell M. Burns, Paul K. French, Charles R. Headrick, pg 4-11

Pin-Grid Array VLSI Packaging, by John E. Moffatt, Asad Aziz, pg 10-11

HP Precision Architecture NMOS-III Single-Chip CPU...the chip implements all 140 of the architecture's instructions on an 8.4-mm-sqaure die containing 115,000 transistors, by Eric R. Delano, Jeffry D. Yetter, Mark A. Forsyth, William S. Jaffe, Jonathan P. Lotz, pg 12-18

Design, Verification, and Test Methodology for a VLSI Chip Set...delivering ten complex chips concurrently takes more than a casual approach to organization and planning, by Tony W. Gaddis, Daniel L. Halperin, Stephen R. Undy, Charles Kohlhardt, Robert A. Schuchard, pg 18-26

VLSI Test Methodology, by Don Weiss, pg 24-25

A Midrange VLSI Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture Computer...it's designed for mechanical and electrical computer-aided design, computer integrated manufacturing, real-time control, and general-purpose technical applications, by Robert J. Horning, Howell R. Felsenthal, Russell W. Mason, Thomas O. M Eyer, Mark A. Ludwig, Thomas V. Spencer, Leith Johnson, Craig S. Robinson, pg 26-34

VLSI-Based High-Performance HP Precision Architecture Computers...the same system processing unit powers two computer systems, one running the MPE XL operating system for commercial data processing and one running the HP-UX operating system for technical and real-time applications, by Robert D. Odineal, Marlin Jones, Ayee Goundan, Michael W. Schrempp, Gerald R. Gassman, Richard Chin, pg 38-48


Cover: a CAD system simulation of its paper door rotation

In-service Transmission Impairment Testing of Voice-Frequency Data Circuits...this transmission impairment measuring set operates on the live modem signal instead of special test signals. It warns of problems while the channel is in service, so preventive maintenance can be scheduled, by Norman Carder, W. Gordon Rhind, James H. Elliott, David W. Grieve, William I. Dunn, pg 4-15

An Infrared Link for Low-Cost Calculators and Printers...since the sender of this unidirectional link gets no feedback from the receiver, allowances must be made for worst-case conditions, by Robert S. Worsley, Bruce A. Stephens, Steven L. Harper, pg 16-21

A Low-Cost Wireless Portable Printer...based on a unidirectional infrared transmission path, this small thermal printer can provide hard copy of HP-18C and HP-28C calculations, by David L. Smith, Masahiko Muranami, pg 21-23

Manufacturing State-of-the-Art Handheld Calculators...robots and special fixturing help keep costs low, by Richard W. Riper, pg 24-27

Information Technology and Medical Education...this paper discusses the use of information technology in an experimental curriculum at Harvard Medical School and describes several of the computer-based educational modules that have been developed for the program, by Ethan A. Foster, Gordon T. Moore, M.D., G. Octo Barnett, M.D., Judith L. Piggins, pg 28-35

A Framework for Program Development...this paper present a framework for recording a software design activity as a directed acyclic design graph, where each node denotes a fragment of the design and each arrow represents some kind of design decision that has been made, by Robin M. Gallimore, Derek Coleman, pg 37-40


Cover: A three-dimensional model of a type of signal used in modern radar systems - the frequency chirp

Vector Signal Generation and Analysis...this issue contain several articles describing the development of the HP 8780A Vector Signal Generator and the HP 8980A Vector Analyzer. To appreciate the nature of these products it is useful to discuss some of the concepts of vector modulation and its applications, by Allen P. Edwards, pg 4-5

Hardware System Design for a Vector Analyzer, by Andrew H. Naegeli, Juan Grau, pg 6-17

Firmware System Design for a Vector Analyzer, by Stanley P. Woods, Brian S. Messenger, Peter H. Fisher, pg 17-24

Vector Modulation in a Signal Generator...the HP 8780A offers a wide variety of modulation in both analog and digital formats. By combining the different modulation types, diverse signals such as Doppler-shifted QPSK for satellite communication can be simulated, by David L. Gildea, Donald R. Chambers, pg 25-29

Firmware for a Vector Signal Generator, by Eric D. McHenry, James E. Jensen, pg 30-33

Low-Noise Synthesizer Design, by Thomas J. Carey, John C. Lovell, Thomas L. Grisell, pg 34-38

Digital and Vector Baseband Circuits for a Vector Signal Generator...by using a vector modulator instead of conventional amplitude and frequency modulators, the HP 8780A has the ability to generate complex digital and vector modulations. The baseband system is vastly different from those found in conventional signal generators. This system also provides the instrument with some special features, by Chung Y. Lau, pg 39-44

A Wideband FM Subsystem for a Low-noise Synthesizer Module, by Eric D. McHenry, pg 45-48

Vector Modulator, Output Amplifier, and Multiplier Chain Assemblies for a Vector Signal Generator, by Mark J. Woodward, Eric B. Rodal, Wayne M. Kelly, Pedro A. Szente, James D. McVey, pg 48-52

Baseband Calibration, by Paul S. Stafford, pg 50

A Combinational Board Test System...the HP 3065AT Tester provides a completely integrated set of resources for testing analog, hybrid, and digital circuits incorporating surface mounted devices, application specific ICs and VLSI circuits, by Michael E. Gravitz, pg 53-64

Interactive Graphical Debugging Package, by George Booth, pg 58-59

MPE XL: The Operating System for HP's Next Generation of Commercial Computer Systems...MPE XL is a new commercial operating system developed for HP Precision Architecture computer systems. It provides fundamental advances in operating system technology and helps users migrate to the new systems by providing maximum compatibility with existing systems, by Darryl Ouye, John R. Busch, Alan J. Kondoff, pg 68-86

HP 3000 Emulation on HP Precision Architecture Computers...two software subsystems for HP Precision Architecture machines provide program execution that duplicates that of HP 3000s running the MPE V operating system, by Daniel J. Magenheimer, Arndt B. Bergh, Keith Keilman, James A. Miller, pg 87-89



Compilers for the New Generation of Hewlett-Packard Computers...compilers are particularly important for the reduced-complexity, high-precision architecture of the new machines. They make it possible to relize the full potential of the new architecture, by Jon W. Kelley, Deborah S. Coutant, Carol L. Hammond, pg 4-18

Components of the Optimizer, by Suneel Jain, pg 6-7

A Stand-Alone Measurement Plotting System...this compact laboratory instrument serves as an X-Y recorder, a low-frequency waveform recorder, a digital plotter, or a data acquisition system, by Thomas H. Daniels, John Fenoglio, pg 20-24

Eliminating Potentiometers, by Stephen D. Goodman, pg 22-23

Digital Control of Measurement Graphics...putting a microprocessor in the servo loop is a key feature. A vector profiling algorithm is another, by Steven T. Van Voorhis, pg 24-26

Measurement Graphics Software...this package simplifies measuring, recording, plotting, and annotating low-frequency phenomena, by Francis E. Bockman, Emil Maghakian, pg 27-32

Analog Channel for a Low-Frequency Waveform Recorder...no potentiometers are used in this design that automatically zeros and calibrates its input ranges, by Jorge Sanchez, pg 32-35

Usability Testing: A Valuable Tool for PC Design...evaulating the experiences of users unfamiliar with a new computer product can provide valuable guidance to the designer and the documentation preparer, by Daniel B. Harrington, pg 36-40


Cover: A photomicrograph of a gallium arsenide sampler chip

Gallium Arsenide Lowers Cost and Improves Performance of Microwave Counters...a proprietary GaAs sampling integrated circuit is the basis for a new family of microwave counters that operate up to 40 GHz, by Scott R. Gibson, pg 4-10

Creating Useful Diagnostics, by Sally Martin, pg 5

Manufacturing Advances, by Tom Beckman, pg 7

A New Power Transformer, by Bo Garrison, pg 9

Optimum Solution for IF Bandwidth and LO Frequencies in a Microwave Counter...inequalities involving the IF bandwidth and LO frequencies were used as constraints in a computer-solved linear programming problem, by Luiz Peregrino, pg 11-14

Seven-Function Systems Multimeter Offers Extended Resolution and Scanner Capabilities...this new 3 1/2 to 6 1/2 digit DMM measures frequency and period as well as dc and ac voltage, dc and ac current, and resistance. Extended resolution provides an extra digit, by Thomas G. Rodine, Joseph E. Mueller, Scott D. Stever, Ronald K. Tuttle, Douglas W. Olsen, pg 15-23

Advanced Scalar Analyzer System Improves Precision and Productivity in R&D; and Production Testing...this "voltmeter for the microwave engineer" measures insertion loss and gain, return loss and power quickly and accurately, by Frederic W. Woodhull, II, John C. Faick, Kenneth A. Richter, Joseph Rowell, Jr., Jacob H. Egbert, Douglas C. Bender, Keith F. Anderson, pg 24-38


An Introduction to Hewlett-Packard's AI Workstation Technology...here is an overview of HP artifical intelligence workstation research efforts and their relationship to HP's first AI product, a Common Lisp Development Environment, by Martin R. Cagan, pg 4-14

HP's University AI Program, by Seth Fearey, pg 7

A Defect Tracking System for the UNIX Environment...created in response to a lack of effective defect tracking and analysis tools for software development, DTS in now used by 24 HP divisions, by Steven R. Blair, pg 15-18

A Toolset for Object-Oriented Programming in C...object-oriented programming seeks to encapsulate entities in a program into objects, methods, and messages. It is useful for writing highly dynamic software that is well-structured and easily maintainable. This paper presents a set of tools that support object-with-methods-data structuring, by Gregory D. Burroughs, pg 19-23

Tools for Automating Software Test Package Execution...developed by one HP division and now used by others, these two tools reduce the time it takes to develop test packages and make it easy to reuse test packages in regression testing, by Craig D. Fuget, Barbara J. Scott, pg 24-28

Using Quality Metrics for Critical Application Software...software metrics have been used to evaluate the quality of a computer-based medical device produced by a large-scale software development project, by William T. Ward, pg 28-31

P-PODS: A Software Graphical Design Tool...P-PODS enforces formal software design, allows designs to be maintained on-line and produces output suitable for design walkthroughs, by Robert W. Dea, Vincent J. d'Angelo, pg 32-35

Triggers: A Software Testing Tool...triggers as a software testing methods focuses on testing the boundary conditions of the software, and enables the software tester to be more productive, by John R. Bugarin, pg 35-36

Hierarchy Chart Language Aids Software Development...HCL is used by software designers at several Hewlett-Packard Divisions to speed up the process of generating hierarchy charts, by Bruce A. Thompson, David J. Ellis, pg 37-42

Module Adds Data Logging Capabilities to the HP-71B Computer...this 64K-byte plug-in ROM offers new BASIC language keywords for control of a battery-powered data acquisition and control unit and nine application programs for data capture, presentation, and transmission to host computers, by James A. Donnelly, pg 43-46


Cover: The seven hybrid circuits in each instrument of the HP 5411OD

A Data Acquisition System for a 1-GHz Digitizing Oscilloscope...random retetitive sampling yields an equivalent digitizing rate of 100 GHz for repetitive signals, by Kenneth Rush, Danny J. Oldfield, pg 4-11

High-Performance Probe System for a 1-GHz Digitizing Oscilloscope...because a typical system includes more than one class of signal, a versatile probe system is a must, by Arnold S. Berger, Kenneth Rush, William H. Escovitz, pg 11-19

Waveform Graphics for a 1-GHz Digitizing Oscilloscope...fast plotting algorithms approximate the feel of an analog oscilloiscope, by Rodney T. Schlater, pg 20-25

Hardware Implementation of a High-Performance Trigger System...the trigger system resembles the front end of a logic analyzer, by Scott A. Genther, Eddie A. Evel, pg 26-33

1-GHz Digitizing Oscilloscope Uses Thick-Film Hybrid Technology...some new processes were developed and some old ones were improved, by Derek E. Toeppen, pg 33-36

A Modular Power Supply...a primary assembly drives two switching mode dc-to-dc converters, by Jimmie D. Felps, pg 37-39

Program Helps Teach Digital Microwave Radio Fundamentals...the student is able to observe a model communications system and see the results of noise, fading and nonlinearities, by Christen K. Pedersen, pg 40-46


Low-Cost Automated Instruments for Personal Computers...designed for the automated test and measurement requirements of a wide range of technical professionals, the components of this personal computer-based system include eight of the most widely used electronic instruments in modular, stackable cases, by William T. Walker, Charles J. Rothschild, 3rd, Robert C. Sismilich, pg 4-10

PC Instruments Modules, by Allan Levine, pg 6

Versatile Microcomputer is Heart of PC Instruments Oscilloscope Module, by Dennis J. Weller, pg 8

Mechanical and Industrial Design of the PC Instruments Cabinet, by George Kononenko, David Schlesinger, pg 10

PCIB: A Low-Cost, Flexible Instrument Control Interface for Personal Computers...two independent channels for serial and parallel communication are key to its design, by William L. Hughes, Kent W. Luehman, pg 11-16

A Custom HQMOS Bus Interface IC, by diana G. Bostick, Ricky L. Pettit, pg 14-15

Interactive Computer Graphics for Manual Instrument Control...using a PC's CRT screen as an instrument's front panel simplifies control and lowers the instrument's cost, by William T. Walker, Robert C. Sismilich, pg 17-26

Mouse in Danger: Managing Graphics Objects, by Daniel J. Martin, pg 20

Oscilloscope Software Leverages Previous Concepts and Algorithms, by Helen Muterspaugh, Mimi Beaudoin, pg 22

Automated Testing of Interactive Graphics User Interfaces, by Buck H. Chan, pg 24-25

Industrial Design of Soft Front Panels, by david Schlesinger, pg 26

HP-IB Command Library for MS-DOS Systems...PC users can now control and use high-performance instruments with this software package and an appropriate HP-IB 9IEEE 488/IEC 625) interface, by David L. Wolpert, pg 27-29

Case Study: PC Instruments Counter Versus Traditional Counters...combining the power of a personal computer with the measurement capabillity of a low-cost module with no front-panel controls of its own can be an attractive alternative to using traditional instruments for the owner of a personal computer, by Edward Laczynski, Robert V. Miller, pg 29-32

Salicide: Advanced Metallization for Submicrometer VLSI Circuits...a self-aligned titanium silicde process can be used to provide lower contact and interconnect resistances in VLSI circuits if one accounts for the effects of impurities, dopant redistribution, phase formation, and grain growth , by Jun Amano, pg 33-39


Cover: artwork drawn automatically by a silicon complier

Integrated Circuit Procedural Language...ICPL is a Lisp-embedded procedural layout language for VLSI design. Circuit design in ICPL involves writing and working with programs that resemble procedures, take parameters, and can use the full symbolic programming power of Lisp. This allows circuit designers to write high-level software that procedurally builds ICs, by Paul K. Yip, Jeffrey A. Lewis, Andrew A. Berlin, Allan J. Kuchinsky, pg 4-10

Knowledge-Assisted Design and the Area Estimation Assistant, by Benjamin Y.M. Pan, Michael How, Allan J. Kuchinsky, pg 8-9

New Methods for Software Development for Just-in-Time Manufacturing...new approaches in prototyping, next-bench involvement, performance modeling, and project management created a high-quality software product in the absence of standards or existing systems , by Robert A. Passell, Raj K. Bhargava, Teri L. Lombardi, Alvina Y. Nishimoto, pg 11-18

The Role of Doppler Ultrasound in Cardiac Diagnosis...in ultrasound imaging, a pulse of acoustic energy is transmitted into the human body and the strengths of the returning echoes from various organs and tissues are used to form an image on a display screen. Further information about blood flow and movement can be gained by measuring the shifts in the frequency of the echoes, by Raymond G. O'Connell Jr, pg 20-25

Doppler Effect: History and Theory...data about blood flow anomalies can be obtained by observing the shift in frequency of ultrasonic imaging pulse echoes, by Paul A. Magnin, pg 26-31

Power and Intensity Measurements for Ultrasonic Doppler Imaging Systems...carefully controlling the acoustic energy transmitted into the human body requires accurate analysis methods, by James Chen, pg 31-34

Extraction of Blood Flow Information Using Doppler-Shifted Ultrasound...frequency shifts in ultrasonic echoes are detected by means of specially designed filters and a quadrature sampler, by Karl E. Thiele, Leslie I. Halberg, pg 35-40

Continuous-Wave Doppler Board, by Rich Jundanian, pg 37

Observation of Blood Flow and Doppler Sample Volume, by Al Tykulsky, pg 39

Modifying an Ultrasound Imaging Scanner for Doppler Measurements...changes in timing, more precise focusing, processing enhancements, and power-limiting software had to be developed, by Sydney M. Karp, pg 41-44

Digital Processing Chain for a Doppler Ultrasound Subsystem...time-domain quadrature samples are converted into a gray-scale spectral frequency display using a fast Fourier transform, moment calculations, and digital filtering, by David C. Hempstead, Barry F. Hunt, Steven C. Leavitt, pg 45-48


Cover: HP's briefcase-portable computers: The Portable and the Portable Plus

Design of HP's Portable Computer Family...the Portable and Portable Plus Computers are compact, lightweight, battery-powered personal computers with built-in software and 80-character-line liquid-crystal displays designed for use by professionals who need portable computing capability in their work, by Courtney Loomis, Ella M. Duyck, Carl B. Lantz, John T. Eaton, Clifford B. Cordy, Jr., James W. Pearson, Michael J. Barbour, pg 4-13

Inside the LCDs for the Portable and Portable Plus, by Glenn Adler, pg 6-7

Low-Power Modes for Portable Computers, by Alesia Duncombe, pg 10-11

I/O and Data Communications in Portable Computers...low-power consumption and small size are major design constraints for built-in modems and interfaces, by Andrew W. Davidson, Harold B. Noyes, pg 14-17

Personal Applications Manager for HP Portable Computers...PAM simplifies use of the Portable and Portable Plus Computers, even if the user is unfamiliar with MS-DOS commands, by Robert B. May, Alesia Duncombe, pg 18-21

Memory Management for Portable Computers...handling a large system memory with electronic discs and built-in application ROMs requires clever control, by Mark S. Rowe, pg 21-25

A Hybrid Solution for a 25-Line LCD Controller...a hybrid design significantly reduces the space required while accommodating the needs of a larger display, by Glenn J. Adler, pg 25-27

Creating Plug-In ROMs for the Portable Plus Computer...an HP software package makes it easier for users to develop their own applications ROMs for the Portable Plus, by William R. Frolik, pg 28-30

New HP-UX Features for HP 9000 Series 300 Workstations...the capabilities of the HP-UX operating system have been extended in the Series 300 implementation to handle real-time applications, communication with X.25 networks, and operating in native language, by David L. Frydendall, Bonnie Dykes Stahlin, Robert D. Gardner, Robert M. Lenk, Ronald G. Tolley, Andrew G. Anderson, Robert J. Schneider, pg 34-41

A Protocol Analyzer for Local Area Networks...this new analyzer allows 10 Mbit/s network monitoring, testing, and performance analysis independent of hardware and software composition. It permits a user to view network traffic, simulate node-to-node or network-wide traffic, and derive network statistics, by Gordon A. Jensen, Jeffrey H. Smith, Jeffrey Tomberlin, Stephen P. Reames, James M. Umphrey, Jerry D. Morris, pg 42-48


Cover: A "block diagram" representing the HP Precision Architecture execution engine

Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture: The Processor...this article describes the architecture's basic organization, executive model, control flow model, addressing and protection model, functional operations, and instruction format and encoding, by William R. Bryg, Ruby Bei-loh Lee, Michael J. Mahon, Jerome C. Huck, Terrence C. Miller, pg 4-21

Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture: The Input/Output System...a simple, uniform architecture satisfies the I/O needs of large and small systems, and provides flexibility for future enhancements, by Robert D. Odineal, David V. James, Stephen G. Burger, pg 23-30

Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture Performance Analysis...performance analysis was crucial to instruction set selection, CPU design, MIPS determination, and system performance measurement, by Joseph A. Lukes, pg 30-39

The HP Precision Simulator...designed for flexibility, portability, speed and accuracy, the simulator is useful for both hardware and software development, by Daniel J. Magenheimer, pg 40-43

Reader Forum, pg 44


Cover: The Series 300 offers a range of options that would bewilder the typical PC buyer

Advanced Modular Engineering Workstations...this workstation system allows the user to choose the processor, display system, memory, interface cards, peripherals, and operating system most appropriate for the application, by Daryl E. Knoblock, John C. Keith, Michael K. Bowen, Gilbert I. Sandberg, Ronald P. Dean, pg 4-9

Modular Computer Low-End Processor Board Design...this single-board computer operates at 10 MHz and contains integral I/O interfaces, RAM, boot ROM, and bit-mapped display electronics, by Nicholas P. Mati, Martin L. Speer, pg 9-12

High-Performance SPU for a Modular Workstation Family...users needing more performance than that provided by the SPU described in the preceding article can upgrade their system with this SPU running at 16.67 MHz and containing a 16K-byte cache memory, by Jonathan J. Rubinstein, pg 12-16

Custom VLSI Circuits for Series 300 Graphics...two chips, a display controller and a color map and video DAC, reduce costs while improving the performance of bit-mapped, medium and high resolution, monochrome and color displays, by Richard E. Warner, David J. Hodge, James A. Brokish, pg 17-22

Display Custom IC Design Methodology, by Bruce P. Bergmann, Kenneth P. Sandberg, pg 20

Software Compatibility for Series 200 and Series 300 Computers...several software obstacles exist for the Series 200 user who wants to move to HP's new family of modular workstations, the HP 9000 Series 300. This article identifies these obstacles and describes the features of BASIC 4.0 designed to overcome them, by Rosemarie Palombo, pg 22-27

Implementing a Worldwide Electronic Mail System...this paper reports Hewlett-Packard's experience in the internal implementation of HP's own electronic mail system product. HP Desk Manager. Prospective implementers of electronic mail systems can use this information to increase their likelihood of success, by Robert A. Adams, Kristy Ward Swenson, Rebecca A. Dahlberg, Amy Tada Mueller, Luis Hurtado-Sanchez, pg 30-48


Cover: A representatin of a wide area network linking fanciful cities

Hewlett-Packard and the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model...the OSI Reference Model of the International Organization for Standardization is seen as the most significant tool for meeting HP's customer's needs, by Donald C. Loughry, Gertrude G. Reusser, pg 4-5

HP Advance Net: A Growth-Oriented Computer Networking Architectural Strategy...based on the seven-layer ISO OSI model, HP AdvanceNet accommodates old and new protocols in the same network, ensures migration paths to new systems, and provides ease of use and transparency, by Atul Garg, Craig Wassenberg, Lyle A. Weiman, Robert J. Carlson, Arie Scope, pg 6-10

Network Services and Transport for the HP 3000 Computer...NS/3000 provides network services for HP 3000 Computers attached to local area networks. It is compatible with older network products, it is expandable to new network topologies, and it can communicate with other HP computers, by Kevin J. Faulkner, Charles W. Knouse, Brian K. Lynn, pg 11-18

A Local Area Network for HP Computers...LAN/3000 implements the IEEE 802.2 and 802.3 standards to interconnect HP 3000 Computers to other HP 3000s and to HP 1000 and HP 9000 Computers, by Charles J. De Sostoa, Tonia G. Graham, pg 18-22

Network Services for HP Real-Time Computers...HP 1000 Computers have had networking capabilities for nearly 15 years. The latest network services product conforms to HP AdvanceNet standards and supports local area networks and very large networks, by David M. Tribby, pg 22-27

Networking Services for HP 9000 Computers...developing a networking service for the members of the HP 9000 family presented a number of design challenges, among them dealing with different microprocessor architectures, the introduction of new members to the family, and being able to communicate with other HP computer products, by J. Christopher Fugitt, Dean R. Thompson, pg 28-32

Connecting NS/9000 and NS/3000, by Tim DeLeon, pg 29

X.25 Wide Area Networking for HP Computers...HP provides access to X.25 packet switched networks for HP computers, and in cooperation with another company, can provide entire networks, by Pierry Mettetal, pg 36-40

DMI/3000: A Move Toward Integrated Communication...this product implements AT&T; Information Systems' Digital Multiplexed Interface standard to provide communication between computers and terminals or other computers over private digital telephone networks, by Deepak V. Desai, Timothy C. Shafer, Nancy L. Navarro, pg 41-48


Cover: Several mixers with their horn antennas of various sizes for operation in different frequency bands

Molecular-Scale Engineering of Compound Semiconductor Materials...the ever increasing sophistication of semiconductor electronic devices and integrated circuits continues to place increasing demands on the precision with which the underlying semiconductor materials are produced. The development of molecular beam epitaxy allows the highly repeatable growth of compound semiconductor epitaxial films with atomically abrupt changes in alloy composition and doping and with excellent uniformity by Douglas M. Collins, pg 4-10

Extending Millimeter-Wave Diode Operation to 110 GHz...developing more rugged, integratable diode structures is the key, by Sigurd W. Johnsen, Eric R. Ehlers, Douglas A. Gray, pg 10-14

26.5-to-40-GHz Waveguide Detector, by Herb Upham, pg 13

Diode Integrated Circuits for Millimeter-Wave Applications...GaAs diode integrated circuits based on metal-semiconductor (Schottky) or modified barrier diodes have now extended the operating frequency range of small-scale ICs beyond 100 GHz. These circuits, which form the basis for many of HP's new millimeter-wave instruments, are useful for nonlinear and frequency-translation applications, by Scott S. Elliott, William J. Anklam, George A. Patterson, Mark P. Zurakowski, Domingo A. Figueredo, Susan R. Sloan, pg 14-21

Unbiased Subharmonic Mixers for Millimeter-Wave Spectrum Analysis...these units let you use your microwave spectrum analyzer for measurements up to 110 GHz, by Robert J. Matreci, pg 22-26

Predictive Support: Anticipating Computer Hardware Failures...Predictive Support software for the HP 3000 Computer lives on the customer's system and notifies appropriate personnel of impending failures, by David B. Wasmuth, Bruce J. Richards, pg 30-33

Systems Design for Worldwide Delivery of Customer Support, by Blenda Mariani, pg 32

AIDA: An Expert Assistant for Dump Readers...this expert-system-based program increases human readers productivity and success rate in HP 3000 memory dum analyses, by Lynn R. Slater, Jr., Keith A. Harrison, Craig M. Myles, pg 34-41

A Troubleshooting Aid for Asynchronous Data Communications Links...Schooner is an expert system for fault diagnosis and personnel training on point-to-point datacom links, by Diane M. Ahart, R. Michael Young, Brian T. Button, pg 42-47

A Rule-Based System to Diagnose Malfunctioning Computer Peripherals...the Intelligent Peripheral Troubleshooter, an expert system, currently diagnoses malfunctions in HP disc drives, but other devices will be easy to add to its repertoire, by George R. Gottschalk, Roy M. Vandoorn, pg 48-53

Multilevel Constraint Based Configuration...the goal of Mycon, a prototype expert system for configuring computer systems, is to relieve the support engineer of the tedious task of configuration of a customer order, by Robert I. Marcus, pg 54-56


Cover: Origins of the HP-UX operating system sculpted in plastic

The HP-UX Operating System on HP Precision Architecture Computers...HP-UX is the technical operating system for HP Precision Architecture processors. It's an extension of AT&T;'s UNIX System V.2, by Gary Shiu-fan Ho, Steven R. Kusmer, John R. Sontag, Frederick W. Clegg, pg 4-22

A UNIX System V Compatible Implementation of 4.2BSD Job Control, by David C. Lennert, pg 9

Decreasing Real-Time Process Dispatch Latency Through Kernel Preemption, by David C. Lennert, pg 13-14

Data Base Management for HP Precision Architecture Computers...HP ALLBASE supports both network and relational data access and runs under both the MPE XL and the HP-UX operating systems. Migration of existing data bases to the new architecture has been carefully planned for, by Krishnan Vishwanath, Judson E. Veazey, Jenny Ng, Michael J. Pechulis, Mark A. Sikes, Thomas M. Hirata, Ann M. Koehler, David E. Singleton, Alan S. Brown, pg 33-48



Cover: Miniature Optical Bench from the HP 8150A

Optical Stimulus and Receivers for Parametric Testing in Fiber Optics...an optical power source and an optical pulse power meter, both calibrated and programmable, provide reliable device and system testing for the expanding field of fiber optics, by Achim Eckert, Wolfgang Schmid, pg 4-7

A Precise, Programmable 850-nm Optical Signal Source...modulated the output using the internal pulse/function generartor or your own external source, by Klaus Hoeing, Bernhard Flade, Wolfgang Schmid, Rainer Eggert, pg 7-18

A Versatile, Programmable Optical Pulse Power Meter...ther's a choice of optical heads for operation at 550 to 950 nm or 950 to 1750 nm, by Werner Berkel, Michael Goder, Josef Becker, Wilfried Pless, Bernd Maisenbacher, Volker Eberle, Hans Huning, pg 18-27

An Optical Receiver for 550 to 950nm...this versatile front end expands the measurement capabilities of electronic test equipment into the fiber optic domain, by Gerd Koffmane, Michael Fleischer-Reumann, Emmerich Muller, pg 27-29

Optical Standards...precise secondary standards had to be built to test a new line of instruments, by Joachim Vobis, Werner Berkel, pg 29-30


Cover: magnetostatic-wave delay-line filter

HP Tech Writer: Illustrated Documents for Engineers...this document editing software package for HP 9000 Series 200 Computers electronically merges text with pictures from many HP graphics software packages. Text and graphics appear on the screen as they will in the printed document, by Roy E. Anderson, Elaine C. Regelson, pg 4-9

Magnetostatic-Wave Devices for Microwave Signal Processing...by locally perturbing the magnetic dipoles formed by spinning electrons in thin ferrimagnetic films, a propagating wave can be initiated. Devices based on this principle can be used to process microwave signals, by Waguih S. Ishak, Kok-wai Chang, pg 10-20

Disc Caching in the System Processing Units of the HP 3000 Family of Computers...disc caching uses the excess main memory and processor capacity of the high-end HP 3000s to eliminate a large portion of the disc access delays encountered in an uncached system, by Alan J. Kondoff, John R. Busch, pg 21-39


Cover: HP Maintenance Management: a software package for the HP 3000 Computer

HP Maintenance Management: A new Approach to Software Customer Solutions...suggested by an HP customer and designed with extensive customer feedback, this HP 3000 software helps cut the cost of equipment maintenance, by Joseph L. Malin, Irving Bunton, Jr., pg 4-10

Development of High-Performance, Half-Inch Tape Drive...the design of a low-cost, high-density tape drive for backup of large amounts of on-line computer system memory requires a sophisticated combination of technologies and careful project planning. This new drive's greatly improved reliability reduces maintenance costs and downtime, by Richard T. Turley, Hoyle L. Curtis, pg 11-16

LSI Simplifies Tape Drive Electronic Design, by Jimmy L. Shafer, pg 13

Write and Read Recovery Systems for a Half-Inch Tape Drive...besides the necessary erasing, reading and writing functions, it is important to protect the data from accidental alteration or destruction, by Wayne T. Gregory, pg 16-18

Digital Formatting and Control Electronics for Half-Inch Tape Data Storage...encoding and decoding data transparently in either GCR or PE formats require fairly complex operations. LSI circuits simplify some of the design problems, by Jimmy L. Shafer, 19-24

Streaming Tape Drive Hardware Design...two microprocessors are required - one for master control and the other for servo control, by David J. Van Maren, Robert D. Emmerich, John W. Dong, pg 25-29

Firmware for a Streaming Tape Drive...support of queued operations keeps the tape streaming and handles all interactions with the user or the host computer, by Alan J. Richards, John A. Ruf, Bradfred W. Culp, Virgil K. Russon, David W. Ruska, pg 29-31

Low-Cost, Highly Reliable Tape Backup for Winchester Disc Drives...designed for use on small to midrange computer systems, this new quarter-inch cartridge tape drive packs up to 67 megabytes onto a single cartridge, by Donald A. Ditommaso, Sterling J. Mortensen, John C. Becker, pg 34-36

Tape/Disc Controller Serves Integrated Peripherals...a fixed disc drive or a quarter-inch tape drive or both can operate in a common environment, by Craig L. Miller, Mark L. Gembarowski, pg 37-39

Cartridge Tape Data Integrity Ensured at Five Levels...the drive has read after write, error correction, and media monitoring capabilities, by K. Douglas Gennetten, pg 39-43

Controlling the Head/Tape Interface...it's critical to data integrity and unit-to-unit interchangeability, by Charles H. McConica, David J. Schmeling, Mark E. Wanger, Walter L. Auyer, pg 44-47

Software Methodology Preserves Consistency and Creativity...concepts used include hierarchy charts, structured programming, top-down design, structured walkthroughs, and structured analysis, by Mark L. Gembarowski, pg 47-48


Cover: HP 2392A Display Terminal

A Low-Cost Compact, Block-Mode Computer Terminal...the design emphasizes ergonomics and very high reliability as well as low cost and compactness, by Michele Prieur, Jean-Louis Chapuis, pg 4-7

A Reliable, Low-Cost Keyboard Interface, by Khambao Panyasak, pg 7

Mechanical Design of a Low-Cost Terminal...integral display tilt and swivel mechanisms and a detached low-profile keyboard help it adapt to users' needs, by Michel Cauzid, pg 8-9

VLSI Design in the HP 2392A Terminal...the cost of the CRT control function was reduced by 80% by integrating it in a single VLSI chip, by Jean-Jacques Simon, pg 9-16

A Fast Gate Array Companion for CRT Controller, by Freddie Barbut, pg 13-14

How to Scroll Smoothly, by Richard Brabant, pg 15-16

Fully Automated Production of Display Terminal Printed Circuit Assemblies...DIP and axial inserters install 103 components and a six-axis robot inserts 41 more, by Christian-Marcel Dulphy, pg 16-7

A Low-Cost, Reliable Analog Video Display Terminal Design...a small cabinet with no fan made heat dissipation a major concern, by Rene Martinelli, Jean Yves Chatron, pg 18-22

An Intelligent Plotter for High-Throughput, Unattended Operation...this plotter quickly produces multiple copies of high-quality graphics output for use in presentations and reports. Its high throughput and automatic cut-sheet feeder make it useful for unattended operation in shared environments, by Todd L. Russell, Peter L. Ma, Jeffery W. Groenke, Martin L. Stone, pg 25-29

Low-Mass, Low-Cost Pen-Lift Mechanism for High-Speed Plotting...an adaptive pen up/down cycle reduces pen nib wear without sacrificing plotting speed, by Tammy V. Herr, Hatem E. Mostafa, pg 29-30

The HP 7550A X-Y Servo: State-of-the-Art Performance on a Budget...a 32-bit microprocessor closes three servo loops in this plotter using position and velocity feedback, by Kenneth A. Regas, Thomas J. Halpenny, David C. Tribolet, pg 31-34

Firmware Provides Simple and Powerful Plotter Operation...polygon area fill, downloadable character sets, and replot and vector buffers are some of the key enhancements, by Thomas J. Halpenny, pg 34-36


Cover: a closeup view of the orifice plate of a HP's ThinkJet printer

History of Thinkjet Printhead Development...the principle was simple: ejecting a minute droplet of ink by momentarily boiling the ink. Applying it to the design of a commercially viable disposable ink-jet printhead required clever and persistent engineering, by Niels Nielsen, pg 4-10

An Inexpensive, Portable Ink-Jet Printer Family...using a disposable ink cartridge and printhead, this low-cost family of printers offers personal computer users high-quality printing in a portable package. Four common I/O interfaces are supported by various members of the family, by Thomas R. Braun, Cheryl V. Katen, pg 11-20

Alignment of Bidirectional Text, by Dave Lowe, Robert P. Callaway, pg 13

Printhead Interconnect, by Roy T. Buck, pg 14

Custom VLSI Microprocessor System, by Ray L. Pickup, pg 16

Home Switch Design, by Andrew D. Sleeper, pg 19

Thermodynamics and Hydrodynamics of the Thermal Ink Jets...clever modeling and computer simulations were done to understand and predict the behavior of a new printing device, by Ross R. Allen, William R. Knight, John D. Meyer, pg 21-27

Development of the Thin-Film Structure for the Thinkjet Printhead...using microscopic thin-film devices to vaporize ink for ink-jet printing imposes severe electrical, thermal, mechanical and chemical stresses on the film structures, by Eldurkar V. Bhaskar, J. Stephen Aden, pg 27-32

Where the Ink Hits the Paper, by David Hackleman, pg 32

The Thinkjet Orifice Plate: A Part with Many Functions...this tiny electroformed part conducts ink from the reservoir and channels it to an array of integral minute orifices where it is selectively vaporized to eject ink droplets for printing, by Gary L. Siewell, William R. Boucher, Paul H. McCleland, pg 33-37

Viewpoints: Managing the Development of a New Technology...how you do it may determine the commercial viability of a breakthrough technology, by Frank L. Cloutier, pg 38-39


Cover: dot matrix printbar in action

A New Family of Dot Matrix Line Printers...these impact printers are designed for EDP and manufacturing applications. Speeds available are 300, 600, and 900 lines per minute, by Bryce E. Jeppsen, pg 4-6

Design for Reliability in the HP 256X Family of Line Printers, by Everett M. Baily, pg 5

Dot Matrix Printbar Design and Manufacturing...a new captured-hammer printbar system meets performance needs from 300 to 900 lines per minute, by John S. Craven, pg 6-9

Shuttle System and Packaging of Low-Cost, High-Reliability, 300-lpm Line Printer...simplicity and reliability were the overriding design requirements, by Jeffrey M. Lantz, Ben B. Tyson, pg 9-12

Mechanical Design of a Family of High-Speed Impact Line Printers...dot placement accuracy must be maintained with the printbar oscillating at 60 Hz and the paper moving at 900 lpm, by George V. McIlvaine, Daniel D. Wheeler, Peter Gysling, Stephen L. Testardi, pg 13-18

Resonance Search Technique, by Gary W. Green, pg 17

Cost-Effective, Versatile Line Printer Electronics and Firmware...here's the nerve center that does the formatting, sequencing, controlling and communicating, by Phillip R. Luque, Donald K. Wadley, Philip Gordon, 18-23

Vector Graphics for Dot Matrix Printers, by Sharon E. Jones, Alvin D. Scholten, pg 20

Printer Command Language Provides Feature Set Standard for HP Printers...now applications written for one HP printer won't have to be rewritten to run on another, by Ernest F. Covelli, David L. Price, Von L. Hansen, pg 23-25

Native Language Support for Computer Systems...NLS for the HP 3000 and other HP computers provides hardware and operating system facilities that make application programs easy to translate into other languages, by Jonathan E. Bale, Harry E. Kellogg, pg 27-32


Cover: HP 4953A Protocol Analyzer

A Protocol Analyzer for EDP Centers and Field Service...it's the latest member of a family that also includes a low-cost portable analyzer for field service and a high-speed BASIC-programmable analyzer for data communications research and development, by Aileen C. Appleyard, Roger W. Ruhnow, William Grant Grovenburg, Wayne M. Angevine, pg 4-11

Simple Architecture Provides High Performance for Protocol Analysis...a 68000 microprocessor controls the system. A trap machine provides powerful triggering capabilities, by Roger W. Ruhnow, Stephen H. Witt, pg 12-18

Protocol Analyzer Power Supply Design, by Stephen M. Ernst, pg 14

Protocol Analyzer Mechanical Design, by Ken Krebs, pg 15

Making a Protocol Analyzer Producible and Serviceable, by John R. Rader, pg 17

Serial Data Acquisition and Simulation for a High-speed Protocol Analyzer...the front end is a dedicated processor that interfaces the line under test to the system processor, by Dorothy J. Yackle, Mark D. Keisling, Elizabeth Gates Moore, David B. Karlin, pg 18-24

A Low-Cost, Portable Field Service Protocol Analyzer...it's menu and file compatible with HP's higher-performance analyzers and has many of the same capabilities, by Vonn L. Black, Alan Delwiche, Stephen B. Tursich, Chris L. Odell, pg 24-29

Remote Monitoring and Control of Semiconductor Processing...this addition to HP's Semiconductor Productivity Network acts as a host computer to IC processing equipment, providing remote control and data gathering for fabrication personnel, by Wesley H. Higaki, pg 30-34


Cover: Spectrum of HP's next generation of computers ranging from desktop workstations to mainframe class machines

Beyond RISC: High-Precision Architecture...an introduction to scaling, complexity and HP's new computer architecture, by William S. Worley, Jr., Joel S. Birnbaum, pg 4-9

Development of a Two-Channel Frequency Synthesizer...combining two independent synthesizers, flexible modulation, and control circuits in a single package, this instrument can generate two-phase, two-tone, pulse, frequency hopping and swept signals, by Michael B. Aken, William M. Spaulding, pg 11-18

Applications of a Two-Channel Synthesizer...multiphase test capability, a frequency agile discrete sweep and other features add up to exceptional versatility, by Michael B. Aken, pg 19-21

Synthesizer Firmware for User Interface and Instrument Control...a friendly and reliable user interface was the primary objective, by Katherine F. Potter, David A. Bartle, pg 21-24

Measuring Intermodulation Distortion with a Two-channel Synthesizer

A High-Level Active Mixer...when noise considerations are properly addressed, active designs have some distinct advantages, by William M. Spaulding, pg 25-29

Automated Test Data Collection for IC Manufacturing...collecting, storing and analyzing data from a variety of test equipment and CPUs that use different formats, languages, and protocols is made possible by this software product for HP's Semiconductor Productivity Network, by Reed I. White, pg 30-36


Cover: HP 3000 Series 37 Computer

VLSI Delivers Low-Cost, Compact HP 3000 Computer System...this entry-level, user-installable computer system runs the same software as the largest HP 3000, but fits under a table and is much quieter than than a typewriter, by Frank E. La Fetra, Jr., James H. Holl, pg 4-7

High-Volume Test Strategy, by Dennis Bowers, pg 6

Simplicity in a Microcoded Computer Architecture...simplicity means more efficient use of silicon without sacrificing performance, by Frederic C. Amerson, pg 7-12

Using a Translator for Creating Readable Microcode, by Skip La Fetra, pg 10

Booting 64-Bit WCS Words from a 32-Bit-Wide ROM Word, by Skip La Fetra, Chris Shaker, pg 12

Simulation Ensures Working First-Pass VLSI Computer System...a simulator with the improbably name "Faster Than Light" was the essential tool, by John R. Obermeyer, Malcolm E. Woodward, Paul L. Rogers, Patria G. Alvarez, Greg L. Gilliam, pg 13-16

Creative Ways to Obtain Computer System Debug Tools...the ways include an off-the-shelf microcomputer and a virtual software debugging panel, by William M. Parrish, Eric B. Decker, Edwin G. Wong, pg 17-22

The Role of a Programmable Breakpoint Board, by Mehraban Jam, pg 20

Virtual Microcode Memory, by Chris Shaker, pg 22

New Cardiograph Family with ECG Analysis Capability...these three new HP cardiographs, in addition to recording traditional ECG waveforms, can perform differing levels of measurements and analysis to aid diagnosis of heart behavior, by Peter H. Dorward, Steven A. Scampini, Robert H. Banta Jr, pg 23-28

ECG Storage and Transmission, by Charles C. Monroe, pg 24

Computer-Aided ECG Analysis...special signal processing and algorithms are required to detect various ECG abnormalities, by John C. Doue, Anthony G. Vallance, pg 29-34


Cover: Integral PC

A Multitasking Personal Computer System for the Technical Professional...the Integral PC provides high-performance multitasking operation, mass storage, graphics and text output, and instrument I/O in a compact, transportable package, by Nelson A. Mills, Tim J. Williams, pg 4-6

Electronics System for a Transportable Computer...a clever memory manager and simple, low-cost system logic design are key elements, by David L. Kepler, James A. Espeland, pg 6-9

Custom Graphics Processor Unit for the Integral PC...this special-purpose microprocessor can control the internal bit-mapped flat-panel display or external CRT monitors, by Dean M. Heath, pg 10-12

High-Quality Electroluminescent Display for a Personal Workstation...an energy-recovery drive scheme keeps power requirements below 15 watts, by Marvin L. Higgins, pg 12-17

Mechanical Design of the Integral PC: Not Just Desktop Computer with a Handle...able to fit under an airline seat, the package contains an ink-jet printer, a disc drive, a detachable keyboard, and space for an optional mouse, by Thomas A. Pearo, pg 18-22

A UNIX Operating System Adapted for a Technical Personal Computer...this approach eliminates the need for a hard disc and adds real-time priority to a multitasking operating system, by Ray M. Fajardo, Robert C. Cline, James R. Andreas, Andrew L Rood, pg 22-28

A Friendly UNIX Operating System User Interface...a window manager and an adaptation of the Personal Appllications Manager used in the HP 150 Computer make it simpler for the novice to use a UNIX multitasking system, by Jon A. Brewster, Karen S. Helt, James N. Phillips, 28-33

Personal Applications Manager, by Brock Krizan, pg 30

Data Communications, by Fred Taft, pg 33-34

Printer and Plotter Drivers, pg 34-35


Cover: A Thin-film disc fabricated in the HP Laboratories

Thin-Film Memory Disc Development...developing a new recording medium for disc memories required careful attention to the development and characterization of materials, processess and test systems, by Bruce F. Spenner, Charles C. Morehouse, David J. Bromley, Edward S. Murdock, Richard A. Baugh, James E. Opfer, Bangalore R. Natarajan, pg 4-10

M-H Loop Measurements, by Robin P. Giffard, Victor W. Hesterman, pg 6

A Laser Particle Scanner, by Richard E. Elder, pg 8

Dynamic Testing of Thin-Film Magnetic Recording Discs...a modular approach is a key element, by John Hodges, Keith S. Roskelley, Dennis R. Edson, pg 11-21

In-Line Sputtering Deposition System for Thin-Film Disc Fabrication...a sophisticated control system and physical design moves the discs from one deposition step to the next without exposing the discs to atmospheric conditions between steps, by George A. Drennan, Michael B. Jacobson, Robert J. Lawton, pg 21-25

Thin-Film Disc Reliability-the Conservative Approach...wear, friction, and corrision must be evaluated and controlled, by Stephan P. Howe, Paul Poorman, Clifford K. Day, C. Girvin Harkins, pg 25-31

Manufacturing Thin-Film Discs...optimizing disc fabrication has a major effect on disc drive product cost and quality, by Darrel R. Bloomquist, Glenn E. Moore, Jr., Richard S. Seymour, pg 34-35

Thin-Film Discs: Magnetic, Electrical, and Mechanical Design...when the magnetic and electrical parameters require a head to fly only 200 nm above a disc, surface smoothness becomes an important design parameter, by Michael C. Allyn, Peter R. Goglia, Scott R. Smay, pg 36-40


Cover: SAWR and the HP 8642A/B

A High-Performance Signal Generator for RF Communications Testing...high-reliability design, extended calibration intervals, and fast calibration and repair maximize ATE system uptime. Spectral purity is exceptional by Robert E. Burns, pg 4-6

User Interface and Internal Controller for an RF Signal Generator...the power of a 68000 microprocessor makes the instrument friendly, both to the user and to automatic systems it may be part of, by Albert Einstein Lassiter, Charles R. Kogler, pg 6-9

Signal Generator Service Features Maximize Uptime...built-in are self-tests and service features for fault location and field recalibration, by Thomas R. Faulkner, Brian M. Miller, Mark A. Niemann, Earl C. Herleikson, Ronald J. Mayer, pg 10-13

Internally Modular Signal Generator Mechanical Design...each module is like a mini-instrument that is easily replaceable in the field, by Michael B. Jewell, Mark W. Johnson, pg 14-18

Wide-Frequency-Range Signal Generator Output Section Design...output power amplification and control, amplitude modulation, and reverse power protection are handled here, by Marvin W. Wagner, Robert R. Collison, James B. Summers, Bryan D. Ratliff, pg 18-24

Signal Generator Frequency Synthesizer Design...six phase-locked loops minimize phase noise and spurious outputs and provide high-accuracy, low distortion angle modulation, by Michael T. Wende, pg 24-31

Audio Modulation Section for an RF Signal Generator...included is a low-distortion, variable-modulation audio signal source, by Gary L. Tong, pg 31-35



Cover: The Industry's largest removable disc drive media module

Two High-Capacity Disc Drives...one of these 404-megabyte drives is the current industry leader in removable disc pack capacity while the other is a lower-cost nonremovable drive, by Kent Wilken, pg 3-6

A Command Language for Improved Disc Protocol...the goal is a flexible and forward-looking way of communicating between disc and computer, by Douglas L. Voigt, pg 5-6

Second-Generation Disc Read/Write Electronics...information-packing coding and increased track densities deliver disc storage at one third the cost per megabyte, by Robert M. Batey, James D. Becker, pg 7-12

Disc Drive Error Detection and Correction Using VLSI...error correction resides entirely within the disc drive for better system performance, by Peter M. Galen, pg 12-13

Head Positioning in a Large Disc Drive...the objective was to move 14 heads up to 2.1 inches in less than 35 milliseconds and keep them within 75 microinches of the correct position, by R. Frank Bell, Eric W. Johnson, R. Keith Whitaker, Roger V. Wilcox, pg 14-20

Mechanical Design of a Large Disc Drive...a molded cabinet, modularity, and high-volume parts tooling reduce manufacturing time and cost, by James H. Smith, pg 20-22

High-Capacity Disc Drive Servomechanism Design...complicated servo performance issues were better resolved by separating them from structural constraints, by Stephen A. Edwards, pg 23-27

Speech Output for HP Series 80 Personal Computers...this module allows a computer to provide informative prompts and alarms, freeing the user from frequent attention to a display, by Loren M. Koehler, Timothy C. Mackey, pg 29-36

Speech Output for HP 1000 and HP 3000 Computer Systems, inserted in series with any RS-232-C peripheral, this module supplies audible information for many applications, by Elizabeth R. Hueftle, Jeffrey R. Murphy, pg 34-35


Cover: The five boards of the A900 processor

A New Series of High-Performance Real-Time Computers...the HP 1000 A-Series consists of three compatible processors rated at up to 3 MIPS. They use a new Real-Time Executive operating system and are available in board, box, and system configurations, by Marlu E. Allan, Nancy Schoendorf, Craig B. Chatterton, Don M. Cross, pg 3-6

An Adaptable 1-MIPS Real-Time Computer...the A700 offers user microprogramming, optional hardward floating-point, and optional error correcting memory, by David A. Fotland, Lee S. Moncton, Leslie E. Neft, pg 7-12

Designing a Low-Cost 3-MIPS Computer...it's done with pipelining, cache memory, and hardware floating-point but not ECL, by Donald A. Williamson, Steven C. Steps, Bruce A. Thompson, pg 12-17

Floating-Point Chip Set Speeds Real-Time Computer Operation...the add and multiply chips are fully combinational and produce a 64-bit result in 400 to 900 nonseconds, by William H. McAllister, John R. Carlson, pg 17-23

Comprehensive, Friendly Diagnostics Aid A-Series Troubleshooting...an interpretive diagnostic design language makes it easy to generate diagnostics to fit the applications, by Michael T. Winters, John F. Shelton, pg 23-26

New Real-Time Executive Supports Large Programs and Multiple Users...virtual code, code and data separation, and spooling are other features, pg 26-31

New Software Increases Capabilities of Logic Timing Analyzer...an upgraded operating software package increases the capabilities of an already powerful timing analyzer system to include statistics, marked events, postprocessing, and storage of captured trace data, pg 32-38


Cover: The system software for the HP 9000 Series 500 Computers

A New 32-Bit VLSI Computer Family: Part II - Software...based on HP's proprietary 32-bit VLSI NMOS-III technology, the HP 9000 Series 500 Computers use local area networking and HP-UX, HP's enhanced version of UNIX. An advanced version of BASIC that uses run-time compiling is available on the Model 520 integrated workstation, by Michael V. Hetrick, Michael L. Kolesar, pg 3-6

HP-UX: Implementation of UNIX on the HP 9000 Series 500 Computer Systems...this enhanced version of UNIX lets a user "port" software from one HP 9000 Computer to another and use software developed on other systems, by Scott W. Y. Wang, Jeff B. Lindberg, pg 7-15

What is UNIX?, by Michael L. Connor, pg 9

HP-UX: A Corporate Strategy, by Michael V. Hetrick, pg 12-13

An Interactive Run-Time Complier for Enhanced BASIC Language Performance...this technique adds compiled language performance while retaining BASIC's friendly interactive features, by David M. Landers, Timothy W. Tillson, Jack D. Cooley, Richard R. Rupp, pg 15-21

Preserving Programming Investment, by Gerrie L. Shults, pg 20-21

A Local Area Network for the HP 9000 Series 500 Computers...LAN 9000 alllows clustering of HP's latest computer workstations for computer-aided design and sharing of data and resources, by John J. Blaza, H. Michael Wenzel, James L. Willits, pg 22-27

Data Communications for a 32-Bit Computer Workstation...by emulating asynchronous terminals, the Model 520 can exchange data with other systems, by Vincent C. Jones, pg 24-25

A General-Purpose Operating System Kernel for a 32-Bit Computer System...this kernel provides a clean interface between an underlying sophisticated hardware system and high-level user systems, by Dennis D. Georg, Benjamin D. Osecky, Stephan D. Scheid, pg 28-34

A System Software Debugger, by Alan Silverstein, pg 32-33

The Design of a General-Purpose Multiple-Processor System...to coordinate the operation of symmetric processors requires some special hardware characteristics and hardware/software tradeoffs, by Benjamin D. Osecky, Dennis D. Georg, Robert J. Bury, pg 34-38

An I/O Subsystem for a 32-Bit Computer Operating System...this subsystem for Series 500 Computers has two main components - a file system and a set of device drivers, by Robert M. Lenk, Charles E. Mear, Jr., Marcel E. Meier, pg 38-41

Viewpoints: Coping with Prior Invention...what do you do when you find out that someone else invented your new technology first?, by Donald L. Hammond, pg 44


Cover: A metering pump from the solvent delivery system

Low-Dispersion Liquid Chromatography...low dispersion means it takes less sample, less solvent and less time; it's a term coined by HP and implemented in a new high-performance LC system, by Robert J. Jonker, Gerard P. Rozing, pg 3-8

Identification and Quantitation of PTH Amino Acids...the HP 1090 represents a major step forward in the analysis of these compounds, by Bernd Glatz, Rainer Schuster, pg 7-8

Design of the HP 1090 Control System...it's a hierarchical structure with an HP personal computer in command, by Herbert Wiederoder, Roland Martin, Juergen Ziegler, pg 8-13

A New Solvent Delivery System...precision pumps and an advanced control system deliver accurate flow rates over a 5000:1 range, by Wolfgang Geiger, Heinrich Vollmer, pg 13-21

Automatic Liquid Chromatograph Injection and Sampling...precise handling and injection provide high throughput and reduce costs, by Wolfgang Kretz, Hans-Georg Hartl, pg 21-24

Mobile Phase Preheater Ensures Precise Control of LC Column Temperature...column temperature has become an important separation parameter, by Helge Schrenker, pg 24-26

A Low-Cost LC Filterphotometric Detection System...it offers more flexibility and better detectability and selectivity then others in its class, by Axel Wiese, Bernhard Dehmer, Thomas Dorr, Gunter Hoschele, pg 26-30

A High-Speed Spectrophotometric LC Detector...it's designed for high-speed data acquisition and for qualitative and quantitative analyses using the latest columns, by Joachim Leyrer, Gunter E. Nill, Detiev Hadbawnik, Gunter Hoschele, Joachim Dieckmann, pg 31-41

New Technologies in the HP 1090 Liquid Chromatograph...some of the new technologies aren't so new, by Alfred Maute, pg 44


Putting a 32-Bit Computer System in a Desktop Workstation...a modular packaging approach provides a powerful computer workstation for computer-aided design and engineering applications, by Jack L. Burkman, Robert L. Brooks, Ronald P. Dean, paul F. Febvre, Michael K. Bowen, pg 3-11

Low-Tech Modeling for Better Design, by Steven R. Anderson, pg 6-7

The Toleranced Design of the Model 520 Computer, by Joseph R. Milner, pg 10-11

Color Graphics Display for an Engineering Workstation...this display has performance appropriate for HP's latest desktop computer, yet retains compatibility with graphics software developed on earlier computers, by Daniel G. Schmidt, pg 12-15

BASIC Language Graphics Subsystem for a 32-Bit Workstation...multiple device access, 3-D primitives, and input device tracking are some of the features, by Kenneth W. Lewis, Alan D. Ward, Xuan Bui, pg 16-19

Multiprogramming in Model 520 BASIC, by Robert J. Bury, pg 20-21

I/O Features of Model 520 BASIC...a transfer process for overlapped I/O and a unified I/0 resource concept improve performance and simplify programming, by Gary D. Fritz, Michael L. Kolesar, pg 21-24

A Compact, Reliable Power Supply for an Advanced Desktop Computer...this module can deliver 550W among 12 outputs and occupies a volume less than 400 cubic inches, by Jack L. Burkman, Howell R. Felsenthal, Thomas O. Meyer, Warren C. Pratt, pg 24-31

Compact 32-Bit System Processing Units...two package designs, 32-bit multiprocessor architecture and a sophisticated self-test system provide multiuser computer systems with a rugged, powerful, easy-to-service mainframe processing unit, by Kevin W. Allen, Paul C. Christofanelli, Robert E. Kuseski, Ronald D. Larson, David Maitland, Larry J. Thayer, pg 31-38


Cover: A typical IC wafer and the processed results of some measurements

A Parametric Test System for Accurate Measurement of Wafer-Stage ICs...special test instruction software and a hardware system fully characterized up to the measurement pins of the test head make this system easy to use for accurate parametric evaluations, by Yoh Narimatsu, Keiki Kanafuji, pg 3-8

Powerful Test System Software Provides Extensive Parametric Measurement Capabillity...an easy-to-use set of test instructions, "dry" switching of test relays, and a utility for specifying wafer probing patterns provide powerful support for users of HP's semiconductor test sytem, by Takuo Banno, pg 9-11

A High-Speed 1-MHz Capacitance/Conductance Meter for Measuring Semiconductor Parameters...this fast, high-resolution instrument is equipped with a built-in timer, a sweepable dc bias source, and a pulse generator for high-speed C-t and C-V measurements, by Tomoyuki Akiyama, Kenzo Ishiguro, pg 12-24

An Electronic Tool for Analyzing Software Performance...improving software performance requires measurement of program activity and duration under different conditions. This subsystem for the HP 64000 Logic Development System makes it easy to obtain such data, by Gail E. Hamilton, Andrew J. Blasciak, Joseph A. Hawk, Brett K. Carver, pg 26-32

Counter Module Simplifies Measurements on Complex Waveforms...this gated universal counter module provides counter accuracy to complement the HP 1980A/B Oscilloscope Meaurement System's flexible setup and display capabilities, by Donald J. Smith, Johnnie L. Hancock, Thomas K. Bohley, pg 33-40


Cover: The parts of the HP-71B Handheld Computer

A New Handheld Computer for Technical Professionals...this small computational tool functions both as a BASIC-programmable computer and as an advanced scientific calculator. Equipped with the appropriate modules, it can control instruments, store and retrieve data and programs, perform complex number and matrix calculations, or be used for software development, by Susan L. Wechsler, pg 3-10

Calculator Mode for a Handheld Computer, by Stephen Abell, pg 6-7

HP-IL Interface Module for the HP-71B Computer, by Nathan Zelle, Jackie Hunt, pg 8-9

Soft Configuraiton Enhances Flexibility of Handheld Computer Memory...this technique allows the CPU to reassign a device's address space and lets the user dedicate portions of RAM for independent use, pg 10-13

Custom CMOS Architecture for a Handheld Computer...a 4-bit CPU provides a 512K-byte address space and uses a 64-bit internal word size, by James P. Dickie, pg 14-17

Packaging the HP-71B Handheld Computer...an innovative combination of standard-manufacturing techniques allows a very compact design, pg 17-20

Module Adds Curve-Fitting and Optimization Capabilities to the HP-71B...this plug-in ROM can fit data to a variety of built-in functions, or, given a function of up to 20 variables, find values for local minima or maxima, by Stanley M. Blascow, Jr., James A. Donnelly, pg 22-24

ROM Extends Numerical Function Set of Handheld Computer...full use of complex variables, integration, matrix algebra, and polynomial root finding are some of the capabilities provided by this plug-in module, by Laurence W. Grodd, Charles M. Patton, pg 25-36

Plug-In Module Adds FORTH Language and Assembler to a Handheld Computer...this ROM adds an alternate programming language and the ability to define new BASIC keywords or FORTH primitives, by Robert M. Miller, pg 37-40


Cover: Diana Jillie using the HP 150 Touchscreen Personal Computer

Touchscreen Personal Computer Offers Ease of Use and Flexibility...this powerful 16-bit computer offers an industry standard operating system, many integrated software packages, high-resolution graphics, sophisticated data communications, built-in terminal capabillities, and of course - the touchscreen, by Srinivas Sukumar, pg 4-6

Operating System and Firmware of the HP 150 Personal Computer...the industry standard MS-DOS operating system makes available a large amount of software, by Laurie E. Pollero Wood, Charles H. Whelan, pg 6-10

The HP 150 Touchscreen: An Interactive User Input Device for a Personal Computer...it has adequate resolution, doesn't degrade the display and is reliable, by Peter R. Straton, Scott R. McClelland, Thomas E. Kilbourn, pg 11-15

Applications Software for the Touchscreen Personal Computer...HP-developed text editing, card file, graphics, spreadsheet, and calculator packages are designed to maximize the benefits of the touchscreen, by Peter S. Showman, Karl W. Pettis, Karlie J. Arkin, Jeffrey A. Spoelstra, John Price, W. Bruce Culbertson, Robert D. Shurtleff, Jr., pg 15-24

Hardware Design of the HP 150 Personal Computer...it's really two products - a computer and a terminal, by John E. Watkins, Patricia A. Brown, George Szeman, Susan E. Carrie, pg 25-30

Personal Computer Printer is User Installable...you just drop it into the top of the HP 150, by Joseph D. Barbera, pg 30-31

A Standard Keyboard Family for HP Computer Products...it's designed to meet ergonomic requirements, satisfy user preferences, be easily customized, and be produced in high volume at low cost, by Lorenzo Dunn, Michael R. Perkins, pg 34-36


Cover: The flags of many nations

Transmission Impairment Measuring Set Simplifies Testing of Complex Voice and Data Circuits...this new TIMS' comprehensive measurement capabilities and powerful master/slave mdoe offer Bell-standard telephone companies and data communications users faster, more reliable testing and troubleshooting, by David R. Novotny, Jeffrey Tomberlin, Charles P. Hill, James P. Quan, Gordon A. Jensen, Jerry D. Morris, pg 4-12

TIMS Mechanical Design, by Ernie Hastings, pg 10

Weight, Size and Noise Impact Power Supply and Disply Design, by Kurt R. Goldsmith, pg 12

Master/Slave TIMS Operation Increases Productivity...one skilled craftsperson and two TIMS can do the job, by Teresa L. Reh, pg 13-15

Testing the TIMS...innovative approaches ensure correct performance and reliability of hardware and software, by Allan W. Dodge, Scott S. Neal, Kurt R. Goldsmith, pg 15-18

Semiconductor Research Corporation: A Perspective on Cooperative Research...Hewlett-Packard and other U.S. makers and users of semiconductor devices join forces to support universities in an innovative microelectronics research program, by Richard A. Lucic, pg 19-25

A Hyphenation Algorithm for HPWord...originally developed for the Dutch version of HPWord, this pattern recognition algorithm can be adapted to hyphenate words in many different languages, by Paul R. Smit, pg 26-30

Designing Software for the International Market...a designer has to allow for differences in spelling, syntax, character sets, times, data formats, terminal capabilities, and many other factors, by Heather Wilson, Michael J. Shaw, pg 31-35


Cover: HP 3065 Board Test System

The HP 3065 Board Test Family: A System Overview...this board test system features menu-driven automatic test generation, high digital IC throughput, overdrive protection, multiple test stations, and networking capability, by Thomas R. Fay, John E. McDermid, pg 4-9

Confirmation-Diagnostics, by Randy W. Holmberg, pg 9

Automatic Test Program Generation for Digital Board Testing...the user is freed from having to assign test inputs and outputs and define test patterns for most devices, by Robert E. Balliew, pg 11-14

Digital Subsystem for a Board Test System...a keep/toggle vector definition scheme reduces storage requirements and increases test throughput, by Matthew L. Snook, Michael A. Teska, pg 14-20

Digital Test Throughput, by Thomas R. Fay, pg 16-17

Safeguarding Devices Against Stress Caused by In-Circuit Testing...built-in software takes care of this for the HP 3065 user, by Vance R. Harwood, pg 20-22

Extensive Library Simplifies Digital Board Test Setup...test routines for over 2700 common digital devices are part of the HP 3065 software, by Randy W. Holmberg, pg 23-25

An Interpreter-Based Board Test Programming Environment...this high-level language extends BASIC for use in defining circuit board tests, by Mark A. Mathieu, pg 25-28

Testing for Short-Circuit Failures...one has to separate random short-circuits from desired short-circuits and watch out for "phantoms", by T. Michael Hendricks, pg 28-30

Reducing Errors in Automated Analog In-Circuit Test Program Generation...careful design is required to generate correct tests for more than 90% of a board's components, by John E. McDermid, pg 31-36


An Advanced 5-Hz-to-200-MHz Network Analyzer...this instrument is a complete network analysis system containing an intetgrated three-input receiver subsystem, a graphics display, and a synthesized signal source. Softkey menus and a powerful operating system make it easy to set up and use, by Robert A. Witte, Jerry W. Daniels, pg 4-16

User-Defined Vector Math Expands Measurement Capabilities, by Kenneth M. Voelker, pg 8-9

A Broadband Two-Port S-Parameter Test Set...clever transformer and stripline designs allow operation over a frequency range of three decades and one octave, by William M. Spaulding, pg 17-20

An ADC for a Network Analyzer Receiver...this two-pass-conversion design allows a 12-bit ADC to cover a 17-bit dynamic range, by Alan J. Baker, pg 21-23

An Industrial Workstation Terminal for Harsh Environments...this terminal is designed to collect production data right at the source on the shop floor in adverse environmental conditions, by Jean Bounaix, Jean-Claude Dureau, Jacques Firdmann, pg 25-29

High-Quality, Dot-Matrix Impact Printer Family...easy paper handling, last-form tearoff, graphics, and a friendly control panel are some of the common features, by Mark J. DiVittorio, pg 30-32

Custom IC Controls Dot-Matrix Impact Printers...this custom integrated circuit performs the complex logic required for controlling the printwires and the printhead carriage motor in a family of high-performance serial dot-matrix printers, by Thomas B. Pritchard, David S. Lee, pg 33-36


Cover: HP 3561A Dynamic Signal Analyzer

Versatile Instrument Simplifies Dynamic Signal Analysis at Low Frequencies...analysis of low-frequency signals has many uses in electronic design, vibration studies, and acoustic measurements. This easy-to-use analyzer covers the range from 125uHz to 100 kHz and displays the data in several useful formats, by James S. Epstein, pg 4-11

Hardware Design for a Dynamic Signal Analyzer...a two-pass A-to-D converter, a pseudorandom noise dithering scheme, and custom digital filters are key elements, by James S. Epstein, Glenn R. Engel, Donald R. Hiller, Glen L. Purdy, Jr., Bryan C. Hoog, Eric J. Wicklund, pg 12-17

Instrument Software for Dynamic Signal Analysis...with many combinations of setup parameters to choose from, friendly softkey control and autocalibration are required. Overlapped processing provides the necessary speed, by Glenn R. Engel, Donald R. Hiller, pg 17-19

FFT Implementation, by Bryan C. Hoog, pg 20

Custom Digital Filters for Dynamic Signal Analysis...a paired-bit implementation increases processing speed without requiring a higher clock rate, by Charles R. Panek, Steven F. Kator, pg 28-35



Cover: HP-IL (Hewlett Packard Interface Loop)

HP-IL: A Low-Cost Digital Interface for Portable Applications...this Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop is a bit-serial interface bringing many capabilities formerly reserved for much larger computer systems to the growing repertoire of portable computers and handheld calculators, by Roger D. Quick, Steven L. Harper, pg 3-10

HP-IL Interconnect System...clever plugs and connectors and inexpensive two-wire cords connect HP-IL devices, by James H. Fleming, pg 8

The Electronics Interface for the Hewlett-Packard Interface Loop...this low-cost, low-power, serial interface uses two-wire cables, a three-level code, a CMOS IC, and small pulse transformers, by Carl J. Landsness, pg 11-16

A CMOS Integrated Circuit for the HP-IL Interface...this IC, available to OEM designers, makes it easy to add HP-IL capability to a product, by Steven L. Harper, pg 16-22

CMOSC: Low-Power Technology for Personal Computers...to meet the growing need for integrated circuits with more functions and lower power consumption, an improved CMOS process has been developed at HP's Corvallis Division, by Craig S. Lage, Norman L. Johnson, David E. Hackleman, John J. Vietor, Robert L. Tillman, pg 23-29

Advanced Oven Design Assures Repeatability in New Gas Chromatograph...an innovative oven design gives the chromatographer access to the full capabillities of the new fused silica capillary columns, by Douglas H. Smith, Paul C. Dryden, Horace R. Johnson, Jr., pg 30-34

What is Gas Chromatography?...here's some basic information for nonchemists, by Fred W. Rowland, pg 32-33

Electronic Flow Control: A New Level of Automation for Gas Chromatography...an innovative gas flow controller for the HP 5880A Gas Chromatograph offers a choice of pressure or mass flow control without instrument modificaiton and independent of the gas measured, by Michael A. Casale, Andrew J. Murphy, J. Edwin Cusack, Kurt B. Augenblick, pg 35-40


Cover: 3421A Data Acquisition/Control Unit

A Portable, Low-Cost, High-Performance Digital Multimeter for the HP-IL...HP's first HP-IL instrument is the result of new design and manufacturing approaches. This DMM electronically calibrates itself, measures ac and dc voltages and currents, makes four-wire and two-wire resistance measurements, and uses a liquid-crystal dispay to output data measurement units, and alphanumeric messages, by Jack P. Trautman, Lawrence A. Desjardin, pg 3-10

Low-Cost and Portability Come to Data Acquisition/Control Products...inexpensive, portable data logging with the flexibility of a data acquistion/control system is now within the budget of nearly everyone making transducer measurements, by James J. Ressmeyer, pg 10-16

Data Acquisition and Control Software for the 3421A Using the HP-85 Computer...this system provides easy-to-use data logging capability at low cost, by David F. Leonard, pg 13-14

Low-Cost Instrument Control:A New ROM for the HP-41 Handheld Computers...Now HP-41 users can control instruments to measure and analyze a variety of physical parameters on the bench or in the field, by David L. Wolpert, pg 16-19

Electronic Mail for the Interactive Office...here's how electronic mail is implemented on the HP 3000 Computer System. HPMAIL lets users who aren't familiar with computer technolog exchange messages effectively within their organization, by Ian J. Fuller, pg 20-29

Integrated Tools Improve Programmer Productivity...this software subsystem for the HP 3000 Computer System saves program development time by giving the programmer access to several utilities through a single command interpreter, by Anil K. Shenoy, Carolyn M. Bircher, pg 30-36


Cover: HP 64000 Logic Development System

Extensive Logic Development and Support Capability in One Convenient System...HP's 64000 Logic Development Systems gets closer to the concept of an "electronic bench". Real-time emulation, configuration flexibility, and integrated analysis functions are some features of this latest version of the 64000 System, by Michael W. Davis, John A. Scharrer, Robert G. Wickliff, Jr., pg 3-10

HP 64000 Terminal Software...now a logic development station can exchange data and programs with large computers, by Paul D. Bame, pg 6

The HP 64000 Measurement System...this software package can control and monitor any measurement operation in a 64000 System, by Kipper K. Fulghum, pg 8-9

Mainframe Design for an Integrated Engineering Workstation...you can take the new 64110A Station with you to solve field problems. Both 64000 System stations now have dual flexible disc drives, by Alan J. Devilbiss, Jeffrey H. Smith, Carlton E. Glitzke, pg 11-15

A Modular Analyzer for Software Analysis in the 64000 System...measuring software performance and tracing program flow is much easier with this new option, by Stan W. Bowlin, Steven R. Williams, Richard A. Nygaard, Jr., Frederick J. Palmer, Bryce S. Goodwin, Jr., pg 16-23

A Modular Logic Timing Analyzer for the 64000 System...a dual-threshold mode, glitch detection, and a variety of triggering functions are some of this option's features for the digital hardware designer, by Joel A. Zellmer, David L. Neuder, John E. Hanna, pg 23-30

Emulators for 16-bit Microprocessors...HP's second-generation of emulators provides design support for a variety of new 16-bit devices, by John P. Romano, David B. Richey, pg 31-38

High-Level Language Compilers for Developing Microprocessor Systems...choosing the right structure has important benefits for the user, by Joel D. Tesler, Martin W. Smith, pg 38-40


Cover: Laser Dimensional Measurement System

A New Microcomputer-Controlled Laser Dimensional Measurement and Analysis System...microcomputer control simplifies machine tool calibration. Other applications are in research and development, general-purpose metrology, and surface plate calibration, by Robert C. Quenelle, Lawrence J. Wuerz, pg 3-13

Dimensional Metrology Software Eases Calibration...an HP-85 Computer automates complex laser calibrations to save time and reduce errors, by Christopher Burns, Lawrence J. Wuerz, pg 4-5

Verifying the Laser Accuracy Specification, by Robert C. Quenelle, pg 8

Nonlinearity in Interferometer Measurements, by Robert C. Quenelle, pg 10

Automatic Compensation...sensors help the laser measurement system compensate for atmospheric conditions and material temperature, by Deane A. Gardner, pg 12

Laser Optical Components for Machine Tool and Other Calibrations...each optical component is designed to measure a particular degree of freedom of a machine tool, by Larry E. Truhe, David C. Woodruff, Richard R. Baldwin, pg 14-22

Manufacturing the Laser Tube...custom-designed machines automate the process to control quality at every step, by Richard H. Grote, pg 17-18

Mechanical Design Features of the Laser Head...low manufacturing cost and ease of repair are designed in, by Charles R. Steinmetz, pg 19-20

Noise Figure Meter Sets Records for Accuracy, Repeatability, and Convenience...noise figure measurements used to be mysterious, time consuming, difficult, and not very accurate but now this instrument makes them quick, accurate and easy, by Howard L. Swain, Rick M. Cox, pg 23-34

A Noise Source for Noise Figure Measurements, by Donald R. Chambers, pg 26-27

Verifying the 8970A's Accuracu in Production, by Harry Bunting, pg 28

Laboratory Notebook: Mass Storage Unit Exerciser...the problem was how to provide buil-in diagnositcs for a flexible disc drive that didn't come with them, by Jin-ichi Ikemoto, pg 35-36


Cover: HP 8673A synthesized Signal Generator

2-to-26.5-GHz Synthesized Signal Generator Has Internally Leveled Pulse Modulation...this second-generation instrument features microprocessor control, sophisticated sweep capabilities, programmability and enhanced serviceability, by William W. Heinz, Paul A. Zander, pg 3-9

Sample-and-Hold Leveling System...a logarithmic amplifer in the feedback loop reduces the effects of loop-gain variations, by Ronald K. Larson, pg 7

A Wideband YIG-Tuned Multiplier and Pulsed Signal Generation System...this system enhances output power and frequency range and reduces pulse rise time for HP's latest synthesized signal generator, by Lawrence A. Stark, Ronald K. Larson, pg 10-16

Autospeaking...a small amount of hardware and some microprocessor code adjusts a YIG-tuned multiplier to the center of its passband, by Paul A. Zander, pg 12-13

Compact Digital Cassette Drive for Low-Cost Mass Storage...this portable battery-operated unit uses minicassettes to store programs and data inexpensively for HP-IL systems, by David J. Shelley, William A. Buskirk, Charles W. Gibson, pg 17-24

Scientific Pocket Calculator Extends Range of Built-In Functions...matrix operations, complex number functions, integration, and equation solving are only some of the numerous preprogrammed capabilities of HP's lateset scientific calculator, the HP-15C, by Joseph P. Tanzini, Paul J. McClellan, Eric A. Evett, pg 25-35

A Pocket Calculator for Computer Science Professionals...this compact, yet powerful pocket calculator is designed for technical professionals working in computer science and digital electronics. Boolean operations and bit manipulation are some of its capabilities, by Eric A. Evett, pg 36-40


Cover: Magnetic card reader of the HP-75 Portable Computer

A Portable Computer for Field, Office, or Bench Applications...this lightweight, battery-powered computer has features that make it an ideal tool for the traveling professional, by Anthony S. Ridolfo, Donald E. Morris, Donald L. Morris, pg 3-9

A Telephone Interface for HP-IL Controllers...now you can access a remote computer system from your hotel room or a telephone booth, by Brian G. Spreadbury, Sidnee Snell, pg 5-6

HP-IL and the HP-75 Portable Computer...HP's interface loop lets the HP-75 control a variety of portable peripherals to store and receive data and print results, by Dennis C. York, pg 8-9

High-Capability Electronics Systems for a Compact, Battery-Operated Computer...here's how to pack a computer with an integral display and card reader into a small ESD-resistant package, by Elizabeth Brooks, Timothy F. Myers, Robert J. Livengood, Rex C. Smith, pg 10-15

Packaging a Portable Computer, by Lee S. Mason, Gary G. Lutnesky, pg 12

Electrostatic Discharge Protection for the HP-75, by Gregory J. May, pg 14

Handpulled Magnetic Card, Mass Storage System for a Portable Computer...behind the elegant, simple design of the HP-75's internal card reader is some clever engineering work, by Kenneth R. Hoecker, James R. Schwartz, Francis A. Young, Dean R. Johnson, pg 15-23

The HP-75 Production Card Recorder...to supply quality blank and application program cards in quantity is the job of this high-volume, ultrareliable system, by David B. Patton, pg 20-21

Integration of the HP-75's Handpulled Card Reader Electronics in CMOS...both analog and digital circuits are on a single IC, by Billy E. Thayer, Thomas J. Arnold, pg 24-26

A New Family of Pulse and Pulse/Function Generators...here are three compact, easy-to-use instruments with the versatility needed for analog and digital applications over wide frequency and amplitude ranges , by Helmut Rossner, Uwe Neumann, Michael Fleischer, pg 27-32

Feedback Amplifier Has Push-Pull Voltage Output Stage, by Michael Fleischer, pg 30

Designing Bipolar Integrated Circuits for a Pulse/Function Generator Family...the varied capabilities of the three instruments in this family begin with the same three ICs, by Volker Eberle, Stephan Traub, Horst Schweikardt, Christian Hentschel, Adolf Leiter, pg 33-38


Cover: Three views, at progressively finer resolution, of the timing diagram of a RAM

A High-Speed System for AC Parametric Digital Hardware Analysis...this new 50-MHz stimulus-response system is a state-of-the-art tool for comprehensive and rapid characterization of all types of digital circuits, by Andreas Wilbs, Klaus-Peter Behrens, pg 3-7

A High-Speed Data Generator for Digital Testing...it offers high timing accuracy, precise pulse-level definition, ease of operation, and versatility, by Werner Berkel, Heinz Nussle, Josef Becker, Ulrich Hubner, pg 7-14

High-Speed Data Analyzer Tests Threshold and Timing Parameters...two innovative features are programmable sampling point delay and real-time compare mode, by Bernhard Roth, Ulrich Schottmer, Martin Dietze, Dieter Kible, pg 14-25

What is Window Comparison?, by Martin Dietze, pg 15

Generation of Analog Voltages, by Bernhard Roth, pg 18

Testing the Key Specification of the 8182A, by Bernhard Roth, pg 20

Interfacing the Device Under Test, by Horst Link, pg 23

Data Analyzer Software/Firmware Design...a skilled task dispatcher makes full use of the interrupt structure of the CPU, by Roberto Mottola, Eckhard Paul, pg 25-28

Power Supplies for the Stimulus/Response System...the objectives were high load current and serviceability within a restricted space, by Ulrich Otto, Horst Link, pg 28-31

New Multi-Frequency LCZ Meters Offer Higher-Speed Impedance Measurements...these instruments, combined with an optional interface and a component handler, make production-line measurements of the impedance parameters of discrete electronic components rapidly and accurately at actual operating frequencies, by Takeshi Kyo, Toshio Tamamura, Tomio Wakasugi, pg 32-38


Cover: Finstrates

VLSI Technology Packs 32-Bit Computer System into a Small Package...the new HP 9000 Computer is a compact, highly capable 32-bit computer system that incorporates five very dense integrated circuits made by a highly refined NMOS process, by S. Dana Seccombe, Eugene R. Zeller, Joseph W. Beyers, pg 3-6

An 18-MHz, 32-Bit VLSI Microprocessor...this NMOS IC contains over 450,000 transistors, by Mark E. Hammer, Darius F. Tanksalvala, Kevin P. Burkhart, Mark A. Forsyth, pg 7-11

Instruction Set for a Single-Chip 32-Bit Processor...a stack-oriented design using segmentation forms this command set, by James G. Fiasconaro, pg 9

VLSI I/O Processor for a 32-Bit Computer System...this IC uses the same basic circuits as the CPU chip, by Fred J. Gross, Donald R. Weiss, William S. Jaffe, pg 11-14

High-Performance VLSI Memory System...this system provides 256K bytes of memory per card and has a bandwidth of 36M bytesis, by Joseph P. Fucetola, Clifford G. Lob, Mark A. Ludwig, Mark J. Reed, pg 14-20

18-MHz Clock Distribution System...a clock IC provides buffered two-phase, nonoverlapping clocks, by Clifford G. Lob, Alexander O. Elkins, pg 17

128K-Bit NMOS Dynamic RAM with Redundancy...extra rows and columns improve chip yield, by John R. Spencer, Dale R. Beucler, John K. Wheeler, Charlie G. Kohlhardt, pg 20-24

Polysilicon Link Fusing and Detection Circuit, by Douglas F. DeBoer, pg 23

Finstrate: A New Concept in VLSI Packaging...finstrate combines a copper fin for heat conduction and dissipation with a multilayer substrate for low-capacitance interconnection between ICs, by Glen E. Leinbach, Jeffery J. Straw, Guy R. Wagner, Arun K. Malhotra, pg 24-26

NMOS-III Process Technology...refractory metallization, external contact structures, 1.5 -um wide lines and 1.0- um spaces are used in this VLSI process, by Arun K. Malhotra, S. Dana Seccombe, Fung-sun Fei, James M. Mikkelson, pg 27-30

Polysilicon Link Design, by Wiliam C. Terrell, pg 28

Automated Parameter Testing, by Fredrick P. LaMaster, O. Douglas Fogg, pg 29

Two-Layer Refractory Metal IC Process...tungsten metallization reduces the risk of electromigration failure, by Daniel D. Kessler, Donald E. Novy, Jr., David W. Quint, Norman E. Hendrickson, James P. Roland, pg 30-32

Defect Control for Yield Improvement, by Lawrence A. Hall, pg 33

NMOS-III Photolithography...step-and-repeat optical lithography, two-layer resist, and pellicles are salient features, by Martin S. Wilson, Keith G. Bartlett, Howard E. Abraham, Gary L. Hillis, Mark Stolz, pg 34-37


A Color Presentation Graphics Workstation...here's a remarkable new workstation family for presentation graphics design, decision support graphics, and graphic art. It features powerful, easy-to-use application software and full block-mode terminal capabilities, by William R. Taylor, Kenneth A. Mintz, Catherine M. Potter, Sharon O. Mead, pg 3-8

A System for Creating Graphics Presentations, by John Alburger, Diane Rodriguez, pg 7

Designing Software for High-Performance Graphics...it had to offer advanced graphics features and yet be compatible with other HP graphics terminals, by Robert R. Burns, Dale A. Luck, pg 9-14

Logic Design for a Graphics Subsystem...dedicated graphics hardware provides a quick response time, by Craig W. Diserens, Curtis L. Dowdy, William R. Taylor, pg 15-18

A High-Resolution Color Monitor...it produces 4096 pure colors and is easy to align, by Paul G. Winninghoff, Mark Hanlon, Geoffrey G. Moyer

HP 2700 Power Supply, by Craig Diserens, pg 20

The Graphics Workstation as an Extensible Computer Terminal...the terminal subsystem provides an alphanumeric display, keyboard control, datacom, and local device control, by Thomas K. Landgraf, Stephen P. Pacheco, Paula H. Ng, Otakar Blazek, Edward Tang, pg 22-25

A Computer-Aided Test and Tracking System...the test system and the product were designed together, by Charles W. Andrews, Michael R. Perkins, Susan Snitzer, pg 25-28

Product Design of a Friendly Color Graphics Workstation...it doesn't intimidate the user because of its size, noise level, or apparent complexity, by Badir M. Mousa, Dennis C. Thompson, Kenneth D. Boetzer, Mark A. Della Bona, pg 28-29

AUTOPLOT/2700: A Single Approach to Custom Chart Generation...this software will make most of the decisions or leave them to the user, by John M. Perry, Stanley A. Balazer, pg 31-34

PAINTBRUSH/2700: A General-Purpose Picture Creator...whether novice or expert, the graphic artist can create pictures naturally and interactively, by John R. Alburger, Jim L. Davis, Diane A. Rodriguez, Barbara A. Stanley, pg 34-37


Cover: HP 77020A Ultrasound Imaging System

Ultrasound Imaging: An Overview...by using a beam of ultrasound, it is possible to look at organs and other structures inside the human body without breaking the skin, by Arthur M. Dickey, H. Edward Karrer, pg 3-6

History of HP's Ultrasound System...developing this complex system required the contributions of many people at Hewlett-Packard Laboratories and HP's Andover Division, by John T. Hart, pg 5

An Ultrasound Imaging System...this instrument views the internal organs and tissues of the human body in real time by directing a beam of short ultrasound pulses into the body and then receiving and processing the acoustic echoes to form a displayed image, by Lawrence W. Banks, pg 6-11

Quantitative Analysis for Ultrasound Imaging...this software allows the cardiologist or obstetrician to measure the length and calculate the area or volume of structures displayed by an ultrasound image, by Rachel M. Kinicki, pg 8-9

Transducer Test System Design, by George A. Fisher

A Physician's View of Echocardiographic Imaging...effectively applying the advantages of ultrasound imaging to medical diagnosis requires good equipment and training, by Richard L. Popp, M.D, pg 13-16

An Acoustic Transducer Array for Medical Imaging-Part I...the basic design and fabrication constraints are described, by John Larson, II, pg 17-22

An Acoustic Transducer Array for Medical Imaging-Part II...an equivalent circuit model simplifies the design process, by David G. Miller, pg 22-26

Transducer Test System Design...this automatic system simplifies the measurement of a variety of acoustic and electrical parameters, by George A. Fisher, pg 24-25

Radiated Power Characteristics of Diagnostic Ultrasound Transducers...accurate measurement of acoustic energy is important in ensuring patient safety, by Thomas L. Szabo, Gary A. Seavey, pg 26-29

A Scan Conversion Algorithm for Displaying Ultrasound Images...converting acoustic data in polar coordinates to an undistorted display in rectangular coordinates requires a special technique, by Steven C. Leavitt, Hugh C. Larsen, Barry F. Hunt, pg 30-34

Ultrasound Image Quality...many parameters affect the quality of an ultrasound image, by Richard J. Conrad, Richard A. Snyder, pg 34-38

Coherent Speckle in Ultrasound Images...this phenomenon is often misinterpreted, but with better understanding, could be used to characterize tissue by Paul A. Magnin, pg 39-40


Device-Independent Software for Business Graphics...new programs fortify the electronic office with a choice of graphics interfaces, by Yvonne Temple, pg 3-4

A Decision Support Chartmaker...two user interfaces satisfy the needs of both the nonprogrammer and the sophisticated user, by Richard J. Simms, Jr., Janet Elich Morris, pg 5-9

An Easy-to-Use Chartmaker...it's the simplest way for a nonprogrammer to get a professional-looking chart, by Robert W. Dea, Martha Seaver, Richard J. Simms, Jr, pg 10-12

Convenient Creation and Manipulation of Presentation Aids...draw figures freehand or choose them from a library, then edit them by point-and-push methods, by Janet Swift, Chayaboon Purnaveja, pg 13-17

Graphics Capabilities on a Laser Printer...printers do text documents and plotter produce graphics but this printer can do the whole job, by William J. Toms, James C. Bratnober, Tamara C. Baker, Gerald T. Wade, pg 17-22

Special Report: The Center for Integrated Systems...Hewlett-Packard is helping to launch a new research facility at Stanford and a new approach to industry-university relations in the USA, by Frederick H. Gardner, pg 23-30

Hewlett-Packard Journal Book Now Available


Cover: Fused Silica Columns

Control Hardware for an Ultrasound Imaging System...coordinating the various subsystems, peripherals, and operator commands for HP's diagnostic imaging system requires sophisticated controller hardware, by John N. Dukes, Janet R. Accettura, Richard H. Jundanian, pg 3-5

Ultrasound System Software...coordinating the operation of the complex subsystem in HP's ultrasound imaging system is a comprehensive software system using an internal bus based on the HP-IB, by Joseph M. Luszcz, William A. Koppes, Robert J. Kunz, David C. Hempstead, pg 6-13

Electronic Scanner for a Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer...this subsystem controls the transmission and reception of ultrasound pulses by 64 transducer elements to scan a 90 degree sector and collect data for an ultrasound image, by James T. Fearnside, Sydney M. Karp, Ronald D. Gatzke, pg 13-20

A Mixing Scheme to Focus a Transducer Array Dynamically...an architecture based on a common summing delay line eliminates the need for many separate delay lines, by Robert N. McKnight, pg 16-17

Display System for Ultrasound Images...this subsystem collects digital data from ultrasound scanning and physiological waveforms from other amplifiers and processes them for display in a rectangular raster-scan format, by James R. Mniece, Raymond G. O'connell, Alwyn P. d'Sa, pg 20-28

Fused Silica Capillary Columns for Gas Chromatography, by Thomas J. Stark, Bruce L. Ryder, Paul A. Larson



Cover: 1345A Graphics Display Module

Signal Processing Using Surface Acoustic Waves...if electrical signals are converted into minute acoustic waves on the surface of a piezoelectric crystal, the signals can be processed in novel ways for various electronic applications, by William R. Shreve, pg 3-8

Retrofitting for Signature Analysis Simplified...this microprocessor exerciser provides preprogrammed external stimulus routines and monitoring circuits for signature analysis troubleshooting of microprocessor-based systems, by Robert Rhodes-Burke, pg 9-16

A Family of Microprocessor Exercisers, by David Rick, Robert Welsh, Waymond Fong, pg 17-19

A Fast, Compact High-Quality Digital Display for Instrumentation Applications...small size, low cost, and a simple digital interface make it easier for designers to build this directed-beam CRT display into their electronic instruments, by William R. Mason, Kunio Hasebe, Thomas J. Zamborelli, pg 20-28


Cover: Model 8350A microwave Sweep Oscillator

A Broadband, Fully Programmable Microwave Sweep Oscillator...nearly thirty RF and microwave plug-in modules are available to tailor this high-performance swept signal source to a wide range of applications in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz, by Rolf Dalichow, Douglas E. Fullmer, pg 3-10

8350A Self-Test Capabilities, by Bill McDonald, pg 10

A New Series of Programmable Sweep Oscillator Plug-ins...one plug-in sweeps from 10 MHz to 26.5 GHz and there are many others, by Duaine C. Wood, Gary W. Holmlund, Glenn E. Elmore, pg 11-21

A Switched YIG-Tuned Multiplier Covering 0.01 to 26.5 GHz, by Lynn Rhymes, pg 15

A Frequency Doubler with High Output Power from 18 to 26.5 GHz, by Val Peterson, Jerry Orr, pg 17-18

A Broadband 2-to-7-GHz Power Amplifier, by Michio Furukawa, pg 20

Portable Defibrillator-Monitor for Cardiac Resuscitation...this new portable defibrillator monitors the patient, measures its effectiveness in delivering a high-voltage pulse to the patient, and provides a permanent record of the resuscitation procedure, by Victor C. Jones, Paul I. Bennett, pg 22-28


Cover: Hewlett Packard's largest computer, the HP 3000 Series 64

High-Performance Computing with Dual ALU Architecture and ECL Logic...this largest and fastest HP 3000 Computer System can handle all of the data processing needs of many companies, by Frederic C. Amerson, Mark S. Linsky, Elio A. Toschi, pg 3-12

Dual ALU Micromachine Has Powerful Development Tools...a single line of microcode controls two parallel processing units, by Richard D. Murillo, pg 5-6

Powerful Diagnostic Philosophy Reduces Downtime...a customer's computer can be fully diagnosed without making any trips to the site, by Richard F. Degabriele, David J. Ashkenas, pg 11-14

A High-Performance Memory System with Growth Capability...high-speed control store, cache memory and I/O buffers provide quick CPU access to needed data, by Malcolm E. Woodward, Ken M. Hodor, pg 15-17

An Input/Output System for a 1-MIPS Computer...I/O adapters match multiple I/O buses to the high-speed central system bus, by W. Gordon Matheson, J. Marcus Stewart, pg 18-21

The Advanced Terminal Processor: A New Terminal I/O Controller for the HP 3000...it's designed to handle up to 256 terminals generating 4000 characters/second with peaks to 20,000, by James E. Beetem, pg 22-25

GUEST-a Signature Analysis Based Test System for ECL Logic...it runs at real-time clock rates and generates test vectors algorithmically, by James L. Robertson, Edward R. Holland, pg 26-29

Designing for Testability with GUEST...the HP 3000 Series 64 and its tester were designed together, by Karen L. Meinert, pg 28

Packaging the HP 3000 Series 64...the goal was a cost-effective package that maximizes reliability and serviceability, by Bennie E. Helmso, Manmohan Kohli, pg 30-32


Cover: Model 3724A/25A/26A Baseband Analyzer

An Integrated Test Set for Microwave Radio Link Baseband Analysis...this instrument combines six traditional test instruments into one package for easy baseband measurements from 50 Hz to 18.6 MHz. An internal microprocessor simplifies test setup, improves accuracy, and enables the instrumentto check itself, by Richard J. Roberts, pg 3-7

Design of a Precision Receiver for an Integrated Test Set...different baseband measurements require different and often conflicting receiver characteristics. This design can be reconfigured by a microprocessor to resolve such conflicts, by J. Guy Douglas, David Stockton, pg 8-17

Control and Display System for a Baseband Analyzer...this system relieves the operator of the task of setting up various instruments for baseband analysis and displays results in both alphanumeric and trace formats, by Brian W. Woodroffe, Lawrence Lowe, pg 18-22

A Combined Tracking and White-Noise Generator...accurate sine-wave and white-noise stimuli are required for analyzing baseband signals and this generator provides both, by John R. Pottinger, Stephen A. Biddle, pg 22-25

Wideband, Fast-Writing Oscilloscope Solves Difficult Measurement Problems...a new expansion storage cathode ray tube and a wideband amplifier design extend the writing rate frontier to 2000 cm/us, by James F. Haley, Danny J. Oldfield, pg 26-32


Cover: Model 9386A and Model 9826A

Advanced Multilingual Computer Systems for Measurement Automation and Computer-Aided Engineering Applications...developing and running a test, measurement and control, or computer-aided engineering system is much easier if you have the right tool and these computer systems are designed specifically for such use, by David W. Palermo, John L. Bidwell, pg 3-7

9826A verus 9836A, by Steve Chorak, Jon Rubinstein, pg 4

Hardware Design for an Integrated Instrumentation Computer System...this desktop computer design in centered around a fast 16-bit microprocessor and integrated CRT display and flexible disc storage units, by James W. McLucas, Don D. Stewart, Robert J. Horning, Ronald G. Rogers, Ken L. Burgess, pg 7-17

Product Design for Easy Production, by Dave Brown, Pat Balliew, John Armour, pg 10-11

Instrument Burn-In, by Ken Fedraw, pg 15-16

I/O Philosophy and Architecture for Instrumentation Control...a nonstructured approach provides a new series of I/O cards that have improved performance at a lower cost, by Loyd F. Nelson, pg 17-21

Low-Cost Printers for the 9826A and 9836A Computers...this family of compatibly packaged thermal printers provides quality hard copy of alphanumeric text and graphics displays, by Michael J. Sproviero, pg 22-24

The 9826A/9836A Language Systems...BASIC, HPL, and a powerful version of Pascal can all be used by a single 9826A or 9836A Computer System, by Kathryn Y. Kwinn, Roger E. Ison, Robert M. Hallissy, pg 24-32

BCD Arithmetic on the 68000, by Andy Goris, pg 29

Data Communications for the 9826A and 9836A Computer Systems...the serial data communications interface handles many asynchronous protocols and drives a variety of RS-232-C peripherals, by Robert P. Uhlrich, Carl M. Dierschow, pg 33-36


Cover: Model 2680 Laser Printing System

Laser Printing System Provides Flexible, High-Quality, Cost-Effective Computer Output...used with the HP 3000 family of distributed data processing systems, this combination of powerful, interactive software and innovative, state-of-the-art hardware produces excellent print quality on notebook-size paper at 45 pages per minute, by James A. Hall, pg 3-8

Six Steps to a Printed Page...here are the details of the electrophotographic process used in HP's laser printing system, by Robert R. Hay, pg 6-7

Laser Printing System Architecture...it's based on the concept of a cell printer that can be of arbitrary rectangular size and contain any dot pattern, by James T. Langley, pg 8-10

Interactive Software for Intelligent Printers...two high-level software packages for the HP 3000 help the user design and format laser printer output, by Kathleen A. Fitzgerald, pg 10-16

Electrostatic Image Formation in a Laser Printer...the laser beam causes a pattern of charged and uncharged areas to be formed on the surface of a cylindrical drum, by Erwin H. Schwiebert, Paul R. Spencer, pg 16-20

Laser Printer Image Development System...in this discharged-area development system, electrostatic forces drive black toner into the drum areas exposed to the laser beam, by Thomas Camis, pg 20-24

Laser Printer Fusing System...after being transferred from the drum to the paper, the toner is made permanent by a novel heating method, by Roger D. Archibald, pg 24-26

Monitoring the Laser Printing Process...here's how the laser printer checks itself to maintain print quality for hundreds of thousands of pages, by Ronald A. Juve, David K. Donald, pg 26-30

Specialized High-Speed Electronics for Document Preparation Flexibility...this sophisticated controller harnesses the laser printing technology so its potential can be made easily available to the user, by Philip Gordon, pg 30-35

The People Who Made the Product...the 2680 program manager gives credit where it's due, by Billie J. Robison, pg 36


Cover: The disassembled cavity and tuning mechanism in front of the 8684B Singal Generator

Laser Printer Optics Control and Diagnostic Circuit...this system drives the laser-beam modulator and checks the optics module, by Gary L. Holland, pg 5

A Synchronous Mirror-Motor Drive for the Laser Printer...the scanning mirror sweeps the laser beam across the page and this circuit keeps it turning at constant speed, by Gary L. Holland, pg 8-9

Laser Printer Machine Control System...one of two electronic subsystems within the 2680A Laser Page Printer, the MCS monitors and controls the printing process. Its companion subsystem, the data control system or DCS, was described last month, by James D. Crumly, Von L. Hansen, pg 11-15

Optical System Design for the Laser Printing System...here are the details of the optical system of the 2680 Laser Printing System described in these pages last month, by Laurence M. Hubby, Jr., John R. Lewis, pg 3-10

Sensing Paper Jams...if the paper drive motor is going too fast or too slowly, the paper may have jammed or torn, by Gary L. Holland, pg 13

Solid-State Microwave Signal Generators for Today's Exacting Requirements...these manually tuned instruments match the extraordinary spectral purity of widely used HP klystron generators and beat them in modulation capability and accuracy, by Donald R. Chambers, Steven N. Sanders, pg 16-20

Automatic Testing of Manually Tuned Signal Generators,by James Thalmann, pg 17

High-Performance Wideband Cavity-Tuned Solid-State Oscillators...these novel designs use a pair of oscillator circuits coupled into a single high-accuracy tunable cavity, by Ronald F. Stiglich, Edward G. Cristal, Phillip G. Foster, Arthur N. Woo, pg 20-25

dc-Coupled FM for Microwave Signal Generator, by James Thalmann, pg 24

A Wide-Dynamic-Range Pulse Leveling Scheme...this design provides leveled output power over a range of 145 dB for both CW signals and pulses as narrow as 100 nonseconds, by James F. Catlin, pg 26-32

Microwave Solid-State Amplifiers and Modulators for Broadband Signal Generators...basic hybrid microcircuit designs are customized for each of four signal generator models, by Kim Potter Kihlstrom, pg 30-32


Viewpoints: IC Process Technology: VLSI and Beyond...the demand for ever-smaller device dimensions requires continual advances in IC fabrication techniques and this is where we stand today, by John L. Moll, Frederic N. Schwettmann, pg 3-4

Optical IC Lithography Using Trilayer Resist...a composite photoresist layer reduces exposure effects that degrade pattern definition and reduce resolution in optical IC lithography, by E. David Liu, Gary W. Ray, Michael M. O'Toole, pg 5-9

Silicon Integrated Circuits Using Beam-Recrystallized Polysilicon...melting a polysilicon layer by using an intense laser or electron beam can significantly improve the properties of the layer for semiconductor device fabrication. Novel vertical device structures can also be formed with this tenchique, by Theodore I. Kamins, pg 10-13

X-Ray Lithography...the shorter wavelengths of soft X-ray radiation make the definition of even smaller dimensions for VLSI circuits possible, by Garrett A. Garrettson, Armand P. Neukermans, pg 14-18

Dry Etching: An Overview...plasma etching technology has several advantages for IC processing compared to wet-chemical etching methods. Anisotropic etching and automatic endpoint detection are two of the advantages, by Paul J. Marcoux, pg 19-23

An Automated Plasma Reactor, by Susan Okada, pg 22

Thin Films Formed by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition...electrically exciting the gases used in a chemical vapor deposition process can reduce the sensitivity to temperature variations and allow deposition at lower temperatures, by Dragan B. Ilic, pg 24-27

Thin Gate Dielectric Films for VLSI MOS ICs: Thermal Silicon Oxynitride, by Tom Ekstedt, Hugh Grinolds, pg 26

Electromigration: An Overview...the lifetime of the very thin and narrow conductors used in VLSI circuits is largely determined by the operating current density and metallic composition is discussed, by Paul P. Merchant, pg 28-31

SWAMI: A Zero-Encroachment Local Oxidation Process...lateral oxidation limits density in oxide-isolated VLSI circuits. This process removes this limit by using a novel sequence of conventional processing techniques, by Kuang Yi Chiu, pg 31-32

Trench Isolation Technology, by Shang-yi-Chiang, pg 33

High-Pressure Oxidation...oxidation of silicon at atmosphere pressure requires considerable time and high temperatures that can be detrimental to the results of previous process steps. Increasing the oxidant gas pressure allows reduction of time and/or temperature for a desired oxide thickness, by William A. Brown, pg 34-36


Cover: 1980B Oscilloscope talking to an HP 9826A Computer in a lab bench test

Oscilloscope Measurement System is Programmable and Autoranging...this new concept in oscilloscopes is a signficant aid to measurement producitivty, by William B. Risley, pg 3-4

Designing the Oscilloscope Measurement System...the microprocessor brings the new dimension of programmability to the oscilloscope, by William E. Watry, Monte R. Campbell, Russell J. Harding, John R. Wilson, Wilhelm Taylor, pg 5-13

Custom Microcircuits Make the 1980A/B Possible, by William Duffy, John Meredith, Mike McTigue, pg 7

The Early History of the 1980A/B Oscilloscope Measurement System, by Zvonko Fazarinc, pg 14

The Design and Development of the 1980A/B at Colorado Springs, by William B. Risley, pg 14

Digital Waveform Storage for the Oscilloscope Measurement System...with this option, the oscilloscope measurement system can digitize, store, and transmit waveform data and receive waveform data from a computer to display, by Robert M. Landgraf, Eddie A. Evel, pg 15-20

Putting the Measurement System on the Bus...the oscilloscope is a latecomer to the world of interface-bus-compatible instruments, by Michael J. Karin, pg 21-24

Mechanical Design of the Oscilloscope Measurement System...except for one printed circuit borad, the same parts go into the two possible configurations, by John W. Campbell, pg 24-26

A High-Performance Bipolar Integrated Circuit Process...ion-implanted collector, base, and emitter regions in an oxide-isolated structure result in compact high-performance bipolar transistors with reduced power consumption for use in high-density integrated circuits, by Irene V. Pecenco, Albert S. Wang, pg 27-29

Synthesizer Accuracy for Unsynthesized Microwave Sources...this source synchronizer stabilizes microwave sources to provide accurate continous-wave or swept-frequency outputs. It also provides a high-performance microwave counter, by V. Alan Barber, pg 30-36


Cover: 4145A Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer

Intelligent Instrument Streamlines Do Semiconductor Parameter Measurements...used as a stand-alone instrument or as part of an automated test system, this smart curve tracer makes it easy to measure, analyze, graphically display, and store dc semiconductor parameters, by Fumiro Tsuruda, Kohichi Maeda, Teruo Takeda, Jin-ichi Ikemoto, pg 3-15

Extending the 4145A's Output Range for Power Transistor Measurements, by Michitaka Obara, pg 10-11

Programmable Stimulus/Measurement Units Simplify Device Test Setups...each SMU can be electronically set to supply a specified voltage or current and to measure the associated current or voltage, by Susumu Takagi, Hiroshi Sakayori, Teruo Takeda, pg 15-20

HQMOS: A High-Performance NMOS Technology...innovative processing methods are used to fabricate a scaled-down version of a standard n-channel MOS process, resulting in lower power consumption and higher speed, by Roger To-hoi Szeto, Devereaux C. Chen, Horng-sen Fu, Anders T. Dejenfelt, pg 21-27

MOS Device and Process Design Using Computer Simulations...by using carefully developed computer models, IC device performance can be accurately simulated and the effects of process changes predicted, saving time and expense in new product design and development, by Soo-young Oh, pg 28-32


Cover: 5180A Waveform Recorder and the digitizer hybrid circuit

Waveform Recording with a High-Dynamic-Performance Instrument...this new waveform recorder digitizes and stores single-shot or repetitive signals. Its ten-bit, 20 MHz analog-to-digital converter delivers exceptional performance that is fully specified and characterized under realistic operating conditions, by Mark S. Allen, James L. Sorden, pg 3-9

Designing a Ten-Bit, Twenty-Megasample-per-second Analog-to-Digital Converter...custom hybrid and integrated circuits accurately sample and digitize a signal in forty nanoseconds, by Robert C. Rehner, Jr., Arthur S. Muto, Bruce E. Peetz, pg 9-20

A 40-MHz Input Amplifier, by Pat Deane, pg 18-19

Measuring Waveform Recorder Performance...realistic dynamic tests are the key to user confidence in the quality of the recorded waveshape, by J. Martin Neil, Bruce E. Peetz, Arthur S. Muto, pg 21-29

Time Base Requirements for a Waveform Recorder...time base instability causes the time between samples to vary. Amplitude errors are the result, by Steven C. Bird, Jack A. Folchi, pg 29-34

Display and Mass Storage for Waveform Recording...this waveform recorder companion provides functions needed in many applications, by Michael C. Detro, Christina M. Szeto, pg 34-36


Cover: HP-86 Personal computer and the 7470A Plotter

Extended Memory and Modularity Are Added to the Series 80 Computer Family...HP's newest Series 80 computers, the HP-86 and HP-87XM, provide memory capacities up to 640K bytes, different combinations of built-in interfaces, and for the HP-86, a modular system configuration, by Andrew W. Davidson, William R. Frolik, John T. Eaton, pg 3-7

Module Brings CP/M to HP's Latest Series 80 Computers...this small computer system plugs into the HP-86 and HP-87XM Computers to allow them to use the wide variety of CP/M-compatible software available to the personal computer user, by Timothy V. Harper, pg 8-11

Development of a Low-Cost, High-Quality Graphics Plotter...a novel plotting technology and a design for low manfacturing cost have resulted in an inexpensive X-Y plotter capable of fast, high-resolution, graphics output, by Majid Azmoon, pg 12-15

Manufacturing team in the R&D; Lab, by Bob Porcelli, pg 13

Controlling a Graphics Plotter with a Handheld Programmable Calculator...the plotter is the 7470A and the calculator is the HP-41C, by Robert M. Miller, Randy A. Coverstone, pg 16-18

Hewlett Packard Journal Index for 1982, pg 19-22

Low-Cost Plotter Electronics Design...custom servo ICs and gate array logic circuits allow a single-board design, by David M. Ellement, Neal J. Martini, Peter L. Ma, pg 23-26

Plotter Drive Motor Encoder Design...this compact optical encoder is installed inside the drive motor housing, by Arthur K. Wilson, Daniel E. Johnson, pg 26-27

Graphics Plotter Mechanical Design for Performance and Reliability at Low Cost...a grit-wheel paper drive, low-mass pen carriage, and electronic limit sensing provide an elegant, simple and accurate plotting mechanism, by David C. Tribolet, Chuong C. Ta, Robert J. Porcelli, Richard M. Kemplin, David M. Petersen, pg 28-33

An Improved AC Power Switch...turning ac power on and off isn't always as simple as it seems. Here's an ac power controller that is safe, reliable, long-lived, digitally controlled, and interference-free, by Raymond A. Robertson, pg 34-40



Cover: Model 82153A digital bar-code wand for use with the HP-41C Calculator

Handheld Scanner Makes Reading Bar Codes Easy and Inexpensive...this lightweight wand contains the light source, reflected-light senor and digital signal shaping circuitry needed for scanning bar-code patterns reliably, by Edward G. Weaver, Jr., Donald L. Lubin, John J. Uebbing, pg 3-10

Reading Bar Codes for the HP-41C Programmable Calculator...a new accessory for HP's most powerful handheld calculator quickly enters data and programs from printed bar code, by David R. Conklin, Thomas L. Revere, III, pg 11-14

A High Quality Low-Cost Graphics Tablet...it enables the user to interact easily with a computer graphics system to generate illustrations using predefined and user-defined shapes, point-to-point plotting and continuous line drawing or tracing, by Donald J. Stavely, pg 15-24

Capacitive Stylus Design...the stylus for the 9111A Graphics Tablet is slim, rugged and provides tactile feedback, by Susan M. Cardwell, pg 17

Programming the Graphics Tablet...software packages for several HP computers use the tablet's built-in capabilities to create diagrams, figures and charts, by Debra S. Bartlett, pg 20-21

Tablet/Display Combination Supports Interactive Graphics...a graphics tablet combined with vector-scan display system provides a powerful, inexpensive graphics workstation, by David A. Kinsell, pg 22-23

Programming for Productivity: Factory Data Collection Software...DATACAP/1000 is a software tool for designing and managing data collection networks. Running on an HP 1000 Computer System, it is flexible, easy to use, and compatible with user-written routines, by Steven H. Richard, pg 25-31

A Terminal Management Tool...it provides a reentrant environment for HP 1000 Computers, simplifying the development of multiterminal applications, by Francois Gaullier, pg 30-31


Cover: Model 8662A Synthesized Signal Generator

A High-Purity, Fast-Switching Synthesized Signal Generator...when the lowest possible noise is a critical requirement for a programmable frequency source, this generator can do the job,, by Roland Hassun , pg 3-7

Digital Control for a High-Performance Programmable Signal Generator...front-panel, internal and remote control of a complex instrument calls for a microprocessor-based controller, by Hamilton C. Chisholm, pg 8-11

8662A Power-On and Self-Test Sequences...the ROM and RAM tests have some clever twists, by Albert W. Kovalick, pg 9-10

Low-Noise RF Signal Generator Design...seven phase-locked loops and some innovative techniques did the job, by Dieter Schrer, Donald W. Mathiesen, Fred H. Ives, Bill S. Chan, William J. Crilly, Jr, pg 12-22

A Switching Power Supply for a Low-Noise Signal Generator...an unusual hcoice, because of switching noise, but the benefits outweighed the problems, by Gerald L. Ainsworth, pg 20

A High-Purity Signal Generator Output Section...this section supplies a low-noise output with unprecedented level accuracy, by Donald T. Borowski, David L. Platt, pg 22-27

Product Design for Precision and Purity...shielding and reliability are major considerations, by Robert L. Devries, pg 28-30

Verifying High Spectral Purity and Level Accuracy in Production...the question is how to test a state-of-the-art product without losing production-line efficiency, by John W. Richardson, pg 30-32


Cover: A piece of cultured (laboratory-grown) quartz

New Display Station Offers Multiple Screen Windows and Dual Data Communications Ports...this versatile computer terminal can act like four virtual terminals and it's designed for data entry and program development, by Gary C. Stass, pg 3-8

Display Station's User Interface is Designed for Increased Productivity...easy access to an extensive feature set requires a thorough, thoughtful approach to the user interface, by Gordon C. Graham, pg 8-12

Hardware and Firmware Support for Four Virtual Terminals in One Display Station...the goals were 2645A compatibility, improved price/performance and reliability and ease of use, manufacturing and service, by John D. Wiese, Srinivas Sukumar, pg 13-15

A Silicon-on-Sapphire Integrated Video Controller...integration was considered mandatory to make the display system practical and reliable, by Jean-Claude Roy, 16-19

SC-Cut Quartz Oscillator Offers Improved Performance...this compact oscillator is designed to serve as a built-in precision frequency source. New technology and packaging provide lower power consumption, faster warmup, better stability and lower phase noise, by Robert L. Wilson, J. Robert Burgoon, pg 20-29

The SC Cut, a Brief Summary...first introduced in 1974, the stress compensated cut as has many virtues, by Charles A. Adams, John A. Kusters, pg 22-23

Flexible Circuit Packaging of a Crystal Oscillator...selectively stiffened flexible circuitry is a radical approach that meets tough objectives, by James H. Steinmetz, pg 26-28

New Temperature Probe Locates Circuit Hot Spots...use it with any general-purpose digital multimeter and some HP oscilloscopes to get readings directly in degrees Celsius, by Marvin F. Estes, Donald Zimmer, Jr., pg 30-32


Cover: Materials Management/3000

An Interactive Material Planning and Control System for Manufacturing Companies...drawing on HP's own experience, this powerful software for the HP 3000 Computer makes it easier to deal with the complexities of operating a manufacturing company, by Robert M. Steiner, Nancy C. Federman, pg 3-12

A Novel Approach to Computer Application System Design and Implementation...the Application Customizer helps designers construct generalized application systems and gives users tools to tailor these systems to their own research, by Loretta E. Winston, pg 13-18

Automating Application System Operation and Control...the Application Montior schedules, initiates and controls all interactive and background activities in an application system, by Barry D. Kurtz, pg 19-22

Precision DVM Has Wide Dynamic Range and High Systems Speed...this digital voltmeter makes precision laboratory measurements with 100-nanovolt dc resolution and two-ppm linearity. Variable integration time allows four-digit meaurements at 300 readings per second, by Charles A. Clark, James J. Ressmeyer, Lawrence T. Jones, pg 23-32


Cover: The exposure end of HP's Electron Beam Lithography System

A Precision High-Speed Electron Beam Lithography System...this very fast electron beam system is designed for mask making or direct writing on wafers in an integrated circuit production environment, by Ronald K. Scudder, John C. Eidson, Wayne C. Haase, pg 3-13

Electron Beam Lithography, by Frank Ura, pg 5

A Precision, High-Current, High-Speed Electron Beam Lithography Column...the column's field emission electron gun contributes to the system's high speed, by Heui Pei Kuo, John Kelly, Timothy R. Groves, pg 14-20

A Precision X-Y Stage and Substrate Handling System for Electron Beam Lithography...this systems positions wafers and masks within 16 nanometres of the desired position, by Charles L. Merja, Earl E. Lindberg, pg 16-18

Software Control for the HP Electron Beam Lithography System...a large, complex software package makes the system's capabilities readily available to the user, by Bruce Hamilton, pg 21-23

Pattern Data Flow in the HP Electron Beam System...the pattern data turns the electron beam on and off at rates as high as 300 MHz, by Howard F. Lee, Michael J. Cannon, Robert B. Lewis, pg 24-27

Calibration of the HP Electron Beam System...precision is achieved by measuring distortions and correcting them with software and electronics, by Geraint Owen, Faith L. Bugely, Ian F. Osborne, Robert B. Schudy, pg 27-33

Digital Adaptive Matched Filter for Fiducial Mark Registration...detecting registration marks on substrates is a problem of extracting a known signal from noise, by Tsen-gong Jim Hsu, pg 34-36


Cover: VLSI Design and Artwork Verification

Viewpoints: Marco Negrete on Structured VLSI Design, pg 3-4

VLSI Design Strategies and Tools...a survey of present approaches and possible future directions at Hewlett Packard, by Daniel J. Griffin, William J. Haydamack, pg 5-12

Advanced Symbolic Artwork Preparation (ASAP)...ASAP is the top end of HP's bipolar design methods, by P. Kent Hardage, Kyle M. Black, pg 8-10

Design and Simulation of VLSI Circuits...logic simulators, circuit simulators, and schematic editors aid the designer, by Richard I. Dowell, Ravi M. Apte, Louis K. Scheffer, pg 12-18

Transistor Electrical Characterization and Analysis Program (TECAP)...more accurate models are needed as sumulation becomes more important, by Ebrahim Khalily, pg 16-17

An Interactive Graphics System for Structured Design of Integrated Circuits...multilevel sumbolic representation and incremental design rule checking facilitate the creation of physical IC layouts, by William J. McCalla, Diane F. Bracken, pg 18-25

IC Layout on a Desktop Computer...this small but powerful system has many of the capabilities of IGS and is compatible with it, by Thomas H. Baker, pg 20-21

VLSI Design and Artwork Verification...geometric and circuit level checking verify proper operation, by Michael G. Tucker, William J. Haydamack, pg 25-29

University and Industrial Cooperation for VLSI...the benefits flow in both directions, by Merrill W. Brooksby, Patricia L. Castro, pg 29-33

A Process Control Network...many small computers smooth the flow of wafers and help make processes transportable, by Christopher R. Clare, pg 30-31

Benefits of Quick-Turnaround Integrated Circuit Processing...going quickly from designs to chips aids the design process and improves yields, by Patricia L. Castro, Merrill W. Brooksby, Fred L. Hanson, pg 33-35

Viewpoints: David Packard on University and Industry Cooperation, pg 36


Cover: Model 3054A Automatic Data Acquisition and Control System

Instrument System Provides Precision Measurement and Control Capabilities...measurement and control instruments are integrated in a system package designed for easy use in data acquisition and control situations, by Virgil L. Laing, pg 3-8

Precision Data Acquisition Teams up with Computer Power...this data acquisition/control system includes HP's most powerful technical computer, by Lawrence E. Heyl, pg 6

Data Logging is Easy with an HP-85/3054A Combination...here's a compact data recording and display system with easy-to-use software, by David L. Wolpert, pg 7-8

Versatile Instrument Makes High-Performance Transducer-Based Measurements...this instrument serves as the eyes, ears, and hands for a computer-controlled system that acquires data from transducers and controls equipment and processes, by Thomas J. Heger, James S. Epstein, pg 9-15

Plug-in Assemblies for a Variety of Data Acquisition/Control Applications...there are units for multiplexing, counting, digital and analog inputs and outputs, and thermocouple measurements, among others, by Thomas J. Heger, Patricia A. Redding, Richard L. Hester, pg 16-22

Desktop Computer Redesigned for Instrument Automation...combining the system development ease of a desktop computer with the configuration flexibility of a board computer provides the instrumentation system designer with a new alternative for automation, by Vincent C. Jones, pg 23-32

A Unifying Approach to Designing for Reliability...strife testing can help the designer realize a more reliable product, by Kenneth F. Watts, pg 24-25

Designing Testability and Serviceability into the 9915A...a computer that tests itself makes it easier to diagnose and fix system problems, by David J. Sweetser, pg 27

Operator Interface Design...you don't get a keyboard or CRT display with a modular computer, but you can add them if you want to, by Robert A. Gilbert, pg 29-30

Cost-Effective Industrial Packaging...a rugged low-cost package is essential for a modular computer, by Eric L. Clarke, pg 31


Cover: HP powe MOSFET fits in the schematic diagram of a 65000A Power Supply

200-kHz Power FET Technology in New Modular Power Supplies...these small, reliable 50-watt supplies are designed for OEM (original equipment manufacturer) use anywhere in the world, by Richard Myers, Robert D. Peck, pg 3-9

Magnetic Components for High-Frequency Switching Power Supplies...the goals were small size, 200-kHz operation, safety, and semiautomated manufacturing, by Winfried Seipel

Laboratory-Performance Autoranging Power Supplies using Power MOSFET Technology...state-of-the-art components and circuit design enable this new generation of laboratory and system supplies to set new standards for performance and flexibility, by John W. Hyde, Dennis W. Gyma, Paul W. Bailey, Daniel R. Schwartz, pg 11-17

The Vertical Power MOSFET for High-Speed Power Control...a vertical semiconductor device structure provides a power MOSFET that can switch high currents and voltages very rapidly which makes it useful for power supplies, pulse drivers and switching amplifiers, by Victor Li, Dah Wen Tsang, Robert L. Myers, Karl H. Tiefert, pg 18-24

Power Line Disturbances and Their Effect on Computer Design and Performance...noise induced on the ac power line by machinery, lightning, and even appliances can be deterimental to computer performance. By becoming familiar with the nature of the noise and its causes, the designer and user can take steps to minimize the effect on computers, by Arthur W. Duell, W. Vincent Roland, pg 25-32


Cover: HP Model 47210A Capnometer

A Reliable, Accurate CO2 Analyzer for Medical Use...measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in a patient's breath is an important medical diagnostic tool. This instrument makes the measurement quickly and easily without cumbersome calibration requirements, by Rodney J. Solomon, pg 3-21

A Miniature Motor for the CO2 Sensor...the rotor contains optical elements, is the size of a coin, and rotates at 2400 r/min, by Edwin B. Merrick, pg 8

An End-Tidal/Respiration-Rate Algorithm...an infrared absorption signal is processed digitally to yield CO2 level and rate of breathing, by John J. Krieger, pg 12-13

In-service CO2 Sensor Calibration...quick and easy calibration is essential for a medical instrument, by Russell A. Parker, Rodney J. Solomon, pg 16-18

Making Accurate CO2 Measurements...this system produces accurate gas mixtures for CO2 sensor calibration, by John J. Krieger. pg 19-20

A Versatile Low-Frequency Impedance Analyzer with an Integral Tracking Gain-Phase Meter...this instrument measures impedance parameters, gain, phase, and group delay of individual components, circuit sections, and complete circuits. The measurements are automatic, wideband, and made under variable frequency and/or dc bias voltage conditions, by Kanuyaki Yafi, Takeo Shimizu, Yoh Narimatsu, pg 22-28

A Fast, Programmable Pulse Generator Output Stage...a new pulse generator supplies fast-transition pulses for testing 100k ECL, advanced Schottky TTL and other fast logic families, by Peter Aue, pg 29-32


Cover: A portion of the recording mechanism of the 4700A Cardiograph

Development of a High-Performance, Low-Mass, Low-Inertia Plotting Technology...a new vector plotter technology makes possible small, inexpensive graphics products that provide high-quality plots quickly, by Charles E. Tyler, Lawrence Labarre, Wayne D. Baron, Robert G. Younge, pg 3-7

Plotter Servo Electronics Contained on a Single IC...this integrated circuit chip greatly simplified the design of products using HP's new plotting technology, by Clement C. Lo, pg 8-9

An Incremental Optical Shaft Encoder Kit with Integrated Optoelectronics...this kit can be assembled easily by an OEM to provide accurate digital information about shaft position and velocity in digitally controlled electromechanical systems, by John J. Uebbing, Mark G. Leonard, Howard C. Epstein, pg 10-15

New Plotting Technology Leads to a New King of Electrocardiograph...a low-mass, low-inertia plotting mechanism provides high-quality ECG's in a variety of convenient formats, by Peter H. Dorward, Martin K. Mason, Steven J. Koerper, Steven A. Scampini, pg 16-24


Cover: 7580A Drafting Plotter

Development of a Large Drafting Plotter...developing a large X-Y plotter that provides drafting-quality drawings, requires minimal floor space and costs less than half comparable machines was not easy. This article outlines the history and performance features of HP's largest X-Y plotter, by George W. Lynch, Marvin L. Patterson, pg 3-7

Aspects of Microprocessor and I/O Design for a Drafting Plotter...the use of a powerful microprocessor allows the designer to provide desirable features without increasing the complexity of the hardware, by Neal J. Martini, Hatem E. Mostafa, Dale W. Schaper, Lowell J. Stewart, pg 7-11

Motor Drive Mechanics and Control Electronics for a High-Performance Plotter...HP's low-mass, low-inertia design greatly simplifies the mechanical drive and servo control electronics, by Myungsae Son, Terry L. Flower, pg 12-15

Firmware Determines Plotter Personality...this firmware provides drafting-quality lettering, keeps track of pens and plotting parameters, and minimizes the need for operator adjustments, by Mark A. Overton, Larry W. Hennessee, Richard B. Smith, Andrea K. Frankel, pg 16-25

Y-Axis Pen Handling System...an adaptive pen-lift mechanism, automatic pen selection and storage, and a sturdy drive system are key elements of this design, by David J. Perach, Samuel R. Haugh, Robert D. Haselby, pg 25-32

X-Axis Micro-Grip Drive and Platen Design...moving paper accurately with grit-covered wheels requires careful attention to platen design and grit-wheel fabrication, by Ronald J. Kaplan, Robert S. Townsend, pg 33-36


Cover: a 280-megahertz SAW resonator

Surface-Acoustic-Wave Delay Lines and Transversal Filters...novel, simple and compact electronic devices can be realized by exciting and detecting acoustic waves electrically on the surface of a solid. Tehcnological advances in low-loss delay lines and bandpass filters are discussed, by William R. Shreve, Waguih S. Ishak, H. Edward Karrer, pg 3-8

Surface-Acoustic-Wave Resonators...by reflecting acoustic waves back and forth on the surface of a crystal one can obtain resonant devices for frequencies in the UHF range, by Scott S. Elliott, Peter S. Cross, pg 9-17

SAWR Fabrication...the process used to make surface acoustic-wave resonators is similar in many ways to the processes used to make integrated circuits, by Robert C. Bray, Yen C. Chu, pg 11-13

280-MHz Production SAWR...it's the first SAW component designed for use in an HP instrument, by Marek E. Mierzwinski, Mark E. Terrien, pg 15-16

Physical Sensors using SAW Devices...novel force and pressure transducers sense the effects of mechanical stress on surface wave velocity and resonant frequency, by J. Fleming Dias, pg 18-20

Proximity Effect Corrections by Means of Processing: Theory and Applications...HP's electron beam lithography system has been used to evaluate methods of reducing the unwanted effects of electron scattering, by Paul Rissman, Michael P.C. Watts, pg 21-27

Monte Carlo Simulations for Electron Beam Exposures...a computer model of electron scattering aids research into this effect, by Armand P. Neukermans, Steven G. Eaton, pg 24



Cover: Model 4191A RF Impedance Analyzer

Automated Testing of PCM Communications Equipment with a Single Self-Contained Instrument...microprocessor control of multiple sources and detectors within this compact instrument achieves a new level of automation for voice-channel measurements in PCM multiplex equipment, by Mark Dykes, Andrew Batham, Virgil Marton, Robert Pearson, Mike Bryant, pg 3-15

Software for an Automatic Primary Multiplex Analyzer...the built-in programs are at the heart of the Primary Multiplex Analyzer's capabilities, by Mark Dykes, pg 16-21

Vector Impedance Analysis to 1000 MHz...this new impedance analyzer measures fourteen impedance parameters of two-terminal components, by Toshio Ichino, Noriyuki Sugihara, Hideo Ohkawara, pg 22-32


Cover: 8450A Spectrophotometer

Design and Performance of a Highly Integrated Parallel Access Spectrophotometer...this innovative ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometer solves many chemical analysis problems that were impossible for older photometric technology, by Barry G. Willis, pg 3-11

Analysis for Metals, by Gerald E. James, pg 5

Chemical Identification, by Gerald E. James, pg 6

Pharmaceutical Formulations Analysis, by Gerald E. James, pg 7

Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Steroids, by Barry G. Willis, pg 8

A Task-Oriented Approach to Spectrophotometry...the user specifies the measurement and the data reduction and display parameters and gets answers in the desired format, by Barry G. Willis, Arthur Schleifer, pg 11-17

An Optical System for Full-Spectrum Measurements...unusual features are a folded configuration, elliptical mirrors, and holographic diffraction gratings, by Alfred Schwartz, George W. Hopkins, pg 17-20

Light Detection and Measurement in a High-Performance Spectrophotometer...proprietary detectors and a low-noise, high-resolution readout system measure light at 401 wavelengths in one second, by Robert W. Widmayer, Knud L. Kundsen, pg 20-24

Servo-Controlled Beam Director Provides Major Benefits...it solves many manufacturing problems and provides many user conveniences, by Lynn Weber, Mark P. Morganthaler, pg 24-28

A Microcomputer System for Spectrophotometric Data Processing...it turns large amounts of data into useful information and makes the 8450A a friendly machine, by Glenn C. Steiner, pg 29-31

How the 8450A Was Developed...here are the people and the technological milestones that produced this new spectrophotometer, by Richard E. Monnier, pg 31-32


Cover: HP-41C

Powerful Personal Calculator System Sets New Standards...customize this advanced new handheld calculator by plugging in extra memory, a magnetic card reader, a printer and application modules, by David R. Conklin, Bernard E. Musch, John J. Wong, pg 3-12

Packaging the HP-41C...the liquid crystal display made it interesting for the package designers, by Gerald W. Steiger, pg 7

Card Reader Offers Compatibility and Expanded Capability...more powerful and useful than its predecessors, the HP-41C card reader can read cards written by earlier HP personal calculators, by Patrick V. Boyd, David J. Lowe, pg 12-15

Evolutionary Printer Provides Significantly Better Performance...as the power of a calculator increases, so must the abilities of its printer, by Donald L. Morris, Roger D. Quick, pg 15-19

Bulk CMOS Technology for the HP-41C...this integrated circuit process has many characteristics that contribute to long battery life in a calculator, by Norman L. Johnson, Vijay V. Marathe, pg 20-22

The First HP Liquid Crystal Display...LCD advantages include low-voltage and power requirements and good visibility in strong light, by Craig Maze, pg 22-24

High Density and Low Cost with Printed Circuit Hybrid Technology...silicon integrated circuit chips are mounted directly onto printed circuit boards to save space and cost, by Robert N. Low, James H. Fleming, pg 25-26

An Economical, Portable Microwave Spectrum Analyzer...with a frequency range of 10 MHz to 21 GHz, a calibrated amplitude range of -111 to +30 dBm, and a dynamic range of 70 dB, this new spectrum analyzer has lab-grade performance yet is compact enough for field use, by Richard L. Belding, David H. Molinari, pg 27-32


Cover: Microwave Counter Products

Microwave CW and Pulse Frequency Measurements to 40 GHz...a new harmonic heterodyne frequency converter plug-in adds automatic 40-GHz frequency measurements to the universal capabilities of HP's top counter, by Robert W. Offermann, Ronald E. Felsenstein, Richard F. Schneider, pg 3-14

A 400-to-1600-MHz/8 Prescaler...state-of-the-art technology went into its tiny amplifier, attenuator, and binary circuits, by Hans J. Jekat, pg 5-6

An Automatic Microwave Frequency Counter Test System...testing high-performance microwave counters isn't a trivial task, but this system does it automatically, by Larry L. Koepke, pg 11-12

40-GHz Frequency Converter Heads...the heads down-convert microwave input signals to frequencies that are more easily transmitted over coaxial cables, by Mohamed M. Sayed, pg 14-19

A 26.5-GHz Automatic Frequency Counter with Enhanced Dynamic Range...a new sampler provides higher frequency coverage and 10 dB greater sensitivity than previous designs, by Ali Bologlu, pg 20-22

Microwave Counter Applications...radar, oscillator, and general high-frequency measurements are described, by Richard F. Schneider, pg 23-25

Laboratory Notebook: A Flexible Software Development Technique...if you have read-only memory to spare, you can use it to make changes in long-lead-time masked ROMs that you've already ordered, by Ronald E. Felsenstein, pg 25-26


Cover: Model 3586A/B/C Selective Level Meters and Model 1610B Logic State Analyzer

A Programmable Selective Level Meter (Wave Analyzer)with Synthesized Tuning, Autoranging and Automatic Calibration...covering an input frequency range of 50 Hz to 32.5 MHz, this tuned voltmeter measures characteristics of both the voice channgels and the multiplexed channels of FDM communications systems, by Paul L. Thomas, pg 3-8

Precision Synthesizer/Level Generator has High Spectral Purity for Telecommunications Testing...use it alone or as a tracking signal source for the 3586A/B/C Selective Level Meter. Three versions meet CCITT, North American and general-purpose requirements, by Phillip D. Winslow, pg 9-13

A Monolithic Thermal Converter...integrated circuit technology produces a low-cost, broadband, monolithic silicon thermal rms-to-dc converter, by Peter M. O'Neill, pg 12-13

Increased Versatility for a Versatile Logic State Analyzer...during analysis of program flow in a computer system, dynamically qualified multiphase clocking enables the Model 1610B to acquire for display all parts of an asynchronous transaction while excluding irrelevant events, by Justin S. Morrill, Jr., John D. Hansen, pg 14-18

General-Purpose Module Adapts Dedicated Logic State Analyzer to Almost Any Microprocessor...although conceived originally as a logic-state analyzer dedicated to particular microprocessors, the Model 1611A now has a general-purpose module that allows its to work with almost any microprocessor, by Deborah J. Ogden, pg 19-24


Cover: Model 3850A

Electronic Distance Measurement for Industrial and Scientific Applications...this new distance meter features a transducer mode in which it measures the distance to a moving target nine time per second for output to a computer or other controller, by David E. Smith, pg 3-11

Dynamic Distance Meter Performance Testing, by Dean Buck, pg 8

Industrial Distance Meter Applications...proportional and intelligent position control systems, dynamic monitoring and static monitoring are discussed, by David E. Smith, Troy L. Brown, pg 11-19

Mass Storage Management-A Unified Approach...after several years of work on mass storage management software at HP's Desktop Computer Division, a generalized philosophy has emerged, by William A. Hanna, pg 20-24


Cover: The HP-85, HP's first personal computer

A new World of Personal/Professional Computation...now, an inexpensive computer system with integral display, mass storage, hard copy and graphics capability is available for personal use by the technical professional or first-time computer user, by Todd R. Lynch, pg 3-7

Adding I/O Capability to the HP-85...with the implementation of I/O features, the capabilities of a self-contained personal computer system are expandable to control instruments, add on more powerful peripherals and even talk to other computers, by John H. Nairn, David J. Sweetser, Tim I. Mikkelsen, pg 7-13

A Compact Tape Transport Subassembly Designed for Reliability and Low Cost...new techniques in electrical and mechanical design were required, by Brian G. Spreadbury, Douglas J. Collins, pg 14-19

A High-Quality CRT Display for a Portable Computer...this compact CRT subassembly displays graphics data in addition to alphanumeric information, by James F. Bausch, pg 19-22

A Compact Thermal Printer Designed for Integration into a Personal Computer...it can print program listings or output hard copies of displayed alphanumeric and graphics data, by Ronald W. Keil, Clement C. Lo, pg 22-26

An Efficient Power Supply for the HP-85, by Jim Bausch, pg 24

Enhanced BASIC Language for a Personal Computer...HP-85 BASIC has commands for plotting graphics data, using mass storage, and performing a wide variety of functions, by Nelson A. Mills, Homer C. Russell, Kent R. Henscheid, pg 26-32


Cover: 8903A Audio Analyzer

A Complete Self-Contained Audio Measurement System...this automatic, autoranging audio analyzer has the signal source, distortion analyzer, and counter to make the measurements most often needed in audio-frequency testing, by James D. Foote, pg 3-17

Making the Most of a Microprocessor-Based Instrument Controller...in an audio analyzer, microprocessor control means automatic operation, "guaranteed" accurate measurements and extra features, by Corydon J. Boyan, pg 8-9

Design for a Low-Distortion, Fast-Settling Source...it's based on a state-variable filter with refinements, by George D. Pontis, pg 10-11

Floating a Source Output...the floating output lets the user eliminate ground-loop errors, sum signals, and add dc offsets, by George D. Pontis, pg 12-13

A Digitally Tuned Notch Filter...it eliminates the fundamental frequency component of the incoming signal for distortion and noise measurements, by Chung Y. Lau, pg 14-15

A Custom LSI Approach to a Personal Computer...nine HP-produced large-scale integrated circuits make the HP-85 possible, by Todd R. Lynch, pg 18-22

The HP-85 Software Development System, by Nelson A. Mills, pg 21

Handheld Calculator Evaluates Integrals...the HP-34C is the first handheld calculator to have a key that performs numerical integration almost automatically. It may change your attitude towards what used to be regarded as a dreary tedious task, by William M. Kahan, pg 23-32


Cover: Model 5335A Universal Counter

A Fully Integrated, Microprocessor-Controlled Total Station...here's a new instrument that measures angles and distances, combines these readings, and yields true three-dimensional position information, by Alfred F. Gort, pg 3-11

Mechanical Design Constraints for a Total Station...electronic position measurement accuracy isn't usable without a stable frame and bearing system, by Ronald K. Kerschner, pg 12-14

A Compact Optical System for Portable Distance and Angle Measurements...when the same optical system has to serve as both telescope and distance-meter optics, you have a lens design challenge, by David J. Sims, Charles E. Moore, pg 14-16

An Approach to Large-Scale Non-Contact Coordinate Measurements...how do you verify that a huge airplane is properly assembled?, by Douglas R. Johnson, pg 16-20

Interfacing the 3820A via the HP-IB...the total station can communicate with computers for further processing of distance and angle information, by Gerald F. Wasinger, pg 18-19

Automatic Measurements with a High-Performance Universal Counter...built-in calculating capability, automatic measurement routines, innovative trigger level controls and interpolators, and an optional DVM add up to a powerful, versatile measurement system, by Ronald C. Jensen, Gary D. Sasaki, pg 21-31

Third Input Extends Range to 1300 MHz...it's a prescaler, but the mainframe's interpolators prevent loss of resolution, by David M. Dipietro, pg 24-

A Voltmeter for a Universal Counter...precision voltage-to-frequency converters with software error correction provide a systems voltmeter for little added cost, by Val D. McOmber, pg 28-29

5335A Self Test and Diagnostics...built-in checks boost user confidence and make troubleshooting easy, by Robert J. Lafollette, pg 30

A Low-Cost Universal Counter for Systems Applications, by Michael J. Ward, David M. George, pg 32


Cover: Model 64000 Logic Development System consisting of a work station, disc drive and printer

Logic Development System Accelerates Microcomputer System Design...this expandable, flexible system offers a complete set of facilities for generating and debugging microprocessor-system hardware and software. It's designed with next-generation VLSI circuits in mind, by Brian W. Kerr, Thomas A. Saponas, pg 3-12

Resource Sharing in the Logic Development System...here's how six processors share as many as eight disc drives and a printer, by Alan J. Devilbiss, pg 7-8

64500 PROM Programmer, by Roger Cox, pg 9

Emulators for Microprocessor System Development...to the system under development the emulator looks like a microprocessor, yet the designer has complete analysis and debugging facilities, by Milo E. Muterspaugh, Gordon A. Greenley, James B. Donnelly, pg 13-20

The Pascal/64000 Compiler...the structured programming features of Pascal are augmented for microprocessor code development, by Jacques Gregori Bourque, Izagma I. Alonso-Velez, pg 20-27

Program Debugging with Pascal/64000...expanded listings show the compiler output interleaved with the source statements to make it easy to trace execution, by P. Alan McDonley, pg 22-23

The 64000 Linker...table-driven architecture supports a variety of microprocessors, by James B. Stewart, pg 25-26

An Assembler for all Microprocessors...in addition to generating code for standard microprocessors, this table-driven assembler allows the user to create an assembler for a custom chip, by Brad E. Yackle, pg 28-30

Viewpoints: Chuck House on the Electronic Bench, VLSI will create both a need for new analysis and synthesis tools and a way to realize them, pg 30-32


Cover: Hewlett Packard 78500 Series Patient Information Centers

Patient Monitoring Enhanced by New Central Station...multi-microprocessor architecture and a new integrated display concept provide more patient data, fewer false alarms, internal self-tests and extensive recording capabilities in an easy-to-operate system, by Larry L. Nielsen, Timothy B. Blancke, pg 3-11

High-Speed Raster Technique Provides Flexible Display...smooth waveforms on a raster-scan CRT display are made possible by a combination of higher scan rate and beam width modulation, by Robert L. Stettiner, George L. Adleman, pg 11-15

Multi-Processor Architecture and Communications for Patient Monitoring...four processors use three different communication links to share tasks and accomplish the overall monitoring system, by James M. Rueter, pg 15-18

Self-Test and Serviceability for Dependable Central Patient Monitoring...this system automatically analyzes itself for failures, reconfigures its units to continue operating when one unit fails, and notifies the operator of any malfunction, by Jeffrey M. Goldberg, pg 19-23

Firmware for a Patient Monitoring Station...a matched-filter design accurately analyzes electrocardiogram waveforms, by Kim L. Hanna, pg 23-28

An Interactive HP 3000/IBM Mainframe Link...more than a 3270 emulator, IML/3000 provides high-level intrinsics for interactive data interchange, and an inquiry and development facility that makes HP 3000 system terminals look like terminals attached to the IBM mainframe, by Connie J. Ishida, pg 29-32


Cover: System 45C desktop computer

Color Enhances Computer Graphics System...the addition of a color CRT, extensive graphics control statements and faster vector generation to a desktop computer provides a comprehensive graphics system for the display and interpretation of complex data, by John B. Frost, William L. Hale, pg 3-5

The System 45C User's Firmware Interface...new language statements provide easy input of graphical data and control of color parameters for generation of curves, shapes and shaded areas, by Robert W. Fredrickson, Robert A. Jewett, pg 6-9

Light Pen Aids User Interaction with Display...getting a light pen to work with a raster-scan display is not easy, first several physical limitations had to be overcome, by Frederick J. Porter, pg 10-19

A Precision Color Raster-Scan Display for Graphics Applications...these scanning circuit designs provide a color display free from distracting anomalies, by Warren C. Pratt, pg 19-24

Display System Designed for Color Graphics...System 45C's graphics architecture yields high-speed color picture generation with area shading, by Harold L. Baeverstad, Jr., Clark C. Bruderer, pg 25-32

System 45C Power Supply Considerations...a separate power supply for the color display provides for easy upgrading of earlier System 45 Computers, by J. Steven Becker, pg 28



Cover: Model 5315A Universal Counter

A Low-Cost, Microprocessor-Based 100-MHz Universal Counter...a special integrated-circuit counter chip works with the microprocessor to give this reciprocal-taking counter a range of capbilities formerly found only at a much higher price. Flexible input amplifiers, a novel battery pack, and low radiated emissions are other features, by Karl M. Blankenship, Michael J. Ward, Lewis W. Masters, pg 2-11

Lowest-Cost HP Universal Counter Developed using LSI and Manufacturing Innovations, by Michael D. Wilson, David M. George, pg 8-9

A High-Performance Bipolar LSI Counter Chip using EFL and I2L Circuits...this state-of-the-art multiple-register counter chip contains all of the circuits needed for a 100-MHz universal counter except for the display, input amplifiers, power supply and controller (microprocessor), by William D. Jackson, Bosco W. Wong, pg 12-17

A Synthesized Signal Source with Function Generator Capabilities...this fully programmable signal source spans 13 decades in frequency with synthesizer accuracu, and produces sine waves, square waves, triangles and ramps with synthesizer stability and swept-frequency convenience, by Stanley E. Froseth, Dan D. Danielson, pg 18-26

Viewpoints: Paul Baird on Electronic Equipment Reliability, pg 27-28


Cover: Model 7225 A Plotter

A High-Quality Digital X-Y Plotter Designed for Reliability, Flexibility and Low Cost...a new linear step motor design cuts costs and improves reliability without sacrificing line quality, by Terry R. Cobb, John A. Fenoglio, Bessie W. C. Chin, pg 2-7

Linear Step Motor Design Provides High Plotter Performance at Low Cost, by Robert L. Ciardella, Lung-Wen Tsai, pg 7-14

Developing a Low-Cost Electrostatic Chart-Hold Table, by Alec J. Babiarz, pg 10-11

Simple, Efficient Electronics for a Low-Cost X-Y Plotter, by Peter Chu, William G. Royce, pg 14-18

A Closed-Loop System for Smoothing and Matching Step Motor Responses, by Philip P. Maiorca, Norman H. MacNeil, pg 18-23

Multi-Frequency LCR Meters Test Components under Realistic Conditions...covering frequency ranges of 100 Hz to 100 kHz and 10 kHz to 10 MHz, these two new automatic LCR meters each provide up to twelve test signal frequencies, continously variable test signal levels, and a wide choice of displayed parameters, by Kohichi Maeda, Yoh Narimatsu, pg 24-32


Cover: Two well-devised board test systems and their very efective software

Circuit-Board Testing: Cost-Effective Production Test and Troubleshooting...two new printed-circuit-board test systems find faults in complicated circuit boards quickly and efficiently to help speed production throughput, by Peter S. Stone, John F. McDermid, pg 2-8

Rapid Digital Fault Isolation with FASTRACE, by William A. Groves, pg 8-13

Software Simulator Speeds Digital Board Test Generation, by Kenneth P. Parker, pg 13-18

Virtual Memory for TESTAID and FASTRACE, by Douglas L. Baskins, pg 17

Analog In-Circuit Component Measurements: Problems and Solutions, by David T. Crook, pg 19-22

User-Oriented Software for an Automatic Circuit-Board Tester, by Ed O. Schlotzhauer, pg 22-27

Testing the Tester, by Roland H. Burger, John J. Ketchum, James M. Brown, Scott E. Woodward, pg 26

Hardware Design of an Automatic Circuit Board Tester, by Kamran Firooz, Brian M. Wood, David T. Crook, Roland H. Burger, Francis F. Fiedler, pg 27-32

Board Testing with Signature Analysis, by Kamran Firooz, pg 31


Cover: HP 250 Small-Business Computer

A Human-Engineered Small-Business Computer...this entry level, low-cost system offers the first-time user a self-contained computing facility with full data base management capability, by A. Peter Hamilton, pg 3-5

Human-Engineering the Small-Business Computer...how to design a computer so it doesn't seem forbidding to the uninitiated operator, by Barry Mathis, pg 4-5

Cost-Effective Electronics for the Small-Business Computer...the emphasis is on maximum performance for the price, along with reliability and safety, by V. Delloy Forbes, Gerald L. Meyer, pg 6-14

HP 250 Input/Output System...the system has to be smart enough to power-up and run with minimum operator assistance, by Dennis L. Peery, pg 11-12

HP 250 BASIC: A Friendly, Interactive, Powerful System Language...all the standard features of HP Business BASIC plus an interactive CRT, by Dennis L. Peery, pg 14-19

Low-Cost Data Base Management...it's similar to IMAGE/3000, with enhancements for a flexible-disc-based system, by Michael V. Hetrick, pg 19-25

Applications Software for the Small-Business Computer...packages for order management and materials management are available. Financial management is under development, by Loyd V. Nelson, Scott W. Y. Wang, pg 25-28

Capacitance and Conductance Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopy Using HP-IB Instruments and a Desktop Computer...a low-cost system of standard components is a useful engineering tool for checking new semiconductor processes and devices during their development, by Leonard Forbes, Ulrich Kaempf, pg 29-32


Cover: Model 8160A Pulse Generator and the Model 9835A/B Desktop Computer (also known as System 35 of the 9800 Series)

A Precision, Programmable Pulse Generator...this 50-MHz instrument shortens setup times either on the bench or in automatic systems by generating pulses so accurately there is no need to interrupt a test to monitor the pulse waveform and make corrections, by Peter Aue, Werner Huttemann, Lutz Kristen, pg 3-10

Extending Possibilities in Desktop Computing...this midrange computer's large memory capacity, two languages (enhanced BASIC and assembly language), low radiated interference, and powerful input/output facilities suit it especially well for computation, control, and data acquisition applications, by Sandy L. Chumbley, pg 11-13

Processor Enchancements Expand Memory...a new NMOS LSI chip and larger memory chips extend memory capacity, by Damon R. Ujvarosy, Dyke T. Shaffer, pg 13-15

Designing to Meet Electromagnetic Interference Requirements...eliminating electromagnetic pollution is assuming increasing importance around the world, by John C. Becker, pg 16-17

Assembly Programming Capability in a Desktop Computer...although efficient, assembly languages aren't usually easy to use but this one is, by Robert M. Hallissy, pg 18-20


Cover: HP 300 Computer

A Business Computer for the 1980s...a totally new business-oriented design based on HP's silicon-on-sapphire integrated circuit technology, this new system packs a vast amount of processing power into a surprisingly small package, by George R. Clark, pg 3-6

The Integrated Display System and Terminal Access Method...the HP 300 handles up to 16 appllication terminals simultaneously. Its own display can act like several mini-displays at once, by James R. Groff, Eric P. L. Ha, pg 6-9

Reducing the Cost of Program Development...it's a compiler-based system, so run-time efficiency is high, but it has many of the conveniences of an interpreter-based system, by Frederick W. Clegg, pg 9-15

Managing Data: HP 300 Files and Data Bases...choose one of seven different file structures or the IMAGE data base management system, by James R. Groff, Phillip N. Taylor, Alan T. Pare, pg 16-19

An Easy-to-Use Report Generation Language...templates on the screen take the place of RPG coding sheets, by Tu-Ting Cheng, Wendy Peikes, pg 20-23

HP 300 Business BASIC...it's specially designed as a versatile business applications language, by May Y. Kavalick, pg 23-26

Innovative Package Design Enhances HP 300 Effectiveness...monocoque construction is the starting point and even the shipping container is novel, by David A. Horine, pg 26-30

World-Wide Regulatory Compliance, by Ronald E. Morgan, pg 30


Cover: HP 300 Computer

Cost-Effective Hardware for a Compact Integrated Business Computer...CMOS/SOS technology helps reduce an eight-board processor to only two boards, by Arndt B. Bergh, Kenyon C. Y. Mei, pg 3-8

A Computer Input/Output System Based on the HP Interface Bus...it's designed to make it easy to add, delete and communicate with peripheral devices, by W. Gordon Matheson, pg 9-13

A Small, Low-Cost 12-Megabyte Fixed Disc Drive...a new Winchester-type disc was designed to meet the mass memory needs of the HP 300, by Richard L. Smith, pg 11

An Innovative Programming and Operating Console...windows and softkeys add new facets to the classical concept of interactive programming, by Alfred F. Knoll, Norman D. Marschke, pg 13-17

AMIGO/300: A Friendly Operating System...an improved man/machine interface sometimes called friendliness, requires an advanced operating system, by Ralph L. Carpenter, pg 17-24

Configuring and Launching the AMIGO/300 System...system generation and startup are easier than they used to be, by James C. McCullough, Donald M. Wise, pg 20-21

A Multiple-Output Switching Power Supply for Computer Applications...designed for computer mainframes, this OEM power supply is an economical solution for the HP 300's power requirements, by Thane Kriegel, Dilip A. Amin, pg 25-28


Cover: Microwave Spectrum Analyzers

New Performance Standards in Microwave Spectrum Analysis...low-level microwave signals not previously identifiable with spectrum analyzers can be measured up to 22 GHz with the aid of this new analyzer's low phase noise, 10-Hz bandwidth and high sensitivity, by Siegfried H. Linkwitz, pg 3-7

Broadband Input Mixers for a Microwave Spectrum Analyzer...inputs from 100 Hz to 22 GHz required new developments in front-end design, by John C. Lamy, Frank K. David, pg 8-13

Precision Assembly of a YIG-Tuned Mixer, by Lee Olmstead, pg 10-11

A Synthesized Microwave Local Oscillator with Continuous-Sweep Capability...10-Hz resolution at 22 GHz requires synthesizer stability in the local oscillator but it also has to sweep smoothly, by Stephen T. Sparks, Kenneth L. Lange, Larry R. Martin, pg 13-19

Some Microprocessor Contributions to Spectrum Analyzer Performance, by Michael S. Marzalek, pg 15

A Precision Discriminator with a Controllable Slope, by Stephen T. Sparks, pg 17-18

A Digital Pattern Generator for Functional Testing of Bus-Oriented Digital Systems...simple interfacing enables this flexible pattern generator to drive digital buses or other multichannel logic systems for functional testing with long digital sequences, by Gunter Riebesell, Bernd Moravek, Ulrich Hubner, pg 20-25

An HP-IB Extender for Distributed Instrument Systems...HP-IB-connected systems may now be dispersed over great distances using cables or telephone lines, by David H. Guest, pg 26-32

A Comprehensive Approach to Automatic Troubleshooting, by Peter Roubaud, pg 29

Applying the 37201A HP-IB Extender, by simon Murray, pg 31


Cover: HP 3000 Computer System - the Series 33

SOS Technology Yields Low-Cost HP 3000 Computer System...the new Series 33 is software compabtible with the Series II and Series III, HP's most powerful computer system's cost is surprisingly low for HP 3000 performance, by Richard C. Edwards, pg 3-8

Adapting the Multiprogramming Executive to a New Hardware Environment...the new low-cost SOS hardware runs the same operating system and application programs as other HP 3000s, by Claude Robinson Jr, pg 7-8

A Friendly, Easy-to-Service Computer...the quiet, desk-like HP 3000 Series 33 fits easily into the office environment, by Manmohan Kohli, Yas Matsui, pg 9-12

A Remote Computer Troubleshooting Facility...problems can be investigated before a service person is sent to the site, by David L. Nelson, pg 13-16

Philosophy of HP 3000 Series 33 Diagnostics...a combination of self tests, the remote facility, and off-line diagnostics reduce down time, by James H. Holl, pg 15-16

Controlling Electromagnetic Interference Generated by a Computer System...the HP 3000 Series 33 meets worldwide regulator agency requirements, by Daniel T. Y. Wong, pg 17-19

Automated Pulmonary Function Measurements...a desktop computer improves accuracy and saves time in lung-function tests, by John L. Fanton, Maurice R. Blais, pg 20-24

Triggered X-Y Oscilloscope Displays...using the trigger circuits to turn on the CRT beam only during the time interval of interest provides timing information and also eliminates unimportant detail from Lissajous patterns traced on an oscilloscope, by P. Guy Howard, pg 25-28


Cover: Model 5036A Microprocessor Lab

Microprocessor Lab Teaches Operation and Troubleshooting...this entry level course for home study or the classroom includes a microcomputer in a briefcase and a 20-lesson textbook, by Barry Bronson, Michael Slater, pg 3-8

An Economical Network Analyzer for the 4-to-1300-MHz Range...this compact, moderately-priced instrument has a built-in sweeping source and a two-channel receiver that enables simultaneous swept measurements of magnitude ratio and phase angle as well as measurements of absolute power and reflection coefficient, by James R. Zellers, pg 9-17

Expanding Logic Analyzer Capabilities by Means of the HP-IB...augmenting the power of a logic state/timing analyzer with a desktop computer gives automated testing capability along with display in user-definable assembly language, by Robert G. Wickliff, Jr., Richard A. Nygoard, Jr, pg 18-22

A Serial Data Analyzer for Locating Faults in Decentralized Digital Systems...interfaced to the RS-232C data communications bus, this instrument can monitor data traffic on the bus to help identify an operational problem and it can then assume an active role and substitute for the CPU, a terminal, a peripheral, or a modem to help isolate the problem, by Robert E. Erdmann Jr, pg 23-28


Cover: Model 8901A Modulation Analyzer

Precise, Convenient Analysis of Modulated Signals...this new modulation analyzer measures a signal's frequency, power and modulation components with unprecedented accuracy in many measurements, by Allen P. Edwards, pg 3-18

IF Filters for the 8901A Modulation Analyzer...they are designed for minimum distortion of the modulation being measured, by Andrew H. Naegeli, pg 10-11

A New Type of FM Demodulator...it's inherently linear, yet doesn't have a significant noise mechanism, by Russell B. Riley, pg 13

Modulation Analyzer Applications...examples of formerly difficult probelms that the modulation analyzer solves easily, by Allen P. Edwards, pg 19-21

Assuring Accuracy in Modulation Measurements...the modulation analyzer is so accurate that new modulation standards had to be built to calibrate it, by Leslie E. Brubaker, pg 22-26

Interactive Modulation Analyzer Control...a microcomputer makes complicated decisions so the users doesn't have to, by Paul J. Lingane, pg 26-29

Special Signal Source Tests Modulation Analyzer...if it's more accurate than any signal generator, how do you test it?, by Leslie E. Brubaker, pg 30-32


Cover: New 12050A Fiber Optic HP-IB Link

High-Speed Fiber Optic Link Provides Reliable Real-Time HP-IB Extension...remote instruments and peripherals can now communicate on the HP Interface Bus with a computer/controller up to 100 metres away. This new fiber optic link is fast and has exceptional immunity to severe industrial environments, by Robert B. Grady, pg 3-9

A Ready-to-Use Fiber Optic Link for Data Communications...the fiber optic part of the new HP-IB extender is a standard HP product, by Delon C. Hanson, pg 5

A Picoammeter with Built-in, Synchronized Voltage Sources...it measures very low currents and capacitances, as functions of voltage if desired, for evaluating components, materials, and semiconductor devices, by Hitoshi Noguchi, pg 10-19

Personal Calculator Has Key to Solve Any Equation fx)=0...the HP-34C is the first handheld calculator to have a built-in numerical equation solver and that's why one of its keys is labeled SOLVE, by William Kahan, pg 20-26

Viewpoints: Don Loughry on ANSI/IEEE Standard 488 and the HP Interface Bus, pg 27-28

Four Color Plotters Enhanced for Unattended Operation...a new automatic paper advance contributes to user convenience by advancing, cutting and stacking plots in selectable sizes, by Randy A. Coverstone, Majid Azmoon, Richard M. Kemplin, pg 29-32



Cover: Model 2648A Graphics Terminal that has both graphics and alphanumeric capabilities

Versatile Low-Cost Graphics Terminal is Designed for Ease of Use...HP's newest computer CRT terminal combines sophisticated graphics and alphanumeric capabilities with easy-to-use, system independent, automatic plotting, by Peter D. Dickinson, pg 2-5

Raster Scan Graphics with Zoom and Pan, by Otakar Blazek, Michael B. Raynham, pg 6-12

Firmware Control of a Microprocessor-Based Graphics Terminal, by John J. Moyer, pg 12-16

Add-On Digital Signal Processing Enhances the Performance of Network and Spectrum Analyzers...digitizing and storing the outputs of network and spectrum analyzers enables flicker-free display of slowly swept measurements, corrections for system errors, and direct comparisons of device performance, by Jacob H. Egbert, Mark D. Roos, John T. Barr, Roger P. Oblad, pg 17-24


Cover: HP Model 1615A Logic Analyzer

A Logic State Analyzer for Evaluating Complex State Flow...sequential triggering and selective trace are two of the capabilities that enable this 32-bit logic state analyzer to capture only the states of interest in complex program flow while it counts states and times their executive to help evaluate program performance, by George A. Haag, pg 2-10

Viewpoints: Chuck House on the Ongoing Revolution in Digital Testing, pg 11-13

Interactive Logic State and Timing Analyses for Tracking Down Problems in Digital Systems...a new instrument combines 16-bit logic state analysis with 8-bit logic timing analysis to speed the location of problems involving asynchronous as well as synchronours events, by William D. Martin, John A. Scharrer, Robert G. Wickliff, Jr, pg 14-20

Entry Level Logic State Analyzer Has High-level Capability...operable by a first-time user without any prior instruction, this compact, portable logic-state analyzer is also capable of sophisticated analyses of data flow. Moreover, it's programmable, making possible low-cost, automatic systems for functional testing, by Charles T. Small, Alan J. DeVilbiss, pg 21-27

Adapting the 1611A Logic State Analyzer to Work with the F8 Microprocessor Family...microprocessors are not all alike. Adapting a dedicated instrument to test several different kinds of microprocessors poses some interesting challenges but also provides opportunities to broaden capability, by Deborah J. Ogden, pg 28-32


Cover: Our artist's representation of a distributed computer system network made up of HP 3000 Series II, HP 1000, and HP 2026 Computer Systems

The Hewlett-Packard Distributed System Network...HP-DSN is a set of distributed systems products and a set of design objectives that provide a framework for interconnecting HP computer systems to form a network, by Andre O. Schwager, pg 2-6

Distributed Systems/3000...DS/3000 makes it possible for the user of an HP 3000 Computer System to communicate with remote HP 3000, HP 1000, and HP 2026 Computer Systems, by Philip M. Sakakihara, pg 7-14

Distributed Systems/1000...DS/1000 makes it possible to interconnect HP 1000 Computer Systems in virtually any configuration to integrate instrumentation, computation, and operations management tasks and to link these systems with HP 3000 Series II Systems for distributed data processing, by Robert R. Shatzer, pg 15-20

Data Entry and Communications Systems Have Network Capabilities...HP 2026 Systems are designed for high-performance data entry, local file inquiry and data communications with each other and the HP 3000, by David S. Kaplan, John R. Nielsen, pg 21-26

Experimenting with Satellite-Linked Computer Networks...Project Prelude is an advanced computer communications experiment involving several companies, a satellite, and HP 3000 Series II Computer Systems, by Rita W. Williams, pg 27-32


Cover: Model 9845A Desktop Computer, also called, System 45

A Highly Integrated Desktop Computer System...System 45, the new flagship of the HP 9800 Series, gives the user unprecedented power in a single compact unit while offering advanced capabilities in program documentation, string and matrix operations, subprograms, program linking, tracing, formatted output, mass storage and graphics, by Jack M. Walden, William D. Eads, pg 2-11

System 45 Hardware Design, by Louis T. Schulte, John C. Keith, Ansel K. Vogen, pg 11-21

System 45 Product Design, by Ray J. Cozzens, pg 14-15

System 45 Tape Control System, by Richard Kochis, pg 20

Advanced Thermal Page Printer Has High-Resolution Graphics Capability...this optional System 45 built-in peripheral quietly outputs program listings or hard copies of anything on the CRT display, by Ray J. Cozzens, pg 22-28

New Printhead Technology Developed for System 45, by Eugene R. Zeller, pg 25-26

Personal Calculator Algorithms IV: Logarithmic Functions...a detailed description of the algorithms used in HP's hand-held calculators to computer logarithms, by William E. Egbert, pg 29-32


Cover: Model 5342A Microwave Frequency Counter

Microprocessor-Controlled Harmonic Heterodyne Microwave Counter Also Measures Amplitudes...the new harmonic heterodyne frequency measuring technique provides wide FM tolerance, high sensitivity and automatic amplitude discrimination, by Ali Bologlu, Vernon A. Barber, pg 2-16

Singature Analysis in the 5342A, by Martin Neil, pg 8-9

A Technique that is Insensitive to FM for Determining Harmonic Number and Sideband, by Luiz Peregrino, pg 13-14

Generating High-Speed CRT Displays from Digital Data...a new graphics translator converts information received from a digital system by way of the HP interface bus into the analog signals needed for tracing vectors and characters on high-resolution CRT displays, by Kunio Hasebe, Arnot L. Ellsworth, pg 17-23

Laboratory Notebook: Swept-Frequency Measurements of High Levels of Attenuation at Microwave Frequencies, by Robert Jacobsen, pg 24


Cover: Spectrum Analyzer

The Next Generation RF Spectrum Analyzer...unprecedented tuning accuracy, frequency stability and resolution - combined with a new level of control provided by three digital processors - raise to significantly new levels the art and science of spectrum analysis in the 100-Hz-to 1500-MHz range, by M. Dee Humpherys, Steven N. Holdaway, pg 2-8

A Precision, Digitally-Controlled Spectrum Analyzer for the 20-Hz-to-40-MHz Frequency Range, by Robert Temple, pg 6-7

Signal Processing in the Model 8568A Spectrum Analyzer, by Siegfried H. Linkwitz, Steven N. Holdaway, Michael J. Neering, David H. Molinari, pg 9-16

The Display System in the Model 8568A Spectrum Analyzer, by Michael J. Neering, Larry O. Bower, pg 11-12

Developing the Digital Control System for the Model 8568a Spectrum Analyzer, by Lynn W. Wheelwright, Michael S. Marzalek, pg 16-20

Control of Model 8568a Spectrum Analyzer Through the HP Interface Bus, by Rex Bullinger, pg 18

Designing Serviceability into the Model 8568A Spectrum Analyzer, by David D. Sharrit, pg 20-24

Computer-Based Production-Line Testing of the Model 8568A Spectrum Analyzer, by John Faick, pg 22-23


Cover: Model 2240A Measurement and Control Processor designed to interface a computer to real-world sensors and controls

An Intelligent Peripheral for Measurement and Control...communicating with the computer in a high-level language, this new computer front end independently executes analog and digital measurement and control tasks, by Ray H. Brubaker Jr, pg 2-9

Measurement and Control Processor Monitors HP Facility, by Robert B. Grady, pg 7-8

Firmware Intelligence for Measurement and Control Processing...the HP 2240A demonstrates how HP-IB communications are maturing as instruments gain in sophistication, by Donald E. Klaiss, pg 10-18

Analog Input Card Calibration, by Vincent J. Dauciunas, pg 13

PHI, the HP-IB Interface Chip, by John W. Figueroa, pg 16-17

An Easy-to-Use Data Capture Terminal for Industrial Operations...designed for collecting data at remote points within a manufacturing operation, this compact terminal is operated easily by those unfamiliar with computer operations and can also serve as a link between a computer and distant HP-IB-controlled instruments, by Daniel C. Berthier, Michel E. Bernard, Jacques A. Ripert, pg 19-24


Cover: Model 5359A Time Synthesizer and Model 5370A Universal Time Interval Counter

Universal Counter Resolves Picoseconds in Time Interval Measurements...a new triggered phase-locked oscillator and a dual vernier interpolation scheme provide 20-picosecond resolution without averaging, by David C. Chu, Mark S. Allen, Allen S. Foster, pg 2-11

The Triggered Phase-Locked Oscillator, by David C. Chu, pg 8-9

Time Synthesizer Generates Precise Pulse Widths and Time Delays for Critical Timing Applications...this time synthesizer's extremely stable, low-jitter time delays may be synchronized precisely to an external trigger, by Leonard R. Dickstein, Keith M. Ferguson, pg 12-19

Instrument Commonality, Reliability and Serviceability, by Leonard Dickstein, pg 19

Remotely-Controlled RF Switch for Multipoint Tests in Communication Systems...under manual or HP-IB control, this RF switch provides access to any one of 10 inputs carrying signals in a range of 10kHz to 25MHz or, when cascaded with other switches, to any one of up to 1000 inputs, by Kevin J. Bradford, pg 20-22

Laboratory Notebook: A High-Level-Language Microprocessor Prototyping and Debugging System Using a Desktop Computer, by Allen Foster, Luiz Peregrino, pg 23-24


Cover: Model 3582A Spectrum Analyzer

A High-Resolution, Low-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer...this dual-channel instrument uses digital computation with a microprocessor to make frequency-domain measurements in the 0-to-25.5-kHz range with bandwidths as narrow as 20 mHz and do it hundreds of times faster than conventional swept-frequency analyzers, by John S. Farnbach, Nixon A. Pendergrass, pg 2-13

Window Functions for Spectrum Analysis, by Roger G. Cox, pg 10-11

Hewlett-Packard FFT Analyzers, pg 13-14

Designing Programmable Digital Filters for LSI Implementation, by Lynn A. Schmidt, pg 15-23

Desktop Plotter/Printer Does Both Vector Graphic Plotting and Fast Text Printing...this HP-IB desktop hardcopy unit has a bidirectional paper drive for long-axis plots and unattended plotting. It offers user unit scaling, graph rotation, printer capabillities, seven dashed-line fonts, English and European character sets, and user-definable characters, by Rick A. Warp, Majid Azmoon, Jaime H. Bohorquez, pg 24-30

Plotter/Printer Interface Languages: HP-GL and ASCII, by Michael P. Trego, pg 26


Cover: An HP 1000 Model 45 Computer System displays its multilingual, multi-programming computing activity

Higher-Performance HP 1000 Computer Systems...the higher performance comes from new technologies, including new processors, faster 16K RAM seminconductor memories, and a new operating system, by Rodney K. Juncker, pg 2-5

RTE-IV: the Megaword-Array Operating System, by Eugene J. Wong, C. Michael Manley, pg 6-11

F-Series Extends Computing Power of HP 1000 Computer Family, by Julia A. Cates, pg 12-17

Microcoded Scientific Instruction Set Enhances Speed and Accuracy of F-Series Computers, by Charles R. Geber, pg 18-22

New Memory Systems for HP 1000 Computers, by Alan H. Christensen, David C. Salomaki, pg 23-27

Multipoint Terminals for HP 1000 Systems, by Mitchell B. Bain, Gary W. Johnson, Denton B. Anderson, pg 28-32


Cover: Print mechanisms that have a mechanical simplicity conducive to higher print speeds

Printer and Printing Terminal Gain Versatility and Mechanical Simplicity with Microprocessor Control...a 180-character-per-second-dot-matrix printing mechanism achieves high throughput by skipping over blanks and printing in either direction under microprocessor control, by Todd M. Woodcock, pg 2-7

Managing Dot-Matrix Printing with a Microprocessor, by John J. Ignoffo, Jr., Michael J. Sproviero, Phillip R. Luque, Kenneth A. Wade, pg 8-19

Mechanical Design of a Durable Dot-Matrix Printer, by Robert Cort, pg 9

Interfacing to a 180-Character/Second Printer/Terminal, by Gerard Carlson, Michael Lee, Roy Foote, pg 15-16

Versatile 400-lpm Line Printer with a Friction-Free Mechanism that Assures Long Life...this medium-speed line printer writes dot-matrix alphanumerics and graphics with a mechanism taht has no sliding parts or bearing to wear out, by F. Duncan Terry, pg 20-22

Optimizing the Performance of an Electromechanical Print Mechanism, by Wallace T. Thrash, Everett M. Baily, William A. McIlvanie, Douglas B. Winterrowd, pg 23-32

Acoustic Design of the Model 2608A Line Printer, by Lynn Hessing, pg 24

Precise Paper Movement, by Robert Deely, Lynn Hessing, pg 26

Interface I/O for a 400-lpm Printer, by Stanley Peery, pg 30


Cover: Model 9874A Digitizer transmits coordinate data to an on-line computer

Easy-to-Use, High-Resolution Digitizer Increases Operator Efficiency...this advanced new microprocessor-controlled digitizer provides an accurate, speedy and convenient method for entering position information from maps, slides, x-rays, photographs, and other media into a computer for analysis, by Frank P. Carau, pg 2-13

Cursor Technology, by Henry T. Hetzel, pg 4

Glass Platen Technology, by Lawrence E. Brown, pg 8

1-mHz-to-50-mHz Signal Source Combines Synthesizer Accuracy, Multimode Operation, and Easy Programming...offering features not previously available in a single instrument, this new programmable signal source provides many kinds of test stimuli for either automatic or bench test applications, by Peter Brunner, Tilman Schad, Dieter Kible, pg 19-27

A Compact Logging Multimeter that Can Manipulate Data...by combining the attributes of a 4 1/2-digit multimeter, a thermometer, a 4-channel scanner, a printer, and a microprocessor, this versatile instrument can be a time-saver for the design engineer, by Marsh L. Faber, John E. Scruggs, David L. Wolpert, pg 28-32



Cover: A fetal monitor and a logic state analyzer for digital electronics

A Logic State Analyzer for Microprocessor Systems...a new logic state analyzer for debugging systems that use popular microprocessors has broadly expanded triggering capabilities plus keyboard control and mnemonic display that help solve problems more efficiently, by Jeffrey H. Smith, pg 2-11

Firmware for a Microprocessor Analyzer...by replacing hardware with firmware, the instrument designer can increase operator convenience and present data in a more meaningful form without increasing circuit complexity, by Thomas A. Saponas, pg 12-15

A Versatile, Semiautomatic Fetal Monitor for Non-Technical Users...a new monitoring instrument detects the heart beat of an unborn child by any one of four techniques. It does not required technically trained people to operate it, so the benefits of fetal monitoring now become available to a wider range of hospitals, by Heinz Sommer, Walter Ruchsay, Peter Salfeld, Erich Courtin, pg 16-24


Cover: Voltmeters

A Fast-Reading, High-Resolution Voltmeter that Calibrates Itself Automatically...this new voltmeter makes 24 readings/second working on the HP interface bus a boon for systems users. Real-time autocalibration and the ability to perform calculations on its own readings contribute to its versatility, by Albert Gookin, pg 2-10

A High-Speed System Voltmeter for Time-Related Measurements...waveform characteristics as well as dc levels can be determined by this fast sample-and-hold voltmeter when teamed with a calculator or computer. Optimized for systems use, it has a programmable trigger delay that gives it unusual capabilities, by John E. McDermid, Joseph M. Gorin, James B. Vyduna, pg 11-19

Contemporary Design Practice in General-Purpose Digital Multimeters...with lower cost and smaller size, digital multimeters are now found in a very broad range of applications, by Roy D. Barker, Virgil L. Laing, Joe E. Marriott, H. Mac Juneau, pg 20-28


Cover: New HP 1000 Computer System

A New Series of Small Computer Systems...Hp 1000 Systems are designed for high-performance applications in computation, instrumentation and operations management, by Lee Johnson, pg 2-6

HP 1000 Operating System is Enhanced Real-Time Executive...new RTE-II and RTE-III software provides for on-line system generation and switching, disc cartridge backup, disc and mini-cartridge distribution of software, new system string communication, and improved I/O error management, by Kathleen F. Hahn, David L. Snow, pg 7-14

Development and Application of Microprograms in a Real-Time Environment, by Harris Dean Drake, pg 15-17

E-Series Doubles 21MX Performance...faster logic, improvements to the architecture and firmware, and new microprogrammed features greatly increase performance without significantly increasing cost, by Cleaborn C. Riggins, pg 18-19

How the E-Series Performance Was Attained, by Scott J. Stallard, pg 20-23

Microprogrammed Features of the 21MX E-Series, by Thomas A. Lane, pg 24-27

OPNODE: Interactive Linear Circuit Design and Optimization...OPNODE is a powerful software package for computer-aided circuit design with an interactive graphics console in a minicomputer environment, by William A. Rytand, pg 28-31

Viewpoints: John Moll on HP's Integrated Circuit Technology, pg 32


Cover: HP's new silicon-on-sapphire micro-CPU chip

Silicon-On-Sapphire Technology Produces High-Speed Single-Chip Processor...this new integrated-circuit processor is a static CMOS/SOS 16-bit parallel device. Its architecture is optimized for controller applications and its instruction excution times are 0.5 to 1.5 microseconds at an 8-MHz clock rate, by Bert E. Forbes, pg 2-8

CMOS/SOS, by David Farrington, pg 5

Miniature Oscilloscope Probes for Measurements in Crowded Circuits...resistive-divider probes only 2.4 mm (0.1) inch in diameter can access test points in densely populated circuits without shorting to adjacent leads, by Carolyn M. Finch, Marvin F. Estes, Lawrence A. Gammill, pg 9-12

A Small, Solid-State Alphanumeric Display...serial loading and on-board storage of data on this dot-matrix display reduces the cost and complexity of supporting circuitry substantially. The 5x7 array of LEDs gives full alphanumeric capability, by Peter B. Ashkin, Jack L. Hines, John T. Uebbing, pg 13-20


Cover: 5004A Signature Analyzer, a troubleshooting tool for field repair of ditial systems

Signature Analysis: A New Digital Field Service Method...in a digital instrument designed for troubleshooting by signature analysis, this method can find the components responsible for well over 99% of all failures, even intermittent ones, without removing circuit boards from the instrument, by Robert A. Frohwerk, pg 2-8

Easy-to-Use Signature Analyzer Accurately Troubleshoots Complex Logic Circuits...it's a new tool for field troubleshooting of logic circuits to the component level, by Anthony Y. Chan, pg 9-14

Signature Analysis--Concepts, Examples, and Guidelines...guidelines for the designer are developed based on experience in attempting to retrofit existing products for signature analysis and the successful application of signature analysis in a new voltmeter, by Hans J. Nadig, pg 15-21

Personal Calculator Algorithms I: Square Roots...a detailed description of the algorithm used in HP hand-held calculators to computer square roots, by William E. Egbert, pg 24


A Wide-Ranging Power Supply of Compact Dimensions...its output ranging from 0 to 50 volts and 0 to 10 amperes, this 200W, series-regulated, laboratory power supply spans a range that would normally require three power supplies and it can be programmed by way of the HP interface bus, by William T. Walker, John W. Hyde, Paul W. Bailey, pg 2-9

Remote Programming of Power Supplies Through the HP Interface Bus, by Kent Luehman, Emery Salesky, pg 6-7

Coaxial Components and Accessories for Broadband Operation to 26.5 GHz...the new APC-3.5 coaxial connector makes it possible to design detectors, attenuators, sliding loads, and switches for broadband operation to 26.5 GHz, by Ronald E. Pratt, Donald R. Chambers, George R. Kirkpatrick, pg 10-16

Personal Calculator Algorithms II: Trigonometric Functions...a detailed explanation of the algorithms used by HP hand-held calculators to compute sine, cosine, and tangent, by William E. Egbert, pg 17-20


Cover; Model 2641 APL Display Station

Small Computer System Supports Large-Scale Multi-User APL...powerful, interactive APL is now available for the multi-lingual HP 3000 Series II Computer System, by Kenneth A. Van Bree, pg 2-5

APL Data: Virtual Workspaces and Shared Storage, by Grant J. Munsey, pg 6-10

APLGOL: Structured Programming Facilities for APL, by Ronald L. Johnston, pg 11-13

APL/3000 Summary, pg 14-16

A Dynamic Incremental Compiler for an Interpretive Language, by Eric J. Van Dyke, pg 17-23

A Controller for the Dynamic Compiler, by Kenneth A. Van Bree, pg 21-22

Extended Control Functions for Interactive Debugging, by Kenneth A. Van Bree, pg 23-24

CRT Terminal Provides both APL and ASCII Operation, by Warren W. Leong, pg 25-28


Cover: Model 7920A Disc Drive which consists of two protect discs and three data discs and holds 50 megabytes of data

New 50-Mmegabyte Disc Drive: High Performance and Reliability from High-Technology Design...achieving its high performance and large storage capacity required sophisticated design methods and tested the known limits of some manufacturing processes, by Herbert P. Stickel, pg 2-15

Head Alignment Disc Pack, by James Hood, pg 9

A Mechanical Vibrations Analogy for Servo System Design, by Joel Harrison, Lynn Weber, pg 13-14

An Individualized Pulse/Word Generator System for Subnanosecond Testing...a high-speed pulse/word generator is constructed in modular form so it can be configured according to specific testing requirements, by Volker Eberle, Christian Hentschel, Gunter Riebesell, Joel Zellmer, pg 16-24


Cover: Model 8772A X-Y Plotter

A New Family of Intelligent Multi-Color X-Y Plotters...these fast, precise, programmable plotters draw report quality four-color plots with features including dashed-line fonts, several built-in character fonts, user-defined characters, and symbol plotting, by Lawrence G. Brunetti, pg 2-5

Easy-to-Use Interface Language Controls HP-IB Plotter, by Thomas H. Daniels, Larry W. Hennessee, pg 5-9

Remote Terminal Plotter Offers Simple Programming and Efficient Communications, by Marvin L. Patterson, David A. Bones, pg 9-13

Speed, Precision, and Smoothness Characterize Four-color Plotter Pen Drive System, by Richard M. Kemplin, Robert D. Haselby, Marvin L. Patterson, pg 13-18

Pen and Ink System Helps Assure Four-color Plotter Line Quality, by Richard M. Kemplin, Larry W. Hennessee, Leonard P. Balazer, George W. Lynch, pg 20-25

A Battery-Powered ECG Monitor for Emergency and Operating Room Environments...electrical isolation, reduced susceptibility to RF and electrosurgery interference and battery power equip this non-fade ECG monitor to operate in the electrically hostile environments found in emergency vehicles and operating rooms, by Ronald D. Gatzke, Sherry R. Grobstein, pg 26-32


Cover: Model 5420A Digital Singal Analyzer

Advanced Digital Signal Analyzer Probes Low-Frequency Signals with Ease and Precision...significant new features include absolute internal calibration in the user's choice of engineering units, digital band selectable or 'zoom' analysis, fully annotated dual-trace CRT display with X and Y axis cursors, digital storage of data and measurement setups on a tape cartridge and a random noise source to provide test stimulus, by H. Webber McKinney, Richard H. Grote, pg 2-8

The Module I/O Bus (MIOB), by David C. Synder, pg 6

Front End Design for Digital Signal Analysis, by Jean-Pierre Patkay, Frank R.f. Chu, Hans A. M. Wiggers, pg 9-14

Display and Storage Systems for a Digital Signal Analyzer, by Walter M. Edgerley Jr., David C. Snyder, pg 14-17

Digital Signal Analyzer Applications...analyses of two actual systems, one electrical and one mechanical, show what the analyzer can do, by Terry L. Donahue, Joseph P. Oliverio, pg 17-21

Printing Financial Calculator Sets New Standards for Accuracy and Capability...this briefcase-portable calculator has several new functions and is exceptionally easy to use and most importantly, the user need not be concerned about questions of accuracy or operating limits, by Roy E. Martin, pg 22-28


Cover: Model 8672A Synthesized Signal Generator

Expanding Synthesized Signal Generation to the Microwave Range...here are two broadband, programmable, high-spectral-purity microwave signal sources, a 2-to-18 GHz synthesized signal generator and a 2-6.2 GHz synthesizer. Both are single compact 13-cm high instruments, by James L. Thomason, pg 2-7

A Fast 2-18 GHz Pulse Modulator, by Ronald Larson, pg 6

Frequency Synthesis in a Microwave Signal Generator, by Kenneth L. Astrof, pg 8-15

An Improved 2-to-6.2-GHz YIG-Tuned Oscillator, by G. Basawapatna, J. Nidecker, pg 12

Dealing with Microphonic Sidebands, by Carl Enlow, pg 14-15

Signal Generator Features for a Microwave Synthesizer, by Bradley C. Stribling, pg 15-21

A Calibrated 50-Hz-to-10-MHz FM System, by Robert Dildine, Ronald Larson, pg 20-21

Personal Calculator Algorithms III: Inverse Trigonometric Functions, by William E. Egbert, pg 22-23

Viewpoints: Tom Hornak on Fiber-Optic Communications, pg 24-25

An NMOS Process for High-Performance LSI Circuits...fast 16-bit microprocessors, 16K read-only memories and a variety of special-purpose random-logic chips are the result of an NMOS process that produces high-performance large-scale integrated circuits, by Joseph E. Deweese, Thomas R. Ligon, pg 26-32


Cover: The multifaceted HP-01 Wrist Instrument

Wrist Instrument Opens New Dimension in Personal Information...it's a digital electronic wristwatch, a personal calculator, an alarm clock, a stopwatch, a timer, and a 200-year calendar, and its functions can interact to produce previously unavailable results, by Andre F. Marion, Edward A. Heinsen, Robert Chin, Bennie E. Helmso, pg 2-10

Higher Precision in Oscilloscope Measurements of Very Short Time Intervals...incorporating electronic counter circuits in a delta-time oscilloscope enables 100-ps resolution in measurements of clock phasing, propagation delay and other digital system timing parameters, by Ronald C. Westlund, pg 11-17

A Wide-Ranging, Automatic LCR Meter for Stand-Alone or Systems Applications...microprocessor control broadens the capabilities of this speed LCR meter and makes it readily adaptable to BCD or HP-IB automatic systems, by Masahiro Yokokawa, Keiki Kanafuji, pg 18-24



Cover: Microprocessor Control

An Automatic Selective Level Measuring Set for Multichannel Communications Systems...combining microprocessor control with meticulous receiver and synthesizer design results in a powerful new tool for the installation, maintenance, and survelliance of frequency-division multiplexed communications systems, by J. Reid Urquhart, pg 2-7

Designing Precision into a Selective Level Measuring Set, by Hugh P. Walker, pg 8-12

Designing a Quiet Frequency Synthesizer for a Selective Level Measuring Set, by John H. Coster, pg 13-15

Making the Most of Microprocessor Control, by David G. Dack, pg 16-18

Real-Time Multi-User BASIC...easy-to-lear, interactive BASIC is now available as a programming language for HP computer systems operating under the real-time executive operating systems, RTE-II and RTE-III, by James T. Schultz, pg 19-24


Cover: A sculptural representation of the 5501A Laser Transducer System for machine-tool positioning

Laser Transducer Systems for High-Accuracy Machine Positioning...these reliable, modular systems consist of an HP two-frequency laser head and interferometric optics designed for permanent installation on a machine tool or measuring machine, and a selection of interface electronics to couple the laser to a computer, calculator or numerical controller, by Andre F. Rude, Michael J. Ward, pg 2-6

Electronics for the Laser Transducer...the emphasis is on flexibility and completeness, making the system adaptable to virtually any combination of controller and machine, by William E. Olson, Robert B. Smith, pg 7-18

Using a Programmable Calculator as a Data Communications Terminal...a discussion of the data communications capabilities of the HP 9830A Calculator, with examples of real-life applications, by James E. Carlson, Ronald L. Stickle, pg 19-24


Cover: The new rugged Model 5062C Cesium Beam Frequency Reference and the new 15-centimeter cesium beam tube that makes it possible

A Cesium Beam Frequency Reference for Severe Environments...systems operating in demanding environments, including airborne, marine and land mobile, can now benefit from the accuracy and stability of the cesium atom as a time and frequency reference, by Charles E. Heger, Ronald C. Hyatt, Gary A. Seavey, pg 2-10

Calibrated FM, Crystal Stability, and Counter Resolution for a Low-Cost Signal Generator...a new synchronizer/counter boosts the frequency stability and resolution of HP's low-cost 520-MHz signal generator, which is now available in a new calibrated-FM version, Model 8654B, as well as the original Model 8654A, by Robert R. Collison, Ronald E. Kmetovicz, pg 11-17

A 50-Mbit/s Pattern Generator and Error Detector for Evaluating Digital Communications System Performance...to simplify measurements in PCM system, this new all-in-one instrument has fixed clock rates and a choice of interface levels while also estimating coding errors and measuring clock-frequency offset, by Ivan R. Young, Robert Pearson, Peter M. Scott, pg 18-24


Cover: Model 3810A Total Station gives the operator a direct readout of distance to a pole-mounted retroreflector held by his rod man

Electronic Total Station Speeds Survey Operations...this new electronic surveying instrument measures slope distance and zenith angle simultaneously, then computes and displays horizontal or vertical distance in feet or metres and its base measures horizontal angle, by Michael L. Bullock, Richard E. Warren, pg 2-12

Designing Efficiency into a Digital Processor for an Analytical Instrument...hardware control of the I/O system eliminates excessive overhead in the architecture of a digital processor used in a gas chromatograph, leading to significant improvements in operating convenience, by John S. Poole, Len Bilen, pg 13-20


Cover: Model 2644A Terminal is a microprocessor-controlled CRT terminal that has two built-in magnetic tape units for mass data storage

New CRT Terminal Has Magnetic Tape Storage for Expanded Capability...two built-in tape drives make the terminal a stand-alone data station, by Robert G. Nordman, Richard L. Smith, Louis A. Witkin, pg 2-15

Mini Data Cartridge: A Convincing Alternative for Low-Cost, Removable Storage, by Alan J. Richards, pg 6-7

Laboratory Notebook: A Logarithmic Counter, by David Arnold, pg 15-16


Cover: 9825A Calculator with its high-performance NMOS LSI processor and the powerful system-controller capabilities

Third Generation Programmable Calculator Has Computer-Like Capabilities...a new programming language, HPL, helps the user apply the many technological advances in this personal computing machine to a wide variety of computation and control problems, by Donald E. Morris, Chris J. Christopher, Geoffrey W. Chance, Dick B. Barney, pg 2-14

High-Performance NMOS LSI Processor, by William Eads, David S. Maitland, pg 15-18

Character Impact Printer Offers Maximum Printing Flexibility...this new printer is fast and reliable, and has features previously unavailable in a calculator peripheral, including programmable horizontal and vertical tabulation, variable character spacing, and plotting ability, by Robert B. Bump, Gary R. Paulson, pg 19-23

Mid-Range Calculator Delivers More Power at Lower Cost...its design takes advantage of the latest technology, principally a single-chip microprocessor, by Douglas Clifford, F. Timothy Hickenlooper, A. Craig Mortensen, pg 24-32


Cover: Model 8505A Network Analyzer

A Direct-Reading Network Analyzer for the 500-kHz-to-1.3-GHz Frequency Range...beside measurements of gain, loss, phase shift and reflection coefficient, this new all-in-one measuring set makes direct measurements of equivalent electrical length, group delay, and deviation from linear phase shift, by Hugo Vifian, pg 2-6

Measuring A Linearly Changing Frequency, by Frederick Woodhull, pg 6

A Family of Test Sets for the 500 kHz-1.3 GHz Range, by Julius Botka, pg 7

Processing Wide-Range Network Analyzer Signals for Analog and Digital Display, by William S. Lawson, David D. Sharrit, pg 8-11

A Precision RF Source and Down-Converter for the Model 8505A Network Analzyer, by Rolf Dalichow, Daniel R. Harkins, pg 12-16

Well-Matched Down-Converters, by Wayne Frederick, pg 13

Generating Well-Isolated Tracking Source Signals, by Mark Roos, Phillip Chen, pg 15


Cover: Against a backdrop photo of an HP 3000 series II Computer System are a Series II Memory board and an example of an Error Correcting Memory Log Analysis

Series II General-Purpose Computer Systems: Designed for Improved Throughput and Reliability...a larger, faster memory system with error correction and error logging, a faster central processor, an expanded instruction set, and a more efficient operating system are the major technological advances, by Leonard E. Shar, pg 2-7

An All-Semiconductor Memory with Fault Detection, Correction, and Logging, by Elio A. Toschi, Tak Watanabe, pg 8-13

HP 3000 Series II Performance Measurement, by Clifford A. Jager, pg 14-16


Cover: HP Model 1741A variable persistence/storage scope

An Easier-to-USe Variable-Persistence/Storage Oscilloscope with Brighter, Sharper Traces...revising the control arrangement and operating modes of a variable persistence oscilloscope results in a more "friendly" instrument that also has improved display characteristics, by Van Harrison, pg 2-8

A Brighter, More Sharply Focused Variable Persistence/Storage Cathode-Ray Tube, by Robert Wickliff Jr., pg 6

An Automatic Wide-Range Digital LCR Meter...easy operation, a wide measurement range, two measurement frequencies, high reliability, optional HP-IB compatibility, and low cost make it suitable for a wide range of component and impedance measurements, by Satoru Hashimoto, Toshio Tamamura, pg 9-16


Cover: New Oximeter

Continuous, Non-Invasive Measurements of Arterial Blood Oxygen Levels...a new oximeter gives calibrated non-invasive measurements of the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in arterial blood, using a multiwavelength optical technique that approaches "touch-and-read" convenience, by Edwin Merrick, Thomas Hayes, pg 2-9

Laboratory Notebook: A Signal-Level Reference, by J. Reid Urquhart, pg 10

Laboratory Notebook: An Accurate, Low-Noise Discriminator, by Gerald Ainsworth, Richard Pope, pg 10

Card-Programmable Digital IC Tester Simplifies Incoming Inspection...it's inexpensive, easy to set up to test a wide variety of digital IC's and easy to operate, by Eric Ingman, pg 11-18

Some Economic Considerations of IC Testing, by Mark Baker, pg 18-19


Cover: The HP-97 and the HP-67 are fully programmable portable calculators that can run each other's programs

A Pair of Program-Compatible Personal Programmable Calculators...one is a small, portable printing calculator and the other is a hand-held version without a printer but both versions feature a "smart" magnetic card reader, and each can run the other's programs, by Peter Dickinson, William Egbert, pg 2-8

Portable Scientific Calculator Has Built-In Printer...it's the first of a new generation of small, portable, printing calculators that operate on rechargable batteries or line current, by Bernard Musch, Robert Taggart, pg 9-16

The New Accuracy: Making 2 to the third = 8, by Dennis Harms, pg 16-17

High-Power Solid-State 5.9-12.4-GHz Sweepers...two new RF plug-ins for the 8620C Sweep Oscillator produce more than 50 mW of output power, thanks to a new gallium arsenide field-effect transistor, by Louis Kuhlman, Jr. pg 19-22

The GaAs FET in Microwave Instrumentation, by Patrick H. Wang, pg 22-23


Cover: Model 547A Current Tracer reveals the presence and relative size of current steps by the brightness of its built-in lamp while Model 546A Logic Pulser supplies the needed stimulus current if it isn't already present in the system under test

Current Tracer: A New Way to Find Low-Impedance Logic-Circuit Faults...by tracing current pulses, this sensitive probe helps locate solder bridges, shorted conductors in cables, shorts in voltage distribution networks, shorted IC inputs and dead or stuck outputs, stuck wired-AND circuits, and stuck data buses, by John Beckwith, pg 2-8

New Logic Probe Troubleshoots Many Logic Families...the probe's single lamp indicator displays high or low logic levels, bad levels, and open circuits on digital circuit nodes. Testable logic families include TTL, DTL, CMOS, HTL, HNIL and MOS, by Robert Quenelle, pg 9-11

A Smart Probe-Test System, by Barry Bronson, pg 10

A Multifunction, Multifamily Logic Pulser...this microprogrammed pulse geneator in a probe can produce single pulses, pulse bursts, or pulse streams, by Barry Bronson, Anthony Chan, pg 12-15

Probe Family Packaging, by David E. Gordon, pg 16-17

Multifamily Logic Clip Shows All Pin States Simultaneously...this new logic clip works with virtually all logic families from ECL to 18V CMOS, by Durward Priebe, pg 18-20

Interfacing a Parallel-Mode Logic State Analyzer to Serial Data...a new serial-to-parallel converter enables a parallel-mode logic state analyzer to work with serial data so the analyzer's tabular display and versatile triggering can be used for tracing data flow in serial data systems, by Justin Morrill, pg 21-24



Cover: HP Product Manager, Jane Evans, with the HP Interface Bus

The Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus: Current Perspectives...first announced over two years ago, the Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus has undergone refinements that make it suitable as a model for a proposed international standard, by Donald C. Loughry, pg 2-4

Putting Together Instrumentation Systems at Minimum Cost...instrumentation systems that do useful work can be assembled around the HP Interface Bus at costs in the $15k to $25k range. Here is an approach to assembling such systems with a minimum amount of engineering time, by David W. Ricci, Peter S. Stone, pg 5-11

Filling in the Gaps-Modular Accessories for Instrument Systems...these programmable modules provide such accessory functions as remote display, switching, digital-to-anallog conversion, and measurement pacing and timing., by Charles R. Trimble, Steven E. Schultz, pg 12-18

A Quiet, HP-IB-Compatible Printer that Listens to both ASCII and BCD, by Hans-Jurg Nadig, pg 14

A Multifunction Scanner for Calculator-Based Data Acquisition Systems, by David L. Wolpert, pg 17

Minimal Cost Measuring Instruments for Systems Use, by Lawrence P. Johnson, Gary D. Sasaki, pg 18

Visualizing Interface Bus Activity...connecting to the HP Interface Bus, a new analyzer listens to and displays the status of all bus lines for easy study of bus activity and it also serves as a talker, using programs in its internal memory to exercise bus-compatible instruments and systems, by Harold E. Dietrich, pg 19-23


Cover: Two-bridge measuremening that's easy for the 7047A X-Y Recorder

High-Sensitivity X-Y Recorder Has Few Input Restrictions...to match its high sensitivity, this new recorder provides 130 dB of common-mode rejection for virtually any input configuration. No external "guard" connection is needed unless the common-mode voltage exceeds ten volts peak, by Daniel E. Johnson, John M. Wade,Donald W. Huff, pg 2-9

Digital High-Capacitance Measurements to One Farad...here's a new high-C meter capable of measuring today's wide-value electrolytic and tantalum capacitors. It's for production testing, incoming inspection and the laboratory, by Kunihisa Osada, Jun-Ichi Suehiro, pg 10-16

Computer Performance Improvement by Measurement and Microprogramming...the speed of a computer-based Fourier analyzer was increased by a factor of ten by creating several new machine language instructions using firmware, by David C. Snyder, pg 17-24


Cover: New Model 86290A 2-to-18 GHz RF Plug-in installed in an 8620A Sweep Oscillator mainframe

A High-Performance 2-to-18-GHz Sweeper...this precise, compact microwave sweep oscillator is a significant contribution to its field. The latest microelectronic and YIG technology makes it possible, by Carl J. Enlow, Paul R. Hernday, pg 2-14

Broadband Swept Network Measurements...vector and scalar measurements can be made from 2 to 18 GHz in one sweep by pairing the new 2-18-GHz sweep oscillator with other microwave instruments, by John J. Dupre, Cyril J. Yansouni, pg 15-17

The Dual Function Generator: A Source of a Wide Variety of Test Signals...FM signals, AM signals, dc levels, tone bursts, pulses and ramps, in addition to sine, square and triangular waves, are produced by this new dual-source function generator, by Dan D. Danielson, Ronald J. Riedel, pg 18-24


Cover: Model 5305A, a new low-cost compact, portable 1100-MHz frequency counter

A Portable 1100-MHz Frequency Counter...this new addition to the 5300 Measuring System is well suited for checking out land mobile communications and aeronautical navigation equipment, by Hans J. Jekat, pg 2-8

Big Timer/Counter Capability in a Portable Package...this 75-MHz, eight-function universal timer/counter is another snap-on module for the low-cost, compact 5300 Measuring System, by Kenneth J. Macleod, pg 9-13

A High-Current Power Supply for Systems that use 5-volt IC Logic Extensively...this switching-regulated power supply gives 100A at 5 V with 70% efficiency. A heat-removal system allows compactness without loss of reliability, by Mauro Difrancesco, pg 14-19

Band-Selectable Fourier Analysis...frequency resolution in selected bands can be as much as 100 times better than conventional baseband Fourier analysis, by H. Webber McKinney, pg 20-24


Cover: Model 3551A Telephone Test Set

An Understandable Test Set for Making Basic Measurements on Telephone Lines...this new portable test set uses a digital processor to present direct-reading, autoranged measurements of level and frequency, substantially reducing operator errors, by Michael B. Aken, David K. Deaver, pg 2-9

A Computer System for Analog Measurements on Voiceband Data Channels...besides making nine data-channel performance tests automatically in less than two minutes, this new Transmission Parameter Analyzer is capable of a much broader range of measurements, by Roger F. Rauskolb, Stephen G. Cline, Robert H. Perdriau, pg 10-17

A Precision Spectrum Analyzer for the 10-Hz-to-13-MHz Range...adaptable to automatic systems or bench use, a new spectrum analyzer has measurement resolution of 0.01 dB, pass-bands as narrow as 3 Hz, and a dynamic range of 70 db, by Jerry W. Daniels, Robert L. Atchley, pg 18-24


Cover: Model 2640A Interactive display terminal using its optional line-drawing character set to display a form to be filled in by the operator

Cost-effective, Reliable CRT Terminal is First of a Family...microprocessor control and modular design result in a computer terminal that is powerful and flexible, yet low in cost, by James A. Doub, pg 2-5

A Functionally Modular Logic System for a CRT Terminal, by Arthur B. Lane, pg 6-10

A High-Resolution Raster Scan Display, by Jean-Claude Roy, pg 11-15

Firmware for a Microprocessor-controlled CRT Terminal, by Thomas F. Waitman, pg 16-19

A Microprocessor-Scanned Keyboard, by Otakar Blazek, pg 20-21

Packaging for Function, Manufacturability, and Service, by Robert B. Pierce, pg 22-24


Cover: Model 5328A Universal Counter and its optional input modules

Modularity Means Maximum Effectiveness in Medium-Cost Universal Counter...a single mainframe and a wide choice of optional timer, counter, and DVM modules provide better performance at lower cost, meet each user's needs precisely, and leave room for future growth, by Bruce S. Corya, James F. Horner, pg 2-8

Using a Modular Universal Counter...here's what the various features of the new Model 5328A Universal Counter can do for the user, by Alfred Langguth, William D. Jackson, pg 9-14

Synthesized Signal Generator Operation to 2.6 GHz with Wideband Phase Modulation...new plug-ins give the Model 8660-series Synthesized Signal Generators programmable operation to 2.6 GHz and a capability for phase modulation, by Young Dae Kim, James A. Hall, pg 15-20

Applications of a Phase-Modulated Signal Generator...once a capability is made available, applications emerge, so here are a few that have been found for the phase-modulated synthesized signal generator in HP's own labs, by James A. Hall, pg 21-24


Cover: Multichannel is the byword as new test instruments are developed in response to the accelerating rush to digital electronic

The Logic State Analyzer, a Viewing Port for the Data Domain...a new logic state analyzer has expanded capabilities that speed the location of the sources of problems in digital systems and broaden the range of problems that can be resolved with this class of instrument, by Charles T. Small, Justin S. Morrill, Jr., pg 2-10

Inside the Model 1607A Logic State Analyzer, by Thomas Saponas, pg 9

Oscilloscope Triggering on Digital Events, pg 11

Unravelling Problems in the Design of Microprocessor-Based Systems...the debugging of a microprocessor-based system is expedited considerably by an instrument that provides an appropriate disclosure of what's going on inside the system, by William E. Wagner, pg 12-16

A Multichannel Word Generator for Testing Digital Components and Systems...this instrument supplies eight 32-bit serial words simultaneously at clock rates up to 50 MHz or, conversely, 32 8-bit parallel words. Versatile outputs adapt the generator to a wide range of tests involving digital components, assemblies and data buses, by Wolfgang Kappler, Arndt Pannach, pg 17-24


Cover: Test procedures for Model 9510D can now be written in ATLAS, a high-level language that relieves the test procedure writer of the need for detailed knowledge of the test system

ATLAS: A Unit-Under-Test Oriented Language for Automatic Test Systems...an engineer can write test procedures in ATLAS without detailed knowledge of the system that will do the testing. HP's new ATLAS compiler is the first comprehensive implementation of what is fast becoming a world-wide standard test language, by William R. Finch, Robert B. Grady, pg 2-13

Automatic 4.5-GHz Counter Provides 1-Hz Resolution...this new frequency counter offers high performance for telecommunications and other applications at a modest cost, by Ali Bologlu, pg 14-18

A New Instrument Enclosure with Greater Convenience, Better Accessibility, and High Attenuation of RF Interference...evolutionary changes in the way electronic circuits are packaged have called for a new approach to enclosure design., by Allen F. Inhelder, pg 19-24


Cover: New Model 436A Digital Power Meter and the new Model 8484A Power Sensor

Digital Power Meter Offers Improved Accuracy,Hands-Off Operation, Systems Compatibility...this four-digit general-purpose microwave power meter features autoranging, absolute or relative readings, 0.01 dB resolution, and 0.02 dB basic accuracy, by Allen P. Edwards, pg 2-7

Very-Low-Level Microwave Power Measurements...a new low-barrier Schottky diode power sensor makes it possible to measure power as low as 100 picowatts over a frequency range of 10 MHz to 18 GHz, by Ronald E. Pratt, pg 8-10

Active Probes Improve Precision of Time Interval Measurements...usable with most time interval counters, this new probe system helps solve problems caused by trigger point indeterminacy, system delay errors, inadequate dynamic range, and circuit loading, by Robert W. Offermann, Steven E. Schultz, Charles R. Trimble, pg 11-16

Flow Control in High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography...operation at high pressures introduces many problems in the control of fluid flow when two solvents must be mixed in a precise ratio and hydraulic capacitors provide the key to precision solvent mixing, by Helge Schrenker, pg 17-24


Cover: The HP-21 Scientific, the H-22 Business and Financial, and the HP-25 Programmable Scientific

Three New Pocket Calculators: Smaller, Less Costly, More Powerful...HP's second-generation pocket calculator family now includes a basic scientific model, a programmable scientific model, and a business model, by Randall B. Neff, Lynn Tillman, pg 2-7

Inside the New Pocket Calculators...the HP-21 type of calculator isn't just a stripped-down version of older HP pocket calculators, but an entirely new design, by Richard Whicker, Michael J. Cook, George Fichter, pg 8-12

Packaging the New Pocket Calculators, by Thomas A. Hender, pg 10

A New Microwave Link Analyzer for Communications Systems Carrying Up to 2700 Telephone Channels...multiplexed communications systems can operate at full capacity only when distortions are at a low level, by Lan Matthews, Svend Christensen, pg 13-24


Cover: An oscilloscope displays wave-forms in the traditional manner but it can also be adapted to display 1's and 0's in a data format

A 100-MHz Analog Oscilloscope for Digital Measurements...a new general-purpose oscilloscope has features such as dual-channel magnification and third-channel trigger display that enhance its versatiility, particularly with respect to measurements in digital systems, by Allan I. Best, pg 2-7

An Oscilloscope Vertical-Channel Amplifier that Combines Monolithic, Thick-Film Hybrid, and Discrete Technologies...to minimize maintenance and calibration times by minimizing the number of parts and the number of adjustments, a high degree of integration was incorporated in the vertical amplifier system of the Model 1740A Oscilloscope, by Joe K. Millard, pg 8-11

A Real-Time Operating System with Multi-Terminal and Batch/Spool Capabilities...RTE-II, an advanced version of HP's real-time executive system for 2100 Series Computers, has several new features that aid both real-time measurement and control and concurrent background activities such as program development, by George A. Anzinger, Adele M. Gadol, pg 12-20

Real-Time Executive System Manages Large Memories...RTE-III does everything other HP real-time executive systems do and adds large-memory management using HP's dynamic mapping system, by Linda W. Averett, pg 21-24



Cover: Model 1601L Logic State Analzyer

The Logic State Analyzer-Displaying Complex Digital Processes in Understandable Form...sixteen consecutive 12-bit workds from any part of a data stream are captured and held for display by a new Logic State Analyzer, greatly simplifying the task of monitoring program flow when troubleshooting complex digital processors, by William A. Farnbach, pg 2-9

A Laser Interferometer That Measures Straightness of Travel...this unique "straightedge" combines the high accuracy of the optical flat with the long range of the laser to achieve submicron resolution over ranges up to 100 feet , by Richard R. Baldwin, David A. Harland, Barbara E. Grote, pg 10-20


Cover: Model 1220A Oscilloscope

Practical Oscilloscopes at Workaday Prices...15-MHz bandwidth, 2mV sensitivity, 3% accuracy, sweeps usable to 20ns/div and an 8x10 cm CRT with internal graticule would normally class these oscilloscopes as laboratory instruments but they will find wide use in the service shop, tech school and industry, by Hans-Gunter Hohmann, pg 2-10

A Data Error Analyzer for Tracking Down Problems in Data Communications...a combined data generator and self-synchronizing receiver, this new instrument makes six different measurements simultaneously, helping to pinpoint sources of trouble in data communications systems, by Jeffrey R. Duerr, pg 11-20

Laboratory Notebook: Sharp Cut-off Filters for That Awkward UHF Band, by James Larsen, Richard Dilman, Richard Tverdoch pg 10


Cover: Model 4271A Digital LCR meter

An Automatic, Precision 1-MHz Digital LCR Meter...this new LCR Meter is especially designed for measurements of low-value components in integrated circuits and thin-film hybrid circuits, as well as of discrete components using a four-pair measurement technique to reduce errors caused by stray capacitance, residual inductance and mutal inductance of the test leads, by Kohichi Maeda, pg 2-9

A Moderately Priced 20-MHz Pulse Generator with 16-Volt Output...suitable for general-purpose use, this instrument also has the pulse amplitude needed for driving the new CMOS circuits, by Rainer Eggert, Gunter Krauss, pg 10-15

Laboratory Notebook: Logarithmic Amplifier Accepts 100-dB Signal Range, by robert Jeremiasen, pg 16-17

Versatile VHF Signal Generator Stresses Low Cost and Portability...this high-quality, reliable instrument fits the budget and the performance needs of a variety of users, by Robert R. Hay, pg 18-24


Cover: New 9880A/B Mass Memory System for the 9830A Calculator

Mass Memory System Broadens Calculator Applications...inventory control, payroll, order processing and other large-data-base applications are now within the capability of HP's most powerful desktop calculator, the BASIC language Model 30, by Chris J. Christopher, Havyn E. Bradley, pg 2-12

An Easily Calibrated, Versatile Platinum Resistance Thermometer...unusual features of this digital thermometer are a choice of normal or expanded resolution, linear analog output, interchangeable probes, and many options including a battery pack and digital output, by Tony E. Foster, pg 13-17

Speeding the Complex Calculations Required for Assessing Left Ventricular Function of the Heart...adapting computers to medical tasks has been slower than originally anticipated, going step-by-step as truley suitable tasks are identified and implemented. Here's another example of how a computer can help out when a suitable task is identified, by Peter Dikeman, Chi-Ning Liu, pg 18-24


Cover: The HP-65 - a personal computer

The "Personal Computer": A Fully Programmable Pocket Calculator...this 11 ounce battery-powered marvel has the computing power of an advanced scientific pocket calculator and is programmable as well, so it can adapt to any number of specialized uses, by Chung C. Tung, pg 2-7

Programming the Personal Computer...wherein are revealed the functions of the keys, how problems are solved, and a bit of what goes on inside, by R. Kent Stockwell, pg 8-14

Designing a Tiny Magnetic Card Reader...here's how it was designed and how it works, by Robert B. Taggart, pg 15-17

Testing the HP-65 Logic Board...the board and its automatic test system are designed for rapid production testing and troubleshooting, by Kenneth W. Peterson, pg 18-20

Economical Precision Step Attenuators for RF and Microwaves...refinements in edgeline transmission structures and thin-film techniques lead to wideband step attenuators that are smaller and less expensive than previous models, by David R. Veteran, George R. Kirkpatrick, pg 21-24


Cover: Model 5345A Electronic Counter that advances the art of pulsed RF frequency measurements with frequency averaging

A New Generation in Frequency and Time Measurements...this new general-purpose electronic counter refines the art of frequency and time measurements to an impressive degree by the application of advanced technology, by James L. Sorden, pg 2-8

The 5345A Processor: An Example of State Machine Design, by Ronald E. Felsenstein, pg 9-11

Time Interval Averaging: Theory, Problems, and Solutions, by David C. Chu, pg 12-15

Third Input Channel Increases Counter Versatility, by Arthur S. Muto, pg 16-18

A Completely Automatic 4-GHz Heterodyne Frequency Converter, by Ali Bologlu, pg 19-21

Interface Bus Expands Instrument Utility, by Bryce E. Jeppsen, Steven E. Schultz, pg 22-24


Cover: IMAGE, a sophisticated new database management system for HP 2100 and HP 3000 Computers, has information management capabilities formerly available only in large computer systems

Powerful Data Base Management System for Small Computers...for the first time, sophisticated data management is available to the user of computers as small as the HP 2100 and HP 3000, by Richard E. McIntire, pg 2-10

Quality Frequency Counters Designed for Minimum Cost...lowest possible cost was a major design objective for these counters, but so were high quality, excellent performance, ease of service and efficient production, by Warren J. O'Buch, Lewis W. Masters, pg 11-14

A Versatile Bipolar Power Supply/Amplifier for Lab and Systems Use...the elements of a power supply/amplifier can be combined to perform as several different instruments: a precision bipolar power supply, a fast-responding programmable power supply, a low-distortion current-limiting power amplifier, a power amplifier with programmable gain, by Santo Pecchio, pg 15-19

An Automatic Exposure Control for a Lab-Bench X-Ray Camera...locating shorted bonding wires in IC's, checking pad alignment in multilayer circuit boards, and finding much other "inside" information becomes as easy as taking snapshots when you use an industrial x-ray system that has automatic exposure control, by John L. Brewster, pg 20-24


Cover: Model 4940A Transmission Impairment Measuring Set

Measuring Analog Parameters of Voiceband Data Channels...a new Transmission Impairment Measuring Set combines the measurement capabilities of six separate instruments into one portable package and does it in one-fourth the time formerly required, by Noel E. Damon, pg 2-7

Transient Measurements, by Paul G. Winninghoff, pg 8-9

The 4940A Sine Wave Transmitter, by Richard T. Lee, pg 9-11

Nonlinear Distortion Measurements, by Donald A. Dresch, pg 12-13

Envelope Delay Distortion Measurements, by Johann J. Heinzl, Richard G. Fowles, pg 14-16

Peak-to-Average Ratio Measurements, by Erhard Ketelsen, pg 17-18

Microwave Integrated Circuits Solve a Transmission Problen in Educational TV...an educational TV system using a satellite transmission link needs a state-of-the-art ground-station receiver that doesn't cost very much, by Arthur Fong, James A. Hall, Douglas J. Mellor, Richard D. Pering, pg 20-24


Cover: Model 8082A Pulse Generator

A 250-MHz Pulse Generator with Transition Times Variable to less than 1 ns...generating pulses at a 250-MHz repetition rate while giving the operator full control over the shape of these pulses requires microcircuit techniques, by Gert Globas, Eldon Cornish, Joel Zellmer, pg 2-7

Optimizing the Design of a High-Performance Oscilloscope...a wideband oscilloscope is more useful if its performance is not subject to variations that may degrade measurement accuracy. Its value is even more apparent if this consistent performance is achieved at moderate cost, both initial and long-term, by S. Raymond Kushnir, Thomas J. Zamborelli, P. Kent Hardage, pg 8-15

A Thin-Film/Semiconductor Thermocouple for Microwave Power Measurements...this device is what makes it possible for the 435A/8481A Power Meter to outperform thin-film and thermistor power meters, by Weldon H. Jackson, pg 16-18

Microelectronics Enhances Thermocouple Power Measurements...day-to-day microwave power measurement accuracy is substantially improved by this new thermocouple power meter system, without sacrificing the convenience of earlier thermistor instruments, by John Lamy, pg 19-24


Cover: The HP 21 MX Series

A User-Oriented Family of Minicomputers...HP's minicomputer section manager discusses the philosophy behind the design of this new computer series, by John M. Stedman, pg 2-6

Microprogrammable Central Processor Adapts Easily to Special User Needs...the 21MX processor maintains program and I/O compatibility with its HP predecessors, but has a new micro-instruction format that makes it easier to extend the instruction set, by Philip Gordon, Jacob R. Jacobs, pg 7-14

Testing the 21 MX Processor, by Richard L. Hammons, Cleaborn C. Riggins, pg 10-11

All Semiconductor Memory Selected for New Minicomputer Series...considerations of cost, reliability, power, density and speed all pointed to the 4K RAM as the best choice, by Robert J. Frankenberg, pg 15-20

The Million-Word Minicomputer Main Memory, by John S. Elward, pg 19-20

A Computer Power System for Severe Operating Conditions...the power supply system of 21 MX Series Computers differs in many respects from the power supplies of other minicomputers. It is less vulnerable to poor ac line conditions than the supplies of most minicomputers of similiar size and cost, by Richard C. Van Brunt, pg 21-24


Cover: A 9700A Distributed System Central Station collects data from two satellite automatic test systems dedicated to measurement tasks

Distributed Computer Systems...as multiple minicomputers collect data, control processes, and run tests, a central computer system supports them all, gathering data, generating management reports, and performing other tasks at the same time, by Shane Dickey, pg 2-11

A Quality Course in Digital Electronics...this practical approach to the teaching of digital integrated circuit principles includes hardware, a textbook and a 26-experiment laboratory workbook, by James A. Marrocco, Barry Bronson, pg 12-14

Simplified Data-Transmission Channel Measurements...synthesized signal generation and a dual time-interval measurement simplify evaluation of group delay and attenuation distortion in voice-grade telephone lines used for transmitting digital data, by David H. Guest, pg 15-24


Cover: The LED numeric display on this oscilloscope is an essential part of a new way of measuring very short time intervals

Improved Accuracy and Convenience in Oscilloscope Timing and Voltage Measurements...timing measurements are made more easily and accurately with the dual-delayed sweep of a new oscilloscope. An internal microprocessor gives direct readout of time or voltage, greatly simplifying measurement procedures, by William B. Risley, Walter A. Fischer, pg 2-11

Laboratory Notebook: An Active Loop-Holding Device, by David H. Guest

A Supersystem for BASIC Timesharing...this HP 3000 Computer System is optimized for BASIC language timesharing, but it also supports concurrent batch processing in BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, and SPL, by Nealon Mack, Leonard E. Shar, pg 12-17

Deriving and Reporting Chromatograph Data with a Microprocessor-controlled Integrator...printing retention times next to the peaks while plotting the chromatogram, a new integrator measures the chromatograph peak areas and, at the end of the run, derives concentrations and prints the analysis on the chromatogram, by Andrew Stefanski, pg 18-24

Adapting a Calculator Microprocessor to Instrumentation, by Hal Barraclough, pg 22



Cover: The new HP 3000 Computer System

An Economical Full-Scale Multipurpose Computer System...this is the first 16-bit computer system to have a hardware stack architecture and virtual memory. It handles time-sharing, batch processing, and real-time operations in several languages concurrently, by Bert Forbes, Michael Green, pg 2-6

Central Bus Links Modular HP 3000 Hardware...sharing the bus can be one or more CPU's, I/O processors, memory modules, high-speed I/O channels and special devices. The microprogrammed CPU's have a procedure-oriented stack architecture, by Jamshid Basiji, Arndt B. Bergh, pg 9-14

Software for a Multilingual Computer...SPL is a high-level language that produces code that's as efficient as other systems' assembly-language code. Other 3000 languages are FORTRAN, BASIC and COBOL, by William E. Foster, pg 15-19

Single Operating System Serves all HP 3000 Users...the Multiprogramming Executive operating system takes care of command interpretation, file management, memory management, scheduling and dispatching, and input/output management for time-sharing, batch and real-time users, by Thomas A. Blease, Alan Hewer, pg 20-24


Cover: HP's new Model 8640A/B 0.45-550 MHz Signal Generator

A Solid State VHF Signal Generator for Today's Exacting Requirements...the spectral purity of a vacuum-tube oscillator and the freedom from aging effects characteristic of solid-state oscillators are combined in a new 450 kHz-550 MHz signal generator that also includes high-quality FM and AM capabilities in addition to CW, by Michael S. Marzalek, Larry C. Sanders, Kenneth L. Astrof, Raymond M. Shannon, pg 2-13

Computer-Aided Design of Modular Power Supplies...a universal circuit and a computer program - these make it possible to obtain fixed-voltage, modular power supplies in a wide range of output ratings at low cost, but with labratory-grade performance and reliable operation assured, by Willis C. Pierce, Jr., James S. Gallo, William T. Walker, pg 14-20


Cover: HP Model 5700A Gas Chromatograph

High Performance Flame-Ionization Detector System for Gas Chromatography...a new electrometer circuit plus improvements in mechanical design bring a higher level of performance to a widely-used technique for chemical analysis, by Douglas H. Smith, pg 2-10

Synthesized Signal Generation to 1.3 GHz...because they maintain quartz-crystal stability at all frequencies over a wide range, frequency synthesizers find growing use in testing procedures , by Bradley Stribling, Young Dae Kim, Roland Hassun, Dieter Scherer, Melvin Humpherys, Charles Cook, pg 11-19

A Greater Range of Capabilities for the Compact, Plug-on Digital Multimeter...higher sensitivity for voltage and resistance measurements, 5-digit resolution and a new "set range" concept are given the inexpensive 3470 Measurement System by new plug-on modules, by Arthur Dumont, Stephen Venzke, Reid Gardner, pg 20-24


Cover: Behind the type N connector on the front panel of Model 5340A Frequency Counter is the assembly shown here: a power splitter followed by two wide-band thin-film hybrid samplers and toher elements of two phase-locked loops

A High-Performance Automatic Microwave Counter...this new counter needs only a single input to measure 10Hz to 18 GHz, and its sensitivity is many times better than previous counters, by Richard F. Schneider, pg 2-9

A dc-to-20-GHz Thin-film Signal Sampler for Microwave Instrumentation...this rugged, miniature, wideband sampler is responsible for many of the advanced capabilities of the new Model 5340A Microwave Counter, by Jerry Merkelo, pg 10-13

Automating the Calibration Laboratory...this new family of systems, combining standard and specially developed hardware and software, greatly reduces instrument calibration times without sacrificing precision or thoroughness, by John L. Minck, E. Robert Aikin, pg 14-24


Cover: Ray Hutchinson at the Pacific Stock Exchange holding a HP-80 Business Pocket Calculator

A Pocket-Sized Answer Machine for Business and Finance...this new nine-ounce, battery-powered calculator replaces most commonly used financial tables, such as compound interest, annuities and bonds and it's also a 200-year calendar, by William L. Crowley, France Rode, pg 2-9

Laboratory Notebook: Thick Films Widen Attenuator Response, by Thomas Zamborelli, pg 9

A More Rugged, Cleaner Writing Oscillographic Ink Recorder...this new oscillographic recording system features a reliable low-pressure ink system, instant-dry near-black ink, plug-in versatility and a rugged, serviceable design, by Lawrence Brunetti, pg 10-17

A Quiet, Low-Cost, High-speed Line Printer...this thermal printer writes 80 column lines at 250 lines per minute. Developed primarily for the 9830A Calculator, it's a general-purpose printer that's easily interfaced to a variety of controllers, by Dick B. Barney, James R. Drehle, pg 18-24


Cover: The tweezers hold a new monolithic silicon-on-glass diode quad

Schottky-Barrier Diodes Structured for Better High-Frequency Performance...connecting discrete components into thin-film hybrid circuits becomes increasingly difficult as the demand for higher frequencies gives rise to smaller components. Described here is a way of fabricating diodes to gain high frequency performance without imposing severe mechanical limitations, by Raymond A. Morris, Jack H. Lepoff, pg 2-6

DMM and DAC Modules Expand Low-Cost Measuring System...a five-digit multimeter/counter module and a three-digit digital-to-analog converter mdoule are new members of the 5300 Measuring System joining the mainframe, battery pack, and four timer/counter modules previously available, by Lewis W. Master, James F. Horner, P. Thomas Mingle, pg 7-15

Laser/Calculator System Improves Encoder Plate Measurements...this in-house system is a good example of what the right combination of instruments and calculator can do for measurements. Developed for acceptance testing of the optical position-encoder plates used in HP moving-head disc drives, its speed and accuracy have helped improve yields from the original 20% to the present 90%, by Glenn O. Herreman, pg 16-18

Instrument Basics Without Pain...engineers and non-engineers in science and technology have one thing in common: they need to understand electronic instruments. HP's Clyde Coombs has assembled a book that answers the need - Basic Electronic Instrument Handbook - a book review by Ross Snyder, pg 19-20


Cover: The monochromator assembly, crystal disperser, electron lens and detector assembly from Model 5950A ESCA Spectrometer

A Second-Generation ESCA Spectrometer...monochromatized x-rays, a dispersion compensated electron optical system and an improved detection system enhance the sensitivity and resolution of a powerful analytical technique - Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, by Michael A. Kelly, Charles E. Tyler, pg 2-14

Compact Function Generator with Enhanced Capability/Cost Ratio...a no-frills design plus a computer's help in verifying zero production defects brings the cost of this handy instrument down without sacrificing quality, by E. Harry Heflin, pg 15-20


Cover: The HP 9540 Transceiver Test System helps assure reliability by improving quality control, and lowers test costs, too

Automated Transceiver Testing...a new computerized system is dedicated to production and maintenance testing of mobile transmitters, receivers, and transceivers in the communication bands from 10 MHz to 1000 MHz. Tests conform to EIA standards and include AM, FM, audio, and power tests, by Dimitry A. Bobroff, pg 2-7

Signal Processing Techniques for Automatic Transceiver Testing...here's how the 9540 System test transceivers to EIA standards using only a voltmeter and a counter, by Robert G. Huenemann, pg 8-13

Digitally-Controlled Current Sources for New Ways of Making Automatic Measurements...using a digitally-controlled current source as the stimulus in automatc test systems simplifies some measurements, improves others, and makes some easy that would be hard to do any other way, by Rene Peerboom, pg 14-20

Index: Volumes 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 - September 1968 through August 1973, PART I: Chronological Index pg 2-5, Part II: Subject Index 6-15


Cover: Model 3580A Spectrum Analyzer

A Low-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer that Makes Slow Sweeps Practical...this new spectrum analyzer speeds up the process while bringing a number of other conveniences to this class of instrument, by William L. Hale, Gerald E. Weibel, pg 2-13

A High-Performance Beam Tube for Cesium Beam Frequency Standards...the benefits are significant improvements in accuracy, short-term stability, settability, and sensitivity to external dc magnetic fields, by Ronald C. Hyatt, Louis F. Mueller, Terry N. Osterdock, pg 14-24


Cover: Model 5000A Logic Analyzer's two rows of 32 red light-emitting diodes display digital data occurring at the A and B inputs

The Logic Analyzer: A New Instrument for Observing Logic Signals...designed specifically to solve digital design and troubleshooting problems, this new instrument provides a digital display with storage, positive and negative digital delay, combinatorial triggering and digital sequence comparison, by Mark Baker, Howard D. Marshall, Robin Adler, pg 2-16

A Pulse Generator for Today's Digital Circuits...this new dual-output Pulse Generator produces 16V pulses at high repetition rates and with as much as 16V offset, a new control arrangement makes pulse set-up much simpler, by Horst Link, Reinhard Falke, pg 17-24


Cover: A hand-held digital multimeter has finally become reality

A Self-Contained, Hand-Held Digital Multimeter-A New Concept in Instrument Utility...aside from clipping the coiled lead to any convenient reference point, only one hand is needed to hold this instrument and take a reading, by Robert L. Dudley, Virgil L. Laing, pg 2-9

A Portable High-Resolution Counter for Low-Frequency Measurements...this snap-on functional module for the low-csot 5300 Measuring System makes six-digit measurements of frequencies between 0.833 Hz and 2 MHz with special features helping solve many low-frequency measurement problems, by Kenneth J. Macleod, pg 10-15

A High-Speed Pattern Generator and an Error Detector for Testing Digital Systems...the rate at which errors occur in transferring digits through systems operating at bit rates as hgih as 150 M bits /s can be determined by a new Error Detector working with a new Data Generator, by James Robertson, John Stinson, Thomas Crawford, Ivan Young, pg 16-24


Cover: The new Model 7155A Portable Strip-Chart Recorder

A Go-Anywhere Strip-Chart Recorder that Has Laboratory Accuracy...this rugged, portable recorder is designed to operate in the laboratory, in a moving vehicle or aircraft, in the desert, in freezing temperatures, on battery power or ac of various frequencies, even upside down, always within its laboratory specifications, by Rick A. Warp, Howard L. Merrill, pg 2-8

Telecommunication Cable Fault Location from the Test Desk...this new fault locator automates Wheatstone-bridge methods that have fallen into disuse because they are too cumbersome with the results being that it has fast, easy fault location and better telephone service, by Thomas R. Graham, James M. Hood, pg 9-14

High-Efficiency Modular Power Supplies Using Switching Regulators...the switching regulators' advantages of smaller size and cooler operation used to be counterbalanced by higher cost, slower transient response and noise, both electrical and acoustical. These new power supplies reduce the disparity significantly, by B. William Dudley, Robert D. Peck, pg 15-20



Cover: A new computerized catheterization lab measurement system

A Computer-aided Hospital Systems for Cardiac Catheterization Procedures...computer reduction of data acquired during cardiac catheterization eliminates considerable pencil and paper computation, a significant time-saver for the physician. Simultaneously, it guarantees highly sophisticated meaurements while shortening a normally lengthy procedure, a less disquieting experience for the patient, by John L. Fanton, pg 2-7

Clip-and-Read Comparator Finds IC Failures...here's a clever new tool for troubleshooting digital integrated-circuit equipment, by Mark Baker, Jesse Pipkin, pg 8-12

The Well-Modulated Synthesizer...while preserving synthesizer qualities, means are found to modulate output widely, precisely, and remotely, by James E. Stinehelfer, pg 13-16


Cover: New HP Automatic Spectrum Analyzer can detail the scene, identify alarm conditions and offer further options

Introducing the Automatic Spectrum Analyzer...under computer control a modern spectrum analyzer becomes an entirely new instrument, by Michael Cunningham, Lynn Wheelwright, pg 2-6

Organizing the Automatic Spectrum Analyzer System...organization determines the usefulness of the system's many capabilities, by William H. Shaffer, pg 7-9

Automating the 10-MHz-to-18-GHz Receiver...as it is automated, the spectrum analyzer not only acquires computer programmability but also some improvements in basic performance, by Steven Neil Sanders, pg 10-13

Hewlett-Packard's Barney Oliver and John Cage Write the Book...no one or two authorities on instrumentation could alone have produced the new McGraw-Hill text "Electronic Measurements and Instrumentation" which Oliver and Cage have edited, pg 14-16

Fine-line Thermal Recording on z-fold Paper, by Walter R. McGrath, Arthur Miller, pg 17-20


Cover: Microwave Communications Repeater

Time Domain Reflectometry in Narrowband Systems, by Gene A. Ward, pg 2-7

Measuring High-value Capacitors...high-capacitance electrolytics have been difficult to measure but new circuit developments make "touch and read" measurements possible, by Yoshihisa Kameoka, pg 8-13

Measuring True RMS AC Voltages to 100 MHz...broadband measurements of true rms voltage used to be costly or inaccurate or both, by J.B. Folsom, pg 14-20


Cover: HP's new ECG Telemetry System

An Effective ECG Telemetry System...replacing direct wiring with an RF telemetry link benefits a monitored cardia patient by releasing him from the confines of a bed, but it could create some additional problems for the nursing staff but the ECG Telemetry System deftly overcomese these problems, by James Larsen, Richard Dillman, Alfred Nardizzi, Richard Tverdoch, pg 2-9

A Human Interface for Automatic Measurement Systems...this system console enhances a user's ability to operate a measurement system that features a magnetic tape cassette operating system and an interactive graphic display, by Kenneth Fox, Marc Pasturel, Peter Showman, pg 10-17

An Agile Graphic Display Device...the new Graphic Displays have a display area of 11x15 inches, 0.02 inch spot size, 50 ft-L brightness, less than 1 large-step jump and setting time something that has not been met by a display device until now, by John Riggen, Douglas Fogg, pg 18-24


Cover: The fast, precise linear-motor actuator and head carriage assembly that moves the read/write heads in Model 7900A Disc Drive

A Faster, Tougher Disc Drive for Small Computer Systems...here's a high-performance cartridge disc drive that doesn't have to be treated like a baby since it's the only peripheral storage device most small computer systems need, by James Herlinger, James Barnes, pg 2-5

Inside the 7900 Disc Drive...here's what makes it fast, accurate, rugged and reliable, by James Herlinger, William Lloyd, pg 6-11

Reading and Writing on the Fast Disc...specially designed wide-temperature range heads and a phase-locked loop help guarantee reliable data transfer...by William Girdner, Wallace Overton, pg 12-14

An Efficient Disc Drive/Computer Interface...the I/O structure minimizes bulk, system cost, and computer overhead, but doesn't get in the way of drive performance, by Donald Bowman, pg 15-16

Narrowband Noise Immunity in a Broadband Gain-Phase Meter...a new Gain-Phase Meter promises to make phase measurements as routine as voltage measurements and despite its broad bandwidth, the new instrument has much of the ability of narrowband phase-meters to suppress the effects of noise, by Raymond Hanson, pg 17-20


Cover: Dr. Dennis R. Clark of the Stanford University Department of Pharmacology with his HP-35 Pocket Calculator

The 'Powerful Pocketful': an Electronic Calculator Challenges the Slide Rule...this nine-ounce, battery-powered scientific calculator, small enough to fit in a shirt pocket, has logarithmic, trigonometric, and exponential functions and computes answer to 10 significant digits, by Thomas Whitney, France Rode, Chung Tung, pg 2-9

Algorithms and Accuracy in the HP-35...a lot goes on in that little machine when it's computing a transcedental function, by David Cochran, pg 10-11

Packaging the Pocket Calculator...the industrial design of the HP-35 was of primary importance, often taking precedence over electrical considerations, by Edward Liljenwall, pg 12-13

New Capabilities in Digital Low-Frequency Spectrum Analysis...a new Fourier analyzer and two fast-transform peripherals adapt to a wide range of applications, by Stephan Cline, Norman Marschke, pg 14-20


Cover: HP's new Automatic Synthesizer

The Synthesized Test Oscillator - A New Signal Source for the 0.1 Hz-13 MHz Range...programmability, high accuracy in frequency and level setting, waveform purity are some of the capabilities that are being asked of a wide-range signal sources and this one does, by Ronald Tuttle, pg 2-8

The Incremental Sweep Generator - Point-by-Point Accuracy with Swept-Frequency Convenience...puttinh a calculator in a 0.1 Hz-to-13 MHz Frequency Synthesizer gives the lab bench the speed and convenience of automatic testing, by Charles Kingsford-Smith, pg 9-15

Microprogramming and Writable Control Store...here's what these powerful but little-understood features of the HP 2100A minicomputer mean to the user, by Fred Coury, pg 16-20


Cover: The new Model 3490A Digital Multimeter

Compactness and Versatility in a New Plug-Together Digital Multimeter...a new 4 1/2 digit Multimeter is constructed in sections that plug together to form a compact instrument, giving the user a choice of capabilities, by Albert Gookin, pg 2-6

A New Five-Digit Multimeter that can test itself...along with 5-digit resolution, guarded inputs and other attributes of a precision multimeter, this one has an enhanced confidence factor, it can interrogate itself to verify that all goes well, by Lee Thompson, pg 7-12

Functional Modularity Helps Designer and User of New Measurement and Control Subsystem...a method of allocating functions to modules in a system, functional modularity gives a new industrial system-in-a-box a high degree of versatility at reasonable cost, by James Kasson, pg 13-19

Multiprogrammer Magnifies Minicomputer I/O Capacity...when you have an automatic system with dozens or hundreds of devices to control and monitor, and only a minicomputer to do the job, this minicomputer I/O extender can help, by John Mickowski, pg 20-24


Cover: The Logic Pulser and the Microwave Link Analyzer

Logic Pulser and Probe: a New Digital Troubleshooting Team...a new Logic Pulser in a probe package injects pulses onto digital circuit nodes without disconnecting IC outputs, by Robin Adler, Jan Hofland, pg 2-7

A New Microwave Link Analyzer with High-Frequency Test Tones...microwave link nonlinearities yield their secrets to high-frequency test tone probing, by Reid Urquhart, pg 8-16

MLA Measures RF Performance with Down Converter...using this addition to the HP Microwave Link Analyzer gives new insights into microwave link performance, by Michael Crabtree, pg 17-18

Communications-Oriented Microwave Solid-State Sweeper...one use is as an up-converter with the HP Microwave Link Analyzer to make RF measurements, by Arlen Dethlefsen, pg 19-20


A Practical Interface System for Electronic Instruments...connecting instruments into a digitally-controlled system now becomes a matter of plugging in cables, by Gerald Nelson, David Ricci, pg 2-7

A Common Digital Interace for Programmable Instruments: The Evolution of a System...HP's corporate interface engineer describes the trends, philosophy, and ancestors that have helped define the new HP instrument interface system, by Donald Loughry, pg 8-11

Faster Gain-Phase Measurements with New Automatic 50Hz-to-13MHz Network Analyzers...complete characterization of networks in the frequency domain now becomes faster and more convenient than ever, by Gerald Nelson, Paul Thomas, Robert Atchley, pg 12-20


Cover: HP's new "voltmeter for the microwave engineer"

A "Voltmeter" for the Microwave Engineer...it makes swet insertion and return loss measurements simultaneously, over a wide frequency range, pg 2-7

Versatile Display Unit Extends Correlator Capability...together this new Spectrum Dislay and an HP Correlator form a versatile and economical instrument for analyzing signals and systems in the time and frequency domains simultaneously, by David Morrison, Brian Finnie, Rajni Patel, Kenneth Edwards, pg 8-15

Voltage Precision and High Current Capability - Both in One Power Supply...this new family of power supplies combine the accuracy of a calibrator with brute force power, by George Emmermann, pg 16-20


Cover: Models 10, 20 and 30 are three quite different calculators for a diversity of users with a diversity of calculating capabilities

A New Series of Programmable Calculators...the three calculators and many peripherals of the 9800 Series are designed to handle the broadest possible range of applications, by Richard Spangler, pg 2-4

Model 10 Maintains Compatibility, Expands Capability, by Curtis Brown, Jack Walden, pg 5-7

Interactive Model 20 Speaks Algebraic Language, by Rex James, Francis Yockey, pg 8-13

BASIC-Language Model 30 Can be Calculator, Computer or Terminal, by Richard Spangler, pg 14-18

9800 Processor Incorporates 8-MHz Microprocessor, by Henry Kohoutek, pg 19-22

All-Semiconductor Memory System Includes Read-Only and Read/Write Chips, by Calvin Finn, pg 22-24

Versatile Input/Output Structure Welcomes Peripheral Variety, by Gary Egan, pg 24-27

Development of the 9800 Series, by Robert Watson, pg 27-28



Cover: Half-module and rack versions of the HP Model 3480A/B

A New High-speed Multifunction DVM...plug-ins provide true rms ac capability as well as dc and ohms. Reading speed is 1000 per second of ohms and dc, by Lee Thompson, Craig Walter, H. Mac Juneau, pg 2-15


HP/CAI...this computer-assisted-instruction or CAI, system makes impressive contributions to the state of the art of CAI. It's a combination of field-proven hardware, a standard computer language, and well tested curricula. The first curriculum is an elementary mathematics drill and practice program, by Samuel D. Edwards, William G. Ansley, pg 2-10

Distortion in Complementary-Pair Class-B Amplifiers...in which the author develops, among other things, a new treatment of crossover distortion, by B. M. Oliver, pg 11-16


Cover: One of the reactors at General Electric Company's Vallecitos Nuclear Center.

On-Line Data Reduction for Nuclear Analyzers...sniffing out minute amounts of radioactivity in our environment is just one of the talens of the versatile multichannel analyzer. Here are four multichannel analyzer systems - two of them brand new - that include on-line computing devices capable of anything from straight number crunching to completely automating the analysis, by Jonathan R. Cross, James A. Doub, John M. Stedman, pg 2-10

Very High and Very Low Resistances - Why and How They Are Measured...these extremes of the resistance range can tell a great deal about properties of materials and the quality of semiconductor contacts, by Yoshihisa Kameoka, Jean E. Bonhomme, pg 11-16


Cover: Model 1930A Pseudo-Random Binary Sequence Generator

Manipulating Digital Patterns with a new Binary Sequence Generator, by Edward S. Donn, pg 2-8

How to Make a Nuclear Spectrum Hold Still...it's simple with this new digital spectrum stabilizer, by Steven Upshinsky, pg 9-11

Astronomers Find Optical Timing of Pulsars More Accurate...measuring light pulses instead of readio pulses yields more accurate information about pulsar characteristics, by Laurence D. Shergalis, pg 12-13

Programmable Step Attenuators Use Distributed-Thin-Film Attenuator Cards...new programmable Step Attenuators employ a special transmission-line configuration with common outer conductors, so only center conductors need to be switched, by Stephen F. Adam, pg 14-16


Cover: Dry lake bed dramatizes ability of new 1700-series Oscilloscopes to bring lab scope performance anywhere it may be needed

A Power-Thrifty Portable Oscilloscope...a big step forward in battery-powered scope performance - up to 75 MHz bandwidth with dual-trace operation and delayed sweep - is taken by the new 1700-series Oscilloscopes, by Thomas K. Bohley, Donald R. Bloyer, Robert E. Mast, pg 2-10

NBS Publishes Revised List of Physical Constants, pg 11

Effective Stripline Device Characterization...characterizing stripline devices for high-frequency designs requires more than elegant instrumentation - demands placed on the device-handling hardware are suprisingly severe, by George R. Kirkpatrick, pg 12-16


Cover: Rotational microwave spectroscopy gives exact information about the structures of molecules

The Routine Rotational Microwave Spectrometer...for the first time, it's now a simple matter to get high-quality data using this 30-year-old technique. A new spectrometer makes the centimeter-wavelength region of the spectrum available for routine analytical work, by Howard W. Harrington, John R. Hearn, Roger F. Rauskolb, pg 2-12

Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Rotational Microwave Spectroscopy, pg 4

An Easy Way to Analyze Graphs, by Ivar Larson, Dean Millett, pg 13-16/TD>


Cover: The 9401B Digital Test Unit, heart of a new digital test subsystem that multiples the capabilities of these modular computer-controlled systems

General-Purpose Test System Gets Digital Capability...HP's most general-purpose computerized automatic test system can now test digital and analog/digital electronic devices as well as purely analog devices. A new subsystem gives it a functional logic test capability, by Leif Gudnitz, Homer Tsuda, pg 2-9

Optical Power Measurements Made Easy...this new low-cost radiant flux meter system gives direct radiometric measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum. It zeros and calibrates itself too, by Michael R. Mellon, Charles L. Hicks, pg 10-16


Cover: A 5300A mainframe, a 5310A battery pack, a 5303A 500 MHz counter module and a makeshift antenna

Lilliputian Measuring System Does Much, Costs Little...a mainframe costing less than $400, a choice of four functional snap-on modules including a 500-MHz counter, and an unusual battery pack are the elements of this rugged, portable, MOS/LSI/LED instrument system, by Ian T. Band, Hans J. Jekat, Eric E. May, pg 2-12

An Almost All-Solid-State Strip-Chart Recorder...linear motor pen drive replaces complex servo system with only one moving part, by Charles K. Michener, pg 13-16


The Spectrum Analyzer, Oscilloscope For the Frequency Domain: A Special Issue, pg 2-3

A Fully Calibrated, Solid State Microwave Spectrum Analyzer...microwave spectrum analysis with performance advantages previously associated only with lower frequency instruments, by Richard C. Keiter, pg 4-9

Tracking Generators...tracking generators, working with spectrum analyzers, expand measuring ability, by John Page, pg 10-11

A Low Frequency Spectrum Analyzer...fully calibrated spectrum analysis now is extended downwards to 20 Hz, by Irving H. Hawley, Jr., pg 12-15


Cover: Inside the new 2100A Computer is another computer, the microprocessor, most of which fits on the two boards shown here

Price, Performance, Architecture, and the 2100A Computer...here are the why's behind the design of HP's new minicomputer, by Fred F. Coury, pg 2-3

Microprogramming, ROMs, Firmware and All That...behind the scenes in HP's new mini is a sophisticated microcomputer with its own instruction repertoire and an expandable memory, by Charles T. Leis, pg 4-9

A Lot of Memory in a Small Space...this new core memory is fast, rugged, reliable and small enough to expand to 32K words inside the 2100A mainframe, by Robert J. Frankenberg, pg 10-12

A Bantam Power Supply for a Minicomputer...how do you get a 500 watt power supply with several regulated dc output voltages into half a cubic foot of space, by Richard D. Crawford, Gregory Justice, pg 13-15

Back Cover: UTC Time Scale to Change in 1972


Cover: Model 1810A Sampling Oscilloscope plug-in

A Scrutable Sampling Oscilloscope...some find sampling scopes enigmatic, choosing to forego their high-frequency response and sensitivity rather than use them. Here's a sampling scope for people who don't like sampling scopes, by William Farnbach, pg 2-8

Frequency Stability Measurements by Computing Counter System...here are methods for making either time-domain or frequency-domain measurements conveniently, accurately, and with high resolution, by David Martin, pg 9-14

More Informative Impedance Measurements, Swept from 0.5 to 110 MHz...an accessory Probe converts the Model 8407A Network Analyzer into a vector impedance measuring system that gives instantaneous swept display of a component's or network's complex impedance versus frequency, by Julius K. Botka, pg 15-19

Back Cover: Time Step and Elimination of the Frequency Offset of the UTC System


Cover: John Shanahan and Hamilton Chisholm present a new signal generator that's also a versatile synthesizer

Uniting Signal Generation and Signal Synthesis...a simultaneous solution is devised to the problems of signal generation and signal synthesis, while optimizing both for bench and automatic use, by John C. Shanahan, pg 2-13

Remote Laser Interferometry...this unique remote interferometer, affectionately dubbed "The Magic Cube" significantly improves the stability, accuracy, and scope of laser interferometer measurements, by Richard R. Baldwin, Andre F. Rude, Gary B. Gordon, pg 14-20



Cover: Operator uses optical comparator to check alignment of helical electrodes in new 250MHz Oscilloscope's cathode-ray tube

A DC-to-VHF Oscilloscope...displaying intermittent pulse trains with nanosecond risetimes, capturing fst transients, a predetector look at amplitude-modulated carriers-these are some of the tasks performed by a new general-purpose oscilloscope that has dc-250 MHz bandwidth and 10 mV/cm sensitivity, by James Pettit, pg 2-8

A Fast-Writing, High-Frequency Cathode-Ray Tube...a three-way requirement for high-frequency response, fast writing rate, and sensitivity used all that we knew about cathode-ray tube design, and more, by David Chaffee, pg 9-10

A Wideband Oscilloscope Amplifier...solid-state monolithic technology makes possible wideband amplifier design with improved response, economy of power, and ease of maintenance, by Alan J. Devilbiss, pg 11-14

Monolithic Transistor Arrays for High-Frequency Applications, by Merrill Brooksby, Richard D. Pering, pg 15-16

A Fast Time Base for a High-Frequency Oscilloscope...a fresh approach to time base circuits was needed to get fast linear sweeps and stable triggering at high frequencies, by William Mordan, pg 17-20


Cover: Automatic network analyzer systems can vary widely and the power of these systems has produced a revolution in microwave engineering

A System for Automatic Network Analysis, by Douglas Kent Rytting, Steven Neil Sanders, pg 2-10

Software for the Automatic Network Analyzer, by William A. Ray, Warren W. Williams, pg 11-15

Developing Accuracy Specifications for Automatic Network Analyzer Systems, by B.P. Hand, pg 16-19

Applications of the Automatic Network Analyzer, by Brian Humphries, pg 20-24


Cover: Model 5375 A Keyboard

The Computing Counter Gets Its Keyboard...the computing counter with its keyboard has the computing ability and operating convenience of a programmable desk calculator, plus the ability to make measurements and process the measured data in real time, by Keith M. Ferguson, pg 2-10

Protecting Hospitalized Patients from Electrical Hazards...electrodes internal to the body give rise to safety problems far more complex than generally supposed, requiring changed thinking about the design and use of medical electronics equipment. Electronic engineers can help explain these concepts, by William F. Craven, pg 11-17

Calculator Processes Multichannel Analyzer Data...two interface cards and a cable connect HP multichannel analyzers to HP's programmable desktop calculator, by Norman D. Marschke, pg 18-20,


Cover: Model 5326B Timer/Counter DVM

Timer/Counter/DVM: A Synergistic Prodigy?...one version of this medium-cost universal counter has an internal digital voltmeter, from which it derives some surprising capabilities. Both versions can average repetitive time intervals for increased resolution, and can measure the frequencies of pulsed carriers, by Kenneth J. Jochim, Rolf Schmidhauser, pg 2-10

Measuring Nanosecond Time Intervals by Averaging...what kind of resolution can you get and how do you get it?, by Rolf Schmidhauser, pg 11-13

High Accuracy AC Calibration to 1100 Volts, by Fred L. Hanson, pg 14-17

A New Camera for High-Speed Oscilloscope Recording, by Dan Paxton, pg 18-20


Cover: IMPATT diodes

Design and Application of Silicon IMPATT Diodes...DC power is converted directly into microwave energy by an IMPATT diode. In X-band, these devices generate higher CW power than any other present-day, solid-state microwave source, clearing the way for new cost-sensitive microwave designs, by A.M. Cowley, pg 2-13

Measuring Capacitance Automatically...completely automatice multifrequency bridge measures capacitance from 0.001 pF to 1.2 F, conductance and dissipation factor, by Hitoshi Noguchi, Takeo Shimizu, Koichi Maeda, pg 14-20


Cover: Model 5450A Fourier Analysis next to a United Airline jet engine

Digital Fourier Analysis...some of the theoretical and practical aspects of measurements involving Fourier analysis by digital instrumentation, by Peter R. Roth, pg 2-9

A Calibrated Computer-Based Fourier Analyzer...this pushbutton-controlled digital measuring instrument performs complex analytical operations on input signals or time series and as a bonus, the user gets a general-purpose digital computer, by Agoston Z. Kiss, pg 10-20


Cover: An inspector critically eyes solid-state alphanumeric display module.

Solid-State Alphanumeric Displays, by Howard C. Borden, Robert L. Steward, pg 2-9

Adding More Precision to Spectrum Analyzer Measurements...augmented with a combination tracking signal generator and counter, the spectrum analyzer becomes a swept measuring system of great frequency precision and dynamic range, by Patrick J. Barrett, Robert R. Hay, Paul G. Winninghoff, pg 10-16

Product Design, by William H. Bull, pg 13


Cover: Model 5525A Laser Interferometer

A Two-Hundred-Foot Yardstick with Graduations Every Microinch...this new and innovative laser interferometer is ready to measure distance with no warmup at all. From its specially designed two-frequency laser and heterodyning techniques it derives increased sensitivity and resistance to air turbulence and with its internal computer it can smooth jittery readings, calculate velocity and improve resolution, by John N. Dukes, Gary B. Gordon, pg 2-8

A New Tool for Old Measurements - New Ones Too, by Andre F. Rude and Kenneth J. Wayne, pg 9

Automatic Error Plotting - a Report Card for Nonlinear Behavior, by Jonathan D. Garman, pg 10-11

Machine Tool Evaluation by Laser Interferometer, by Richard R. Baldwin, pg 12-13

An Instant-On Laser for Length Measurement...this specially designed two-frequency laser is rugged, tunes itself instantly, and runs cool, by Glenn M. Burgwald, William P. Kruger, pg 14-16


Cover: Some of the digital devices that can communicate with each other by means of Model 2570A Coupler/Controller.

A Programmable, Modular, Bidirectional Data Coupler...instrumentation coupler, automated test system controller, computer interface. This new coupler/controller assumes many identities to create a broad range of new possibilities for system automation, by Gibson F. Anderson, pg 2-6

Instrumentation Systems Controlled by Time-Shared Computers...a coupler/controller and an acoustic coupler can put a large computer into a system at very low cost, by Neal E. Walko, pg 7-9

Measuring Q - Easier and Faster...thirty-five years later, Q measurements become easier, with greater Q range and over wider bands, by Shiro Kito and Kelichi Hasegawa, pg 10-16


Cover: Model 9100 Calculator System and the Model 9160A Card Reader

More Memory for Desktop Calculators...extended memory unit adds as many as 3472 program steps, by Russell Sparks, pg 2-7

Optical Card Reader for Fast Calculator Programming, by Gene Zeller, pg 8-12

Hard Copy Output for the System 9100 Computing Calculators, by Chuck McAfee, pg 13-16


Cover: The directional detector, the frequency converter module, the 2-4 GHz YIG oscillator, the PIN absorptive modulator, and the 0.1-2 GHz amplifier

Sweeping the Microwave Spectrum with Solid-State Sources, by Robert H. Bathiany, Carl J. Enlow, Phillip G. Foster, Stephen Vitkovits, pg 2-8

Microcircuits for the Microwave Sweeper, by Ronald E. Pratt, Robert W. Austin, Arlen Dethiefsen, pg 9-16


Cover: Crystal plating is a typical process-control application for the 5360A Computing Counter and its new Programmer, Model 5376A

Computing-Counter Measurement Systems...automated measurements and data processing don't necessarily require a computer. Systems based on the HP computing counter and a new programmer have computer capabilities but lower-than-computer costs, by David Martin, pg 2-6

Programmer is Key to Computing-Counter Systems...this modular programmer provides programmability and interface facilities to go with the computing counter's arithmetic and precision measurement capabilities, by Eric M. Ingman, pg 7-10

Instruction Repertoire, HP 5376A Programmer, pg 11-12

Measuring Noise and Level On Internatioanl Telephone Systems, by Jim Plumb, Jacques Holtzinger, pg 13-16



Cover: Model 2547A Coupler is shown recording the readings of a counter and a digital voltmeter on punched tape for entry into a time-sharing terminal

Broadband Passive Components for Microwave Network Analysis...it takes more than an advanced network analyzer to make accurate, broadband device-parameter measurements. You need precision, broadband hardware and it helps to have everything in one instrument, by Stephen F.Adam , Richard A. Lyon, George R. Kirkpatrick, pg 2-10

Measuring High-Frequency Transistor Parameters...if you have the right instruments, high-frequency transistor measurements are very simple. Here is the method along with some advice on taking and interpreting data, by Richard H. Bauhaus, pg 11-14

Recording Data for Computer Analysis...this modular digital coupler, together with a recording device, translates the digital outputs of voltmeters, counters and other instruments into computer-compatible digital records, by Robert L. Knapp, William J. Steinmetz, pg 15-20


Solid-state Displays...first in a line of solid-state display devices are these one- and three-digit numeric indicators that are compatible with integrated circuits, needing only BCD input signals and five-volt power to display any numeral from 0 to 9 in an array of bright red dots, by Gerald P. Pighini, Howard C. Borden, pg 2-12

Hybrid Hot Carrier Diodes...unique combinations of p-n junctions and Schottky barriers have the high breakdown voltage and high-temperature characteristics of silicon, the low turn-on voltage of germanium, and the speed of Schottky barrier devices and they can be produced at low cost, by A. Michael Cowley, Robert A. Zettler, pg 13-20


Cover: Artistically portrayed unique measurement capabilities of the HP Model 3450A Multi-Function Meter

Twelve Functions in a New Digital Meter...some common analog-to-digital conversion techniques and benefits derived from dual slope as used in the new digital instrument, by Jerry L. Harmon, Bill Kay, pg 2-13

A Computer-Controlled System for Testing Digital Logic Modules...high-speed system that can do production testing quickly, thoroughly and economically along with being easy to program and operate and to adapt for testing different modules, by William P. Cargile, pg 14-20


Cover: Two Model 1925A Word Generators are cascaded to produce a 32-bit word in a nonreturn-to-zero format shown on the face of a Model 143A Oscilloscope

A New Programmable, Building-Block Pulse and Digital System...a pulse generator system consisting of a series of plug-ins that can be combined to provide a wide variety of digital test signals, by Ronald L. Knauber, Gordon K. Blanz, pg 2-8

Generating Words for Digital Testing, by Eddie Donn, pg 8-13

Frequency-Domain Oscilloscope Now Measures to 1250 MHz...with is new RF plug-in, HP's absolutely calibrated RF spectrum analyzer can display any part of the new frequency range from 500 kHz to 1250 MHz - or the whole range at once, by Siegfried Linkwitz, pg 14-20

The Meaning of "Frequency-Domain Oscilloscope"...excerpts from an Informal Talk, by Roderick Carlson, pg 16


Cover: Model 5360A Computer Counter's extraordinary capabilities

Introducing the Computing Counter...here is the most significant advance in electronic counters in recent years, by Gilbert A. Reeser, Gary B. Gordon, pg 2-8

The Measurement Cycle and the Concept of Arming, pg 5

An Electronic Counter for the 1970's...what does it take to build an 11-digit counter that goes to 320 MHz and makes time-interval measurements with 100-picosecond resolution?, by Gilbert A. Reeser, pg 9-12

Computation for Measurement Flexibility...the arithmetic unit of the computing counter places a flexible digital computational capability at the disposal of the counter, its plug-ins and the user, by France Rode, Gary B. Gordon, pg 13-16

Automatic Counter Inverts Period to Get Frequency...the computing counter's little brother measures frequencies between 0.125 Hz and 20 MHz with seven-digit resolution and fully automatic ranging and also measures pulsed carrier frequencies directly, by Ian T. Band, pg 17-20


Cover: HP Model 4920A Coaxial Fault Analyzer

Portable, Rugged Cable Fault Locator for VHF Communications and CATV...designed for field use, an easy-to-operate TDR unit checks CATV and communication system cables with high accuracy, by Ronald D. Lowe, pg 2-8

Tradeoffs in Impulse Testing, by James M. Hood, pg 8-9

Compact Function Generator Covers 0.0005 Hz to 5 MHz...new instrument generates seven types of waveforms over a wide frequency range, by Raymond C. Hanson, pg 10-13

IC Logic Checkout Simplified...simple but elegant, this touch-and-read logic probe clearly signals the presence of nanosecond pulses and indicates logic levels in TTL and DTL integrated-circuit logic networks, by Gary B. Gordon, pg 14-16

Pulsar Optical and Radio Emissions Observed Simultaneously...detection of a time interval between the optical and radio pulses has provided an important test of the various theories developed to explain why pulsars pulse, by Charles N. Taubman, pg 17-20


Cover: HP Model 80500A Noise Monitoring System at Stuttgart Airport

Real-Time Measurement and On-Line Processing of Acoustical and Other Audio-Frequency Spectra...almost any acoustical quantity can be determined by measuring and suitably processing the frequency spectra of sounds...all it takes is this new real-time audio spectrum analyzer married to a general-purpose digital computer, by Wisu T. Kapuskar, Christopher J. Balmforth, pg 2-10

Monitoring Airport Noise...noise control around airports is never easy but it's next to impossible without up-to-the-minute information about noise levels at critical locations. Here's a computerized system that gathers and processes the necessary data, by Wisu T. Kapuskar, Christopher J. Balmforth, pg 11-15

Network Analysis at Low Frequencies...both phase and amplitude information are obtained with a new network analyzer covering frequencies down to 10 kHz, by Charles A. Kingsford-Smith, pg 16-20


Cover: HP Model 9213A is a general-purpose computer-controlled, dc-to-12.4-GHz automatic calibration system for lab-type instrumentation

Automated Testing...what it is, what does it buy us and how is it evolving, by Robert A. Grimm, pg 2-6

Choosing an Automatic Test System...when is an automatic test system justified and how do you decide on the configuration, by Stephen C. Shank, M. D. Ewy, pg 7-10

Building an Automatic Test System...some of the things you have to think about when putting a system together, by M. D. Ewy, pg 11-14

Hewlett-Packard Automatic Test Systems...HP uses and supplies small modular systems of all kinds: standard special-purpose systems, standard multipurpose systems, custom systems and system components, by Robert A. Grimm, pg 15-20

Hewlett-Packard Journal Index to Volumes 17,18 and 19 (September 1965 through August 1968) pg 1-12


Cover: Isometric projection of a function computed by the 9100A Computing Calculator and plotted simultaneously by the 9125A plotter.

High-Resolution Time-Domain Reflectometry With a Portable 30-lb Instrument...state-of-the-art sampling oscillography gives 35 ps system risetime to a direct-reading plug-in for the 180-series oscilloscopes, by Jeffrey H. Smith, pg 8-14

Precision DC Current Sources...CCB-Series Current Sources can supply precisely regulated currents and programming is rapid, and tiny leakage currents are eliminated by a guarding technique, by Willis C. Pierce, Jr., Joseph C. Perkinson, pg 15-20

Current Sources in the Laboratory and on the Production Line, pg 16


Cover: HP Model 4470A Transistor Noise Analyzer

Direct Measurement of Transistor Noise Voltage, Noise Current and Noise Figure...new analyzer measures noise in FET's and bipolar transistors from 10 Hz to 1 MHZ while rapid and easy operation makes it suitable for both lab and production testing, by Haruo Itoh, Knud L. Knudsen, pg 2-7

Sources of Noise in Transistors, by Niladri R. Mantena, pg 8-11

Premonitory Heartbeat Patterns Recognized by Electronic Monitor...computerlike instrument for intensive care wards provides advance warning of potentially fatal heart irregularities, by Thomas C. Horth, pg 12-20


Cover: Model 3721A Correlator displaying the crosscorrelation between a wideband noise coming from a loudspeaker and the output of a microphone

Correlation, Signal Averaging, and Probability Analysis...correlation is a measure of the similarity between two waveforms which is useful in nearly every kind of research and engineering. Two other statistical methods of waveform analysis are also widely useful, by Richard L. Rex, Gordon T. Roberts, pg 2-8

A Calibrated Real-time Correlator/Averager/Probability Analyzer...this digital signal analyzer computes and displays 100-point autocorrelation functions, crosscorrelation functions, waveshapes of signals buried in noise, probability density functions, and probability distributions, by George C. Anderson, Michael A. Perry, pg 9-16

Correlation in Action, pg 17-20


Cover: Model 8407A Network Analyzer System which reveals transmission characteristics of a multi-pole bandpass filter, displays amplitude and phase response

Network Analysis in the Range 100 Khz to 110 MHz...with speed and convenience, a new Network Analyzer presents swept display of amplitude response as great as 80 dB, yet achieves 0.05 dB resolution, by William A. Rytand, David R. Gildea, pg 2-11

High Impedance Probing to 500 MHz...intended for use with spectrum analyzers, counters, oscilloscopes and network analyzers when the signal can't be brought to the instrument on a 50-ohm line, a new dc-500 MHz voltage probe has an input impedance of 100 k ohms shunted by less than 3pF or, with a slip-on voltage dividers, less than 1 pF, by Joel Zellmer, pg 12-16




Cover: Wideband capabilities of the Model 675A Sweep Generator are dramatized in this "fisheye" lens photo.

Three and One-Half Decades in One Clean Sweep...new high-accuracu sweep generator covers 10 kHz to 32 MHz in one range with low residual FM, by Robert B. Bump, Myles A. Judd, pg 2-6

Advances in Spectrum Analysis...a new preselector, variable persistence with storage, better sensitivity, and flatter fequency response make spectrum analysis considerably easier and more powerful, by John J. Dupre, John R. Page, Jr., Richard C. Keiter, pg 7-16

How a YIG Filter works, pg 9


Cover: Geometric distortion of new HP Television Picture Monitor is measured according to IEEE Standards

A Precision Solid-state Television Picture Monitor...controlling broadcast picture quality and producing high-resolution distortion-free, closed-circuit-TV displays are jobs for a precision instrument, like this advanced new TV picture monitor, by John R. Hefele, pg 2-8

Counting CW and Pulsed RF Frequencies to 18 GHz...a new frequency converter plug-in and a new transfer oscillator plug-in put frequencies as high as 18 GHz within the reach of electronic counters. Details of the new transfer oscillator and how to make CW, pulsed RF, and FM measurements with it are given in this article, by Glenn B. DeBella, pg 9-15

Atomic Second Adopted by International Conference, pg 16


Cover: Gamma ray spectroscopy system displays counts vs. energy spectrum of isotope

Electronic Techniques in Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Timing, by Tracy S. Storer, pg 2-10

A Multichannel Pulse-Height Analyzer with a Very Fast Analog-Digital Converter, by W. A. Ross, pg 11-15

A Charge-Sensitive Preamplifier for Nuclear Work, by James K. Koch, pg 16-18

A Nuclear-Type Linear Amplifier with Plug-In Pulse-Shaping Delay Lines, by Eric M. Ingman, pg 19-21

A Single-Channel Analyzer with Fast Multiple-Pulse Resolution, by Robert G. Wagstrom, pg 22-24


Cover: Dots representing sample values of human brain waves, displayed on the CRT of the new HP Model 5480A Signal Averager

What is Signal Averaging?...repetitive waveforms buried in noise can often be pulled out by a signal averager, an instrument that takes advantage of the redundant information provided by repetition, by Charles R. Trimble, pg 2-7

Calibrated Real-time Signal Averaging...the first two plug-ins for this new digital signal analyzer make it a versatile signal averager. Novel averaging algorithms provide a stable, calibrated display of the average at all times and even allow the averager to follow slowly changing signals, by Charles R. Trimble, J. Evan Deardorff, pg 8-13

Off-line Analysis of Averaged Data...this new input/output coupler makes the new HP signal averager compatible with a computer and peripheral equipment, by Francis J. Yockey, pg 14-16


Cover: The new HP Model 181A Variable Persistence Oscilloscope displaying the responses of a 5 kHz bandpass filter when swept by the HP Model 3300A Function Generator and its new HP Model 3305A Sweep Plug-in.

Sweeping Four Decades at Low Frequencies...using an interesting current and capacitor switching technique, a new precision sweep plug-in provides broadband logarithmic sweep for testing low-frequency devices, by William T. Cowan, pg 2-7

Applications of Low-frequency Sweepers, pg 8-9

Easier and Brighter Display of High-Frequency Signals...variable persistence and storage added to a high-frequency oscilloscope increase measurement versatility, by Charles A. Donaldson, Charles A. Gustafson, pg 10-15

Stanford Scientists Study Space Signals...signal averager pulls pulsar signals out of noise for real time display on CRT, by Laurence D. Shergalis, 16


Cover: Oscilloscope photos demonstrate the transient-free switching of frequency and voltage ranges of the HP Model 745A AC Calibrator.

High-Accuracy AC Voltage Calibration...many techniques are available to calibrate ac instruments, but the venerable thermal transfer method is still the best, by Fred L. Hanson, pg 2-8

Systems-Oriented Digital Power Sources...designed specifically to be programmed by a computer, this new digital power supply is tailor-made for automatic test systems, by Brett M. Nordgren, pg 9-16


Cover: A mobile teleprinter terminal with a telephone acoustic coupler brings a computer into the lab area

A Practical Time-Shared Computer System...using conversational BASIC, a new 16-terminal systems doesn't try to do everything for everyone, but still satisfies nearly all the user's needs, by Thomas C. Poulter, Jr, pg 2-7

A Rubidium-Vapor Frequency Standard for Systems Requiring Superior Frequency Stability, by Darwin H. Throne, pg 8-14

Comparing Frequency Standards, pg 15-16


Cover: Model 8552A/8553L Spectrum Analyzer and Model 8601A Generator/Sweeper.

Fully Calibrated Frequency-Domain Measurements...with absolute amplitude calibration and unique ease of use, this 1 kHz-to-110 MHz spectrum analyzer may be the beginning of a new era in spectrum analysis, by Brian D. Unter, pg 2-7

Design of a Third-Generation RF Spectrum Analyzer...making a spectrum analyzer that is precisely calibrated and as easy to use as an oscilloscope required a number of new circuit and system techniques, by Brian D. Unter, Paul G. Winninghoff, Irving H. Hawley, Jr., Thomas L. Grisell, pg 8-14

New Concepts in Signal Generation...an AM/FM signal generator and precision-sweeper in a single 21-pound package is possible thanks to thin-film microcircuits and AFC, by John R. Hearn, Douglas C. Spreng, pg 15-20


Cover: The HP Model 9100A Computing Calculator

A new Electronic Calculator (HP Model 9100A) with Computerlike Capabilities, by Richard E. Monnier, pg 2-9

Hardware Design of the Model 9100A Calculator, by Thomas E. Osborne, pg 10-13

Internal Programming of the 9100A Calculator, by David S. Cochran, pg 14-16

Computer-Testing the HP Model 9100A Calculator, by Charles W. Near, pg 17-19

How the Model 9100A was Developed, by Bernard M. Oliver, pg 20


Cover: Spring-mounted stylus used on HP electric writing recorders

Graphic Recorder Writing Systems...pen and ink has been the most widely used writing method, but a new low-voltage electric writing system has proven successful for many difficult applications, by Dale R. Davis, Charles K. Michener, pg 2-7

Low Voltage Electric Writing Recorders, pg 7-8

Recording True-rms Voltages over Wide Dynamic Ranges...with this new logarithmic converter, a graphic recorder can measure ac or dc signals over four decades of amplitude without range switching. An electronic attenuator and feedback are the secrets, by John M. Wade, pg 9-14

Atomic Hydrogen Masers: An Introduction and Progress Report...size and weight are being reduced, and demand is growing for the hydrogen maser's high stability. A satellite-borne maser is being developed but still needed is more product-oriented development, by Robert F. C. Vessot, pg 15-20


Cover: BASIC - The Language of Time Sharing

BASIC: The Language of Time Sharing...a computer language designed for the beginner and the once-in-a-while programmer, BASIC is powerful, yet easy to learn, by Gerald L. Peterson, pg 2-8

BASIC at Hewlett-Packard...previously available only on large time-sharing systems, BASIC has been adapted by Hewlett-Packard programmers for HP computers and instrumentation systems, by Richard M. Moley, pg 9-13

How to Correct for Errors in High-Frequency Oscilloscope Measurements...knowing the parameters of various input configuration, it is possible to plot curves to determine error with frequency, by Wayne A. Kohl, pg 14-17

Extending Precision Oscilloscope Measurements into the High Frequencies, pg 17-18

Voltage Probe for High-Frequency Measurements, by Eddie A. Evel, pg 19-20


Cover: Low distortion of the HP Model 204C Oscillator, measured by the HP Model 3590A Wave Analyzer, is displayed over a 90 dB range on an HP Model 7004A X-Y Recorder

Rapid Analysis of Low Frequency Spectra...detection of signal amplitude and frequency is made easier with automatic amplitude ranging and electronic sweeping, by Larry A. Whatley, pg 2-7

High Dynamic Performance X-Y Recorder...pen accelearation has been made compatible with high slewing speed by use of a direct-coupled servo amplifier and a miniature high-torque dc motor, by Otto S. Talle, Jr, pg 8-11

A Low-Cost,General-Purpose Oscillator with Low Distortion and High Stability, by Paul F. Febvre, James M. Colwell, pg 12-16



Cover: Rapid, Direct Measurement of Complex Impedance in a Circuit

Methods of Measuring Impedance...a review of some important systems for measuring the impedance of devices and circuits, by Charles G. Gorss, pg 2-11

Some Basic Formulas Involving Q, pg 8

Comparison of Some Impedance Measuring Systems, pg 10

Direct-Reading, Fully-Automatic Vector Impedance Meters...two new instruments designed to measure impedance magnitude and phase angle quickly and easily over a braod frequency range, by Gerald J. Alonzo, Hirsh V. Marantz, Richard H. Blackwell, pg 12-20

Design Philosophy of Vector Impedance Meters, pg 15


An Advanced new Network Analyzer for Sweep-measuring Amplitude from 0.1 to 12.4 GHz, by Orthell T. Dennison, Richard W. Anderson, pg 2-10

The Engineer, Automated Network Analysis and the Computer-Signs of Things to Come, by Paul C. Ely, Jr., pg 11-12

S-Parameter Techniques for Faster, More Accurate Network Design, by Richard W. Anderson, pg 13-22

Useful Scattering Parameter Relationships, pg 23-24


Cover: Plug-in logic board from the new -hp- Model 2116A Instrumentation Computer

A Computer for Instrumentation Systems...problems of interconnection, programming and environment arise in the design of systems containing both computers and instruments. They are solved in advance by this new integrated-circuit computer, by Kay B. Magleby, pg 2-10

Successful Instrument-Computer Marriages...Instrumentation computers are designed to be easy to incorporate into any system which contains electronic, chemical or medical instruments. Here are four remarkably varied examples of how these computers are being used, pg 11-12

A Wideband Analog Frequency Meter and FM Discriminator, by Peter R. Roth, pg 13-18

Phase Noise and Phase Modulation Measurements with the Analog Frequency Meter, by Peter R. Roth, pg 18-20

Correction to "S-parameter Techniques for Faster, More Accurate Network Design" February 1967, pg 8


Cover: Measuring the Ocean's Temperature

Frequency Divider Extends Automatic Digital Frequency Measurements to 12.4 GHz...this sophisticated instrument lets an electronic counter measure microwave frequencies while retained the accuracy and simplicity of the counter, by Robert L. Allen, pg 2-8

Frequency Divider + Integrated-circuit Counter = 12.4 GHz Digital Frequency Meter, pg 5

Precision Measurement of Ocean Temperatures...as ocean research becomes more sophisticated, greater precision in temperature measurement is needed, by Albert Benjaminson, pg 8-12

Improved Intermodulation Rejection in Mixers...intermodulation distortion, always a problem in mixer design, can be largely prevented by a careful choice of bias and power levels, by Jack H. Lepoff, A. Michael Cowley, pg 13-16


Cover: Locating Gas Leaks Ultrasonically

Pinpointing Industrial Defects with Ultrasonic Ears...gas leaks, corona, and other defects in industrial equipment can be located quickly by zeroing in on their high-frequency sounds. Ultrasonic translators allow men to hear and follow these normally inaudible sounds, by Robert L. Allen, pg 2-10

How to Recover Weak Signals Buried in Noise...a new phase-lock synchronous detector enables this ac microvoltmeter to lock on to signals obscured by noise, by Raymond C. Hanson, pg 11-15

Typical Applications of -hp- Model 3410A, pg 12-14

Using a Precision AC Amplifier for Measurement and Calibration...good gain accuracy and low distortion in a genral purpose amplifier make it possible to extend the range of many instruments, by Rex James, pg 16-20

How the -hp- Model 463A Amplifier is Calibrated, pg 19


Cover: Electronic Monitoring of Hospital Patients

The Role of Electronic Medical Instrumentation in Patient Monitoring, by H. Ronald Riggert, pg 2-11

Precision Thin-Film Coaxial Attenuators...semi-automated thin-film techniques yield attenuators that are execeptionally precise and wideband (dc to 18 GHz), yet so economical that they can logically be used even in non-critical applications, by Stephen F. Adam, pg 12-19

International Units, Multiple and Submultiple Prefixes, pg 20


Cover: Model 7848A Ink Recorder being subjected to a programmed life test designed to check its reliability

Pressurized Ink Recording on Z-Fold Strip Charts...a pressure-modulated inking system and contactless pen-tip position feedback are two of myany innovations in this new eight-channel recorder, by Robert A. Sanderson, pg 2-12

Advantages of Direct-coupled Differential Data Amplifiers, by Morton H. Levin, pg 13-16

Errors in Data Amplifier Systems...possible error sources in a data amplifier system and how they affect the choice of an amplifier, by Richard Y. Moss, II, pg 17-20


Cover: New step-and-repeat camera using the laser interferometer method of controlling mechanical positioning to high orders of accuracy

Implementing Integrated Circuits in HP Instrumentation...some of the problem areas that Hewlett-Packard considered before introducing integrated circuits into instrumentation, by Max J. Schuller, Ian T. Band, Ed A. Hilton, pg 2-4

High-Accuracy Laser-Interferometer Camera for IC Masks, by Don M. Cross, pg 5-8

Integrated-Circuit Counters...here is a designer-eye view of the impact of untegrated circuits on electronic counters. Two new IC counters are described, by John W. McMains, Thomas P. O'Brien, pg 9-13

Semiautomatic System for Production Testing of Electronics Circuits, by Emil E. Olander, Jr., Dee L. Larson, pg 14-20


Cover: Model 180A Oscilloscope displays a portion of pseudo-random Gaussian noise pattern generated by Model 3722A Noise Generator. Top instrument is a display unit from new HP Model 5400A Multi-Channel Analyzer

Pseudo-Random and Random Test Signals...using digital techniques, this precision low-frequency noise generator can synthesize repeatable, controllable, pseudo-random noise patterns as well as truly random noise, by Gordon T. Roberts, Brian W. Finnie, George C. Anderson, pg 2-17

Testing with Pseudo-Random and Random Noise...pseudo-random noise is faster, more accurate, and more versatile than random noise in most measurement situations, pg 18-20


A System for Measuring the Thermal Resistance of Semiconductor Diodes...a fast, automatic system for accurately measuring junction-to-case thermal resistance of semiconductor diodes, by Norman R. Galassi, Bernard S. Siegal, pg 2-9

Digital Frequency Synthesizer Covering 0.1 MHz to 500 MHz in 0.1 Hz Steps, by Alexander Tykulsky, pg 10-13

Phase Noise in Frequency Synthesizers, by Al Tykulsky, Bob Maldewin, pg 14-16

Transform Methods for Linear Systems, by Michael O'Flynn, pg 17-20


Loudness Evaluation...effective noise abatement calls for instruments that can measure loudness but loudness is subjective, and instruments aren't like people, by Wolfgang E. Ohme, pg 2-11

Automatic Loudness Analysis...Measuring the subjective sensation of loudness is easy if you have one of these calibrated electronic ears, by Heinz Blasser, Helmut Finckh, pg 12-120

Loudness Analyzer aids Noise Reduction, Production Testing, Speech Analysis, pg 15


Cover: HP glass technician is preparing to make the neck seal of the gun to the envelope of the Model 1300A large-screen CRT

Large-Screen High-Frequency X-Y-Z Display...Expanded-mesh CRT's have made possible a bright 8 by 10 inch display with bandwidths greater than 20 MHz, by Charles House, pg 2-9

Factors in Designing a Large-Screen, Wideband CRT, by Milton E. Russell, pg 10-11

"Flying Clock" Comparisons Extended to East Europe, Africa and Australia...using portable atomic clocks, HP teams recently brought precise time and frequency information to 18 countries, by LaThare N. Bodily, Ronald C. Hyatt, pg 12-20

Flying Clocks, pg 17


Jan-1966, v.17 n.5

Cover: Measuring Multi-Layer Liquid Depths with TDR

A new High-stability AC Voltmeter with a 10-MHz Frequency Range and 1% Accuracy...a new ac voltmeter with wide frequency coverage and enhanced accuracy is the first of its type to achieve a ground-referenced dc output, by Reid J. Gardner, pg 2-7

Measurement of Liquid Layer Thickness with Time Domain Reflectometry, by James Brockmeier, pg 8

Feb-1966, v.17 n.6

A New TV Waveform Oscilloscope for Precision Measurements of Video Test Signals...for testing TV transmission systems to meet the standards required for color TV, a special wideband oscilloscope has been designed, by Ralph R. Reiser, Richard E. Monnier, pg 2-6

Continuous TV Monitoring with Vertical-Interval Test Signals...a brief description of the signals transmitted in TV channels for continously checking channel quality, by Richard E. Monnier, Ralph R. Reiser, pg 7-10

Correction to Measurement of Liquid Layer Thickness with Time Domain Reflectometry from Jan-1996

The 'VITS' Program for Intercity Television Network Testing, pg 11-12

March-1966, v.17 n.7

Cover: Low-Frequency RFI Measurements

A Sensitive, Wide Range DC Null Voltmeter with an Internal Bucking Supply for Zero Loading Error...a floating, high-sensitivity DC Null Meter measures voltages to below 1 microvolt and achieves virtually infinite input impedance with a bucking supply, by Charles D. Platz, pg 2-6

A Portable DC Voltage Standard Providing 10 PPM Transfer Accuracy...a new type of instrument transfers precision dc voltages out of the standards laboratory to working areas, by Robert E. Watson, pg 7-10

RFI Measurements Down to 10 kHz with Spectrum Analyzer Converter, by John Cardoza, pg 11-12

April-1966, v.17 n.8

Cover: 1.5 x 10 Accuracy DC Voltage Divider using New -hp- Standard Resistors

A New Distortion Analyzer with Automatic Nulling and Broadened Measurement Capability...a new audio-RF distortion analyzer has been designed which, when roughly pre-tuned, tracks the signal to be measured and automatically nulls the fundamental frequency allowing for a more consistent measurement and also over a wider frequency range, by Charles R. Moore, pg 2-7

An Adjustable Standard Resistor with Improved Accuracy and High Stability...a new standard resistor designed in the -hp- Standards Laboratory ca be set to within .015 ppm of nominal, substantially facilitating precision calibration work, by E. Paul Hubbs, pg 8-14

Stability of Capaacitively-Loaded Emitter Followers - a Simplified Approach...the following analysis shows that simple adjustment in bias current will often stabilize the circuit, by Glen B. DeBella, pg 15-16

May-1966, v.17 n.9

Cover: Measurements made with a single new wide-range instrument: The Vector Voltmeter

The RF Vector Voltmeter - An Important New Instrument for Amplitude and Phase Measurements from 1 MHz to 1000 MHz...a broadband two-channel millivoltmeter and phasemeter simplifies many measurements heretofore often neglected, by Fritz K. Weinert, pg 2-9

Selected Vector Voltmeter Measurements, pg 10-12

A Portable Battery-Powered Multi-Function Meter with Lab-Quality Performance...a fully-portable laboratory instrument is useful from 1 hertz to 4 megahertz at levels to below 1 millivolt, by James M. Colwell, pg 13-16

Time Signal Adjustment

Correction To: 'RFI Measurements Down to 10 Khz with Spectrum Analyzer Converter' from March 1966

June-1966, v.17 n.10

An Advanced New DC-25 MHz Oscilloscope for Programmed Production Testing...a new oscilloscope has the special capability of maintaining its dc baseline without drift which leads to higher dc accuracy and the important characteristic of being programmable, by John Strathman, pg 2-7

Time Domain Reflectometry in 75-OHM Systems, by Charles A. Donaldson, pg 9 Rise Time Converters for Simpler TDR Testing of Band-Limited Systems, by Lee R. Moffitt, pg 10-11

A Calibrated Susceptance for TDR Measurements of Small Reactive Discontinuities, by Richard W. Anderson, pg 12-13

A DC-Stabilized Oscilloscope Plug-In with 50 - V/CM Sensitivity...freedom from dc drift overcomes one of the most troublesome effects in making oscilloscope measurements of transducer output and other small signals, by James R. Pettit, pg 14-16

July-1966, v.17 n.11

A Sensitive new 1-GHz Sampling Voltmeter with Unusual Capabilities...a voltmeter operating on the principle of incoherent sampling measures over wide frequency and voltage ranges while providing an output usable for signal analysis, by Fred W. Wenninger, Jr., pg 2-8

Coherent and Incoherent Sampling, pg 4

Measuring Attenuation, SWR, and Substitution Loss with a Low-Noise, High-Precision SWR Meter...effects of noise and other factors are presented for an improved SWR Meter used with crystal and bolometer type detectors, by Bradford G. Woolley, pg 9-13

Increasing Instrument Sensitivity with a Low-Noise Preamplifier...a guide to a number of applications in which measurements are simplified by a low-noise wide-band amplifier, by Robert B. Bump, pg 14-16

August-1966, v.17 n.12

A New DC-50+ MHz Transistorized Oscilloscope of Basic Instrumentation Character...a small-size portable oscillscope with negligible trace drift and using plug-ins has been designed as the keystone of a complete oscilloscope system, by Floyd G. Siegel, pg 2-11

Short, Large Screen, High-Frequency CRT, pg 4

Compact, Wideband, Stripline Delay Line, pg 7

Electronically-controlled Oscilloscope Camera, pg 10

World-wide Time Synchronization, 1966...time scales maintained at the world's time-keeping center have been correlated with new levels of precision in the latest around-the-world flying clock experiment, by LaThare N. Bodily, Ronald C. Hyatt, Dexter Hartke, pg 13-20

First Cesium-beam Resonator, pg 17

The Benchmark, pg 20


A New Universal Impedance Bridge with Simplified, Semi-Automatic Tuning...by using feedback to adjust one bridge element automatically, a bridge requiring only one balancing control is achieved, by Katsumi Yoshimoto, pg 2-5

A System for Automatic Control of the `DQ Resistor in an Impedance Bridge, by Hitoshi Noguchi, Haruo Itoh, Katsumi Yoshimoto, pg 6-9

Appendix, AC Bridge Loci, by Hitoshi Noguchi, pg 10

A Plug-in Unit for Extending Counter-Type Frequency Measurements to 12.4 GHz, by John N. Dukes, pg 11-13

New FCC Rules for FM Stereo Frequency Control, pg 14

A Frequency Comb Generator with a Range from 1 MHz to Beyond 5 GHz, by Roderick Carlson, pg 15-20


Cover: Cutaway view of major new 12 GHz Sampling Device

An Ultra-Wideband Oscilloscope Based on an Advanced Sampling Device...the state of the oscilloscope art has taken a significant forward step with the development of a new oscilloscope that operates from DC to 12.4 GHz and displays signals as small as 1 millivolt, by Darwin L. Howard, Allan I. Best, James M. Umphrey, pg 2-7

Ultra-fast Triggering and Ultra-Resolution TDR, pg 9-10

Second Symposium on Test Instrumentation, pg 11

New NBS Laboratories, pg 11

A DC to 12.4 GHz Feedthrough Sampler for Oscilloscopes and Other RF Systems...an important circuit development in the form of an ultra-wideband sampling device is leading to major new capabilities in electronic instrumentation, by Wayne M. Grove, pg 12-15

A Summary of Some Performance Characteristics of a Large Sample of Cesium-Beam Frequency Standards, by LaThare N. Bodily, pg 16-19

Operation of the Portable Cesium-beam Frequency Standard, pg 19-20

Frequency Standards in the Omega Navigation System, pg 20


Cover: A Precision DC Differential Voltmeter and Ratiometer

A Simplified DC Differential Voltmeter and Ratiometer for High-Precision Measurements...an easy-to-use dc differential voltmeter measures dc voltages from 1 microvolt to 1100 volts with a resolution of 0.2 microvolt and with high accuracy. This instrument is also a precision ratiometer for comparing two dc voltages, by Lawrence J. Lopp, Jr., pg 2-7

Using the DC Differential Voltmeter/ratiometer to Construct a 100:1 Precision Divider, pg 6

ADAC-An Automatic System for Measuring Hall Effect in Semiconductors...one of the barriers to detailed materials analysis has been the large effort involved in data acquisition and reduction. This has been greatly reduced in the -hp- laboratories by a system called ADAC. New information on the electronic transport properties of InAs has been one of the first benefits of the system, by Egon Loebner, T. J. Diesel, Cristy M. Schade, pg 9-14

Analysis of Solids with more than one type of Carrier, pg 11

Typical ADAC Data Reduction Procedure, pg 13

A Study of Indium Arsenide using ADAC Equipment, pg 15-16


Cover: Tape Recorder Heads being aligned under microscope

A new High-Performance 1.5 MHz Tape Recorder...a new instrumentation-quality tape recorder has been designed around a current-rather than voltage-sensing input amplifier. Decreased noise and wider bandwidth are direct benefits of this approach, by Gerald L. Ainsworth, pg 2-7

Magnetic Tape Recording and Reproducing, pg 4

Square Wave Response of The HP Model 3950 Magnetic Tape Recording System, pg 6

A Current Preamplifier for Magnetic Tape Playback Systems, by Arndt B. Bergh, pg 8-9

Wideband Cavity-type Coaxial Frequency Meters...a discussion of the construction used to achieve the broad frequency range of the -hp- microwave cavity wavemeter, by Anthony S. Badger, Stephen F. Adam, pg 10-12

Simplified Technique for Evaluating Diode RF Performance, by Bernard Levine, pg 13

Swept-Frequency SWR Measurements in Coaxial Systems...an important new swept-frequency technique permits quick and accurate measurements of SWR in coaxial systems up to 18 GHz, by Stephen J. Adam, pg 14-20


Jan-1965, v.16 n.5

A new Instrumentation-Class Tape Transport of Simplified Design, by Walter T. Selsted

New Tape Transport in Sanborn Magnetic Data Recording Systems, pg 3

Bernard Oliver elected IEEE President, pg 5

Senior Staff Engineers Appointed by -hp- Board of Directors, pg 8

Feb-1965, v.16 n.6

New Coaxial Couplers for Reflectometers, Detection, and Monitoring...coaxial couplers with flattened response and high directivity facilitate swept-type measurements of several kinds, by Robert Prickett

New Waveguide Crystal Detectors with Flat Response, by Robert Prickett and Lawrence Renihan, pg 6

March-1965, v.16 n.7

The Linear Quartz Termometer - a New Tool for Measuring Absolute and Difference Temperatures...a linear-temperature-coefficient quartz resonator has been developed, leading to a fast, wide-range thermometer with a resolution of .0001 C., by Albert Benjaminson

The Linear Coefficient Quartz Resonator, by Donald L. Hammond, pg 3

The Influence of Transistory Parameters on Transistor Noise Performance - A Simplified Presentation - the data illustrates the magnitude of the noise parameters and their variation with operating point, by Rolly Hassun, Michael C. Swiontek, pg 8-12

April-1965, v.16 n.8

Correlating Time from Europe to Asia with Flying Clocks...by means of portable cesium-beam clocks, time has been correlated to 1 microsecond at many of the world's timekeeping centers and a comparison of four of the world's best-known 'long-beam' frequency standards has also been made, by LaThare N. Bodily

May-1965, v.16 n.9

A Combined DC Voltage Standard and Differential Voltmeter for Precise Calibration Work...an advanced instrument that generates precise, high-resolution dc voltages for calibration work is also a precision differential dc voltmeter with a constant and very high input impedance, by Robert E. Watson

Phase Comparisons with LF Standard Broadcasts Controlled by 'Atomic Time'

June-1965, v.16 n.10

A New 10c/s-10Mc/s Test Oscillator with Enhanced Output Capabilities...the performance possible with state-of-art techniques has been incorporated in a general-purpose test oscillator, by Myles A. Judd

A Low-Distortion Amplifier Supplyign 10 Watts Peak from DC to Beyond 1 Mc/s...a new amplifier has sufficient bandwidth to enable it to serve at dc or RF and sufficient power to be used as an electro-mechanical driver, by Robert J. Strehlow

Cyles Per Second and Hertz, by editor

July-1965, v.16 n.11

A Low-Frequency Oscillator with Variable-Phase Outputs for Gain-Phase Evaulations...a new l-f oscillator provides both sine and square outputs as well as adjustable-phase sine and square outputs over a range from 60 kc/s down to 0.005 c/s, by Richard Crawford

Extraterrestral and Ionospheric Sounding with Synthesized Frequency Sweeps, by G.H. Barry and R.B. Fenwick, pg 8-12

August-1965, v.16 n.12

A Fast-Reading Digital Voltmeter with .005% Accuracy and Integrating Capability...a new Digital Voltmeter of very high accuracy makes readings from less than 100 Vdc to 1000 Vdc at maximum speeds of up to 15 readings per second, by William McCullough

Guarded Measurements with a Floating Voltmeter, pg 5

Cable Testing with Time Domain Reflectometry, pg 8

Sept-1965, v.17 n.1

A Precision Analog Voltohmmeter with Automatic Ranging...an automatife analog voltohmmeter simplifies dc voltage and resistance measurements and gives higher measurement accuracy and speed than is usually obtained, by James F. Kistler, pg 2-6

A Simple Method for Recording Fast and Low-Level Waveforms...a recently developed oscilloscope plug-in unit makes fast, convenient records of displayed signals and greatly reduces accompanying noise, by John N. Deans, pg 6-8

Oct-1965, v.17 n.2

A Precision AC-DC Differential Voltmeter/DC Standard with High Versatility...a versatile new instrument measures ac voltages with high accuracy from 20 c/s to 100 kc/s by comparing the unknown to a precision dc voltage. It also measures dc voltages t 0.02% and supplies high-resolution dc voltages, by William G. Smith, pg 2-7

A 200 kc/s - 500 Mc/s Frequency Conversion Unit for Mixing, Modulating, Phase-Detecting and Level-Controlling...a new untuned mixer operatres over the extremely wide frequency range from 200 kc/s to 500 Mc/s and uses a double-balanced circuit for high versatility, by Victor E. Van Duzer, pg 8-11

500 kc/s-500 Mc/s Frequency Doubler, by Victor E. Van Duzer, pg 12

Nov-1965, v.17 n.3

A Voltage-Programmable Low-Frequency Function Generator with Plug-In Versatility...a new generator produces sine, square, and triangular signals as low as 0.01 hertz either unmodulated or with various modulations, by Robert L. Dudley, pg 2-5

The Trigger/Phase-Lock Plug-In...a plug-in for the low-frequency function generator results in a variety of signals in the 0.01 to 100,000 hertz range, by Robert L. Dudley, pg 6-9

NBS Standard Frequency and Time Broadcast Schedule...the diagrams presented here, with explanatory notes, summarize the standard frequency and time services, provided by the National Bureau of Standards radio stations WWV, WWVH, WWVB and WWVL, pg 10

A Technique for Making Ultra-Precise Measurements of Microwave Frequency Stability...standard laboratory instruments are interconnected to provide a system that measures the short-term frequency stability of microwave sources to a precision of better than 1 part in 10, by James A. Marshall, pg 11-12

Dec-1965, v.17 n.4

Cover: Energy Diagram for Schottky Barrier

Using the Hot Carrier Diode as a Dectector, by Hans. O. Sorensen, pg 2-5

Using the Hot Carrier Diode as a Microwave Mixer, by Milton Crane, pg 6-8


Jan-1964, v.15 n.5

An RMS-Responding Voltmeter with High Crest Factor Rating, by Gregory Justice

Crest Factor, pg 4

Long-term Stability of the -hp- 130C Sensitive DC-500 KC Oscilloscope, by John Strathman, pg 6-7

-hp- Factory Training Seminars, pg 8

Feb-1964, v.15 n.6

Time Domain Reflectometry, by B. M. Oliver

Time Domain Reflectometry with a Plug-in for the 140A Oscilloscope, pg 8

TDR with -hp- Sampling Scopes, pg 8

March-1964, v.15 n.7

Broadband, Solid-state Amplifiers, by Alfred F. Gort

An Air-Bearing Spindle for Highly Precise Machining, by Edward H. Phillips, pg 5-7

International System of Units, pg 8

April-1964, v.15 n.8

A new Instrument for Measuring Microwave Frequencies with Counter Accuracy, by Rudolph F. Pasos

A New DC-4000 MC Sampling 'Scope Plug-In with Signal Feed-Through Capability, by Wayne M. Grove, pg 5-8

May-1964, v.15 n.9

A 0-50 Mc Frequency Synthesizer with Excellent Stability, Fast Switching, and Fine Resolution, by Victor E. Van Duzer

Notes on the Application of Frequency Synthesizers, by Victor E. Van Duzer, pg 7

Digital Frequency Synthesis, by Bernard M. Oliver

June-1964, v.15 n.10

Precision Plug-In Frequency Measurements to 3000 Mc, by Charles M. Hill

Changes in Standard Broadcasts, pg 5

A New Oscilloscope Plug-In with Four 40-MC Channels, by James R. Pettit, pg 6-8

July-1964, v.15 n.11

A New Performance of the "Flying Clock" Experiment, by Leonard S. Cutler, Alan S. Bagley

A Measurement of the Ratio of the Zero-Field Hyperfine Splittings of Cesium 133 and Hydrogen, by Leonard S. Cutler, pg 6-7

Plant Distribution of a One-Volt DC Standard, by Richard Bean, pg 9-12

August-1964, v.15 n.12

A New Microwave Spectrum Analyzer, by Harley L. Halverson

EMC/RFI, pg 5

Broad Spectrum Displays, pg 7

Spectrum Surveillance, pg 8

Sept-1964, v.16 n.1

Our Preparations at Hewlett-Packard for the Instrumentation of Tomorrow, by Frank J. Burkhard

Oct-1964, v.16 n.2

A VLF Comparator for Relating Local Frequency to U.s. Standards, by Dexter Hartke

Frequency Calibration using LF Standard Broadcasts, pg 2

Tunable VLF Comparator, pg 8

Nov-1964, v.16 n.3

Absorption Modulators for Simple or Complex Microwave Modulation, by Douglas A. Gray

New Microwave Signal Sources with Signal Generator Capabilities, by Douglas A. Gray, pg 8

Dec-1964, v.16 n.4

Microwave Harmonic Generation and Nanosecond Pulse Generation with the Step-recovery Diode, by Robert D. Hall, Stewart M. Krakauer


Jan/Feb-1963, v.14 n.5-6

A Versatile Wave Analyzer for the 1 kc to 1.5 Mc Range, by Stanley McCarthy

A Quick, Convenient Method for Measuring Loop Gain, by Philip Spohn, pg 5

March/April-1963, v.14 n.7-8

A New Microwave Modulator, by Nicholas J. Kuhn

A Convenient Probe for Sensing Magnetic Fields, by Arndt Bergh, pg 7

Using the Smith Chart with Negative Real-part Impedances or Admittances, by Harley L. Halverson, Luiz Peregrino, pg 8

New Submultiple Prefixes, pg 8

May/June-1963, v.14 n.9-10

A New Multi-Function Voltmeter for General Laboratory Use, by Paul G. Baird

A Guarded Amplifier for Increasing Digital Voltmeter Sensitivity, by Donald H. Jenkins, pg 6

July-1963, v.14 n.11

An 800-2400 MC Signal Generator with Automatically-Leveled Output Power, by James R. Ferrell

A Variable-Frequency AC Power Supply for General-Purpose Testing, by Duane P. Lingafelter, pg 6

August-1963, v.14 n.12

A Wide-Range RC Oscillator with Push-button Frequency Selection, by Robert W. Colpitts

Special Push-Button Audio Oscillator for Telephone Testing, by Robert W. Colpitts, pg 6

A Tunnel-Diode Pulse Generator with 0.1 Nanosecond Risetime, by Roderick Carlson, pg 7

Sept-1963, v.15 n.1

A Basic New Wide-Band Oscilloscope with Planned Anti-Obsolescene, by Richard E. Monnier

The Time Domain Reflectometer, by Lee R. Moffitt, pg 6-7

The Radial Field Cathode-ray Tube, pg 7

Amplifier Plug-ins, pg 8-9

Sweep Generator Plug-Ins, pg 10-12

Oct-1963, v.15 n.2

A General-Purpose Pulse Generator Producing High-Power, Fast-Rise Pulses, by Johan Blokker, George Kan

A Clip-on Current Probe for Wide-band Oscilloscope Measurements, by John G. Tatum, pg 5

NBS Inagurates Higher Power VLF Standard Frequency Broadcasts, pg 8

Nov-1963, v.15 n.3

A new Multi-Purpose Digital Voltmeter, by Charles W. Near, David S. Cochran

A New Coaxial Crystal Detector with Extremely Flat Frequency Response, by Russell B. Riley, page 8

Voltmeter Plug-ins, pg 3

Dec-1963, v.15 n.4

A New Series of Microwave Sweep Oscillators with Flexible Modulation and Leveling, by Robert L. Dudley

Examination of the Atomic Spectral Lines of a Cesium Beam Tube with the -hp- Frequency Synthesizer, by Leonard S. Cutler, pg 8


Jan-1962, v.13 n.5

The Transistorized RC Oscillator, by David S. Cochran

New One Watt TWT Amplifiers for more rapid Microwave Measurements, George W.C. Mathers, pg 4-6

Feb-1962, v.13 n.6

A New Digital Voltmeter Having High Rejection of Hum and Noise, by R.A. Andersen

A Versatile Digital Recorder for BCD Data, by Ed A. Hilton, pg 5

A Digital-to-Analog Converter with High Output Resolution, by Ed A. Hilton, pg 7

March-1962, v.13 n.7

A New Scope Plug-In for Convenient Measuring of Fast Switching Times, by Kay B. Magleby

The Kilomegacycle Sampling Oscilloscope, by Roderick Carlson, pg 4

A Digital System for Automatic Measurements of Switching Times, by H.C. Stansch, pg 6

April-1962, v.13 n.8

A New 50 MC Oscilloscope Based on an Advanced CRT Design, by Floyd C. Siegel

Horizontal Plug-Ins

May/June-1962, v.13 n.9-10

A Phase-Locking Synchronizer for Stabilizing Reflex Klystroms, by Albert Benjaminson

A New Wide-Application Klystron Power Supply, by Robert C. Allan, pg 5

An Oscilloscope Camera with "Black Light" Graticule Illumination, by James A. Chesebrough, pg 8

July-1962, v.13 n.11

The Present Attainments of Adjustable Power Supplies

August-1962, v.13 n.12

A DC-500 KC Oscilloscope with Extended Measurement Capabilities, by John Strathman

Sept-1962, v.14 n.1

A New Generation of High-Speed Frequency Counters, by Tracy S. Storer, Charles M. Hill

Counter Plug-ins, pg 4

Oct-1962, v.14 n.2

A New Pulse Generator with Very Fast Rise Time, by Charles O. Forge

Measuring Small, Stray L and C with Nanosecond Pulses, by Charles O. Forge, pg 6

Nov/Dec-1962, v.14 n.3-4

A Solid-State Operational Amplifier of High Stability, by Robert J. Strehlow

Amplifier Plug-Ins, pg 3

A Portable Frequency-Response Test Set, by Don A. Wick, pg 6


Jan-1961, v.12 n.5

A New Frequency Counter Plug-In Unit for Direct Frequency Measurements to 510 MC

Two New Microwave Frequency Doublers for Extending Signal Sources to the 18-40 KMC Range, pg 3

Feb-1961, v.12 n.6

Two Versatile new Power Supplies for High Power Semiconductor Work, by E. Robert Aikin

March-1961, v.12 n.7

Increasing Accuracy in -hp- Meters Through Servo Calibrating Methods, by Bernard M. Oliver

April-1961, v.12 n.8

Two New Militarized Oscilloscopes Having Both Horizontal and Vertical Plug-Ins, by George F. Fredrick

May-1961, v.12 n.9

Two New Transistorized Frequency Counters with Increased Readout and Low-Frequency Capabilities

Digital or Analog Recording of Counter Measurements, pg 5

June-1961, v.12 n.10

A Microwave Power Meter with a Hundredfold Reduction of Thermal Drift, by R.F. Pramann

A New Low-Cost DC Fan for Cabinet Cooling

July/August-1961, v.12 n.11-12

A Parallax-Free No-Glare CRT for -hp- Oscilloscopes, by Bertrand W. Squier, Jr.

A New DC-450 KC Oscilloscope using the Internal-Graticule CRT

Sept/Oct-1961, v.13 n.1-2

A New SWR Meter with High Gain-Stability, by Darwin L. Howard

Nov/Dec-1961, v.13 n.3-4

Broader Information Capabilities in the Clip-On DC Milliammeter, by Donald E. Barkley, Arndt Bergh

An Instrument for Automatically Measuring Frequencies from 200 Mc to 12.4 GC, pg 5


Jan/March-1960, v.11 n.5-7

A Versatile New DC-500 MC Oscilloscope with High Sensitivity and Dual Channel Display, by Roderick Carlson

High-Speed Effect in Solid-State Diodes Explained with New Oscilloscope, pg 3

Permanent X-Y Recordings of Displayed Signals, pg 7

April/June-1960, v.11 n.8-10

The Effect of u-Circuit Non-Linearity on the Amplitude Stability of RC Oscillators, by Bernard M. Oliver

Utilizing VLF Standard Broadcasts with the -hp- Frequency Divider and Clock, pg 8

De Gaulle Visits -hp- Plant, pg 3

July/August-1960, v.11 n.11-12

A New Clip-on Oscilloscope/Voltmeter Probe for 25 - 20 MC Current Measurements, by Charles O. Forge

The Value of AC Current Measurements, pg 5

Sept-1960, v.12 n.1

A New RF Millivoltmeter for Convenient Measurements to 1 Kmc, by Theodore C. Anderson

Oct-1960, v.12 n.2

A Voltage-to-Frequency Converter for Greater Flexibility in Data Handling, by R.A. Andersen

DYMEC--An -hp- Service for Special Instrumentation Situations, pg 3

Nov-1960, v.12 n.3

A New Frequency/Time Standard with 5 x 10-10 Day Stability, by Leonard S. Cutler

Dec-1960, v.12 n.4

Improved Sweep Frequency Techniques for Broadband Microwave Testing, by Elmer Lorence, J.K. Hunton


Jan-1959, v.10 n.5

A New Digital DC Voltmeter with Automatic Range and Polarity Selection, by Theodore C. Anderson, Noel M. Pace

Feb/March-1959, v.10 n.6-7

Additional Conveniences for Noise Figure Measurements, by Marco R. Negrete

April-1959, v.10 n.8

Special-Purpose Performance in a General-Purpose 50 KC-65 MC Signal Generator, by Arthur Fong

H. Rowan Gaither Jr. Elected to -hp- Board of Directors

Dr. Harold T. Friis becomes Consultant

May/June-1959, v.10 n.9-10

A Clip-On Oscilloscope Probe for Measuring and Viewing Current Waveforms, by Robert R. Wilke

July/August-1959, v.10 n.11-12

A Precision DC Vacuum-Tube Voltmeter with Extended Sensitivity and High Stability, by Donald Norgaard

Sept/Oct-1959, v.11 n.1-2

A New 20 CPS-50 KC Wave Analyzer with high Selectivity and Simplified Tuning, by J.R. Petrak

Measuring Microwave Tube Electrode Coefficients with an Audio Wave Analyzer, by Harley L. Halverson, pg 5

Nov/Dec-1959, v.11 n.3-4

A New Clock for Improving the Accuracy of Local Frequency and Time Standards, by Dexter Hartke


Jan-1958, v.9 n.5

An Automatic Noise Figure Meter For Improving Microwave Device Performance, by Howard C. Poulter

Noise Figure and Its Measurement, by B.M. Oliver, pg 3

Feb-1958, V.9 n.6

Increased Operational Simplicity In a New DC-Several Hundred KC Oscilloscope, by Duane Dunwoodie

New HP Research and Development Divisions

March-1958, v.9 n.7

An Increased-Sensitivity Micro Volt-Ammeter Using a Photoconductive Chopper, by John M. Cage

April-1958, v.9 n.8

A Precision Delayed-Pulse Generator for Measuring and Generating Short Time Intervals, by Marvin Willrodt, Don Broderick, Dexter Hartke

May-1958, v.9 n.9

A Fast, Automatic Printer for Digital Type Data Devices, by Ed A. Hilton

A Current-Limiting Regulated Power Supply for Transistor Work, by Donald F. Schulz

June/July-1958, v.9 n.10-11

A Clip-On DC Milliammeter for Measuring Tube and Transistor Circuit Currents, by Arndt Bergh, George S. Kan, Charles O. Forge

-hp- Board of Directors Enlarged

August-1958, v.9 n.12

An Automatic DC to X-Band Power Meter for the Medium Power Range, by B.P. Hand

Sept/Oct-1958, v.10 n.1-2

A Dual-Trace Automatic Base Line Oscilloscope for the DC-Several Hundred KC Range, by John Strathman

Two High-Performance Attenuators For the DC-500 MC Range, by Arthur Fong, Harley L. Halverson

Nov/Dec-1958, v.10 n.3-4

5x10-8/Week Time Base Accuracy in the 10 MC Frequency Counter, by Leonard S. Cutler, LaThare N. Bodily

Assuring Time Base Performance, pg 5


Jan-1957, v.8 n.5

An RC Oscillator that Covers the 20 cps-20 kc Range in a Single Dial Sweep

Design Principles of the 1001:1 Range Single-Band RC Oscillator, by Nicholas Kovalevski, B.M. Oliver

Feb-1957, v.8 n.6

A New 8-12 KMC Voltage-Tuned Sweep Oscillator for Faster Microwave Evaluations, P.D. Lacy, Daniel E. Wheeler

Backward Wave Oscillator Tubes

March-1957, v.8 n.7

A Fast Digital Recorder with Analog Output for Automatic Data Plotting, by Alan S. Bagley, Ed A. Hilton

Operation of the Digital Recorder

April-1957, v.8 n.8

A 250 CPS - 100 KC Oscillator For High Stability Applications, by Albert Ennor, Edna MacLean

How Model 200T stability Curves were Plotted

Higher Accuracy in Measuring Audio and Sub-Audio Frequencies, by Albert Ennor

May/June-1957, v.8 n.9-10

A Note on Measuring Coaxial Coupler Directivity, by Howard C. Poulter

High DB-Resolution Meter Scales for -hp- VTVM's

July-1957, v.8 n-11

A Small, Convenient Frequency Counter For General-Purpose Use, by Frank Koziuk

Some Handy uses for the -hp- 650A Test Oscillator, by Arthur Fong

August-1957, v.8 n.12

A Rack-Mounting DC-300 KC Oscilloscope With Expandable Sweep, by Duane Dunwoodie, Dick Reynolds

Sept-Oct-1957, v.9 n.1-2

Permanent Record and Oscilloscope Techniques with the Microwave Sweep Oscillator, by Peter D. Lacy, Daniel E. Wheeler

Nov/Dec-1957, v.9 n.3-4

An Improved Method For Measuring Losses in Short Waveguide Lengths, by Peter D. Lacy, Kenneth E. Miller

Derivation of Waveguide Small-Loss Equation, pg 3

How Doppler Shift Records Provide Satellite Range and Height Data, pg 5


Jan-1956, v.7 n.5

New TWT Amplifiers with Provision for Simulating Special Microwave Signals, by Geo. W.C. Mathers, Peter D. Lacy

Feb-1956, v.7 n.6

Three New -hp- Audio Oscillators, by Brunton Bauer

The -hp- Balanced R-C Oscillator Circuit, by B.M. Oliver

March-1956, v.7 n.7

A New DC-300 KC High-Sensitivity Oscilloscope with Triggered Sweep, by Dick Reynolds, Duane Dunwoodie

April-1956, v.7 n.8

A New DC-10 MC Oscilloscope with Dual-Trace and High-Gain Preamplifiers, by Robert A. Grimm, Norman B. Schrock

May/June-1956, v.7 n.9-10

A New 10-15.5 KMC 10 MW Signal Generator, by Wm. D. Myers

A Simple 0-500 Volt Metered Power Supply, by Brunton Bauer

Balanced Output from the -hp- Square Wave Generator

July/Aug-1956, v.7 n.11-12

A 0-1.1 MC Frequency Counter with Time Interval Markers, by Jeffrey B. Wolfington

The -hp- Readout Systems

Sept/Oct-1956, v.8 n.1-2

A Micrometric 12-40 KMC Waveguide Slotted Line with Interchangeable Sections and Untuned Probe, by J.K. Hunton

Nov/Dec-1956, v.8 n.3-4

A New Adjustable Gate Time Counter from a New -hp- Affiliate

New Photo-Electric Tachometry Transducer

Dynac, Inc. - A New Service for Specialized Instrumentation

Radar Signal Simulators


Jan-1955, v.6 n.5

A Precision Wave Guide Attenuator Which Obeys a Mathematical Law, by B.P. Hand

A New Precision Wave Guide Phase Shifter, by E.F. Barnett

Feb-1955, v.6 n.6

A New 10 MC to 12 KMC Coaxial Crystal Detector Mount, by N.B. Schrock

New Plug-In Decade Counters of Refined Design, by Marvin Willrodt

Two New Transformers for Measurements on Balanced Systems

March-1955, v.6 n.7

A New Standing Wave Indicator with an Expanded VSWR Scale, by Brunton Bauer

More Conveniences in the -hp- Microwave Power Meter, by Don Carmean

April-1955, v.6 n.8

A New 10 CPS-600 KC High Stability VTVM, by John Zevenbergen

Some Effects of Waveform on VTVM Readings (I), by B.M. Oliver

May-1955, v.6 n.9

A New 1 CPS-1 MC Square Wave Generator with a 20-Millimicrosecond Rise Time, by Don Broderick

Some Effects of Waveform on VTVM Readings (II), by B.M. Oliver

June-1955, v.6 n.10

The New -hp- 15-21 KMC 10 MW Signal Generator, by Wm. D. Myers

Some Effects of Waveform on VTVM Readings (Conclusion), by B.M. Oliver

July-1955, v.6 n.11

A New 120 KC Industrial Counter for Measuring RPM, Velocity, Quantity, Flow, etc., by Frank Koziuk

Aug-1955, v.6 n.12

A Simple Precision System for Measuring CW and Pulsed Frequencies Up to 12,400 MC, by Dexter Hartke

Sept-1955, v.7 n.1

A New 3 CPS-100 KC Electronic Frequency Meter with Discriminator Output and Expandable Scale, by Duane Marshall

Oct-1955, v.7 n.2

High-Directivity Coaxial Directional Couplers and Reflectometers, by C.S. Reis, H.C. Poulter, J.K. Hunton

Nov-1955, v.7 n.3

Square Wave and Pulse Testing of Linear Systems, by B.M. Oliver

Step Function Response of Typical Networks

Dec-1955, v.7 n.4

An Enhanced Accuracy High Readability VTVM, by John Zevenbergen

Use of the "Notch Wattmeter" with -hp- Signal Generators


Jan/Feb-1954, v.5 n.5-6

A New Signal Generator for the 7,000 to 11,000 MC Range, by Arthur Fong

William Hewlett elected I.R.E. president

March/April-1954, v.5 n.7-8

Frequency and Time Measurements with the New -hp- High Speed Counter, by Alan S. Bagley, Wm.D. Myers, Dexter Hartke

May-1954, v.5 n.9

Wider Range and Higher Stability in the new -hp- 4 MC Voltmeter, by John Zevenbergen

June-1954, v.5 n.10

The -hp- 500-Volt, 200-MA Metered Power Supply, by Don Broderick

A Convenient Source of Multiple Pulses

July-1954, v.5 n.11

New Conveniences for Microwave Power Measurements, by Wm. Gallagher, B.P. Hand

Aug-1954, v.5 n.12

Advanced Performance in two new VHF Signal Generators, by H.E. Overacker

Sept/Oct-1954, v.6 n.1-2

The -hp- Microwave Reflectometers, by N.L. Pappas, J.K. Hunton

Nov/Dec-1954, v.6 n.3-4

New Broadband Microwave Power Amplifiers using Helix-Coupled TWT'S, by P.D. Lacy, D.E. Wheeler

A New Helix-Forming Machine with Micro-inch Error, pg 6


Jan/Feb-1953, v.4 n.5-6

More about the -hp- Precision Directional Couplers, by E.F. Barnett

March/April-1953, v.4 n.7-8

A New Signal Generator for Aeronautical Radio and UHF Television, by H.E. Overacker

Field Repair Stations

May/June-1953, v.4 n.9-10

The -hp- TV Monitor, by Robert Grimm

July/August-1953, v.4 n.11-12

Measurements to 100 Megacycles with the -hp- Frequency Counter, by Dexter Hartke

Sept/Oct-1953, v.5 n.1-2

Time Interval Measurements with the -hp- Electronic Counter, by D.R. Scott, E.A. Hilton

Nov/Dec-1953, v.5 n.3-4

A New 60-Cycle Per Revolution Generator for Precision Tachometry Measurements, by Wm. Girdner

Table of Important Transforms


Jan/Feb-1952, v.3 n.5-6

Simplified Microwave Frequency Measurements Using the 10-MC Frequency Counter, by W.D. Myers

The "Perfect Load" and the Null Shift-Aids in VSWR Measurements, by J.K. Hunton and W.B. Wholey

March/April-1952, v.3 n.7-8

A Precision Directional Coupler Using Multi-Hole Coupling, by E.F. Barnett and J.K. Hunton

May/June-1952, v.3 n.9-10

The -hp- Direct-Reading UHF Signal Generators, by Arthur Fong, W.D. Myers

July-1952, v.3 n.11

A Novel Impedance-Measuring System Using Standard -hp- Instruments

August-1952, v.3 n.12

The -hp- Audio Signal Generators

Sept/Oct-1952, v.4 n-1-2

Greater Flexibility in the -hp- 3800-7600 Mc Signal Generator, by W.D. Myers

Measuring Large Resistances With the -hp- 410 VTVM

Checking Klystron Linearity with -hp- Equipment

Nov-1952, v.4 n.3

A New 100 KC Counter for Use in Electronics and Industry, E.A. Hilton

Dec-1952, v.4 n.4

Those New -hp- Oscillators, by Brunton Bauer, B.M. Oliver

Greater Power Capacity for the 8.5-10 KMC Test Set, by P.D. Lacy


Jan-1951, v.2 n.5

The High-Speed Frequency Counter-A New Solution to Old Problems, by A.S. Bagley

Feb-1951, v.2 n.6

The -hp- Program for Waveguide Type Measuring Equipment, by N.B. Schrock

March/April-1951, v.2 n.7-8

Power Measurements from 10 to 12,400 Megacycles, by B. P. Hand, N.B. Schrock

May-1951, v.2 n.9

Inexpensive Quality

June-1951, v.2 n.10

A New Generator of Frequencies down to 0.01 CPS, by R.H. Brunner

July-1951, v.2 n.11

Accuracy in -hp- Voltmeters and Oscillators, by R.M. Demere, Brunton Bauer

Aug-1951, v.2 n.12

-hp- Distortion Measuring Equipment, by Brunton Bauer

Sept-1951, v.3 n.1

Good Practice in Slotted Line Measurements (Part I), by W.B. Wholey

Oct-1951, v.3 n.2

Two New Test Sets for SHF Measurements

Good Practice in Slotted Line Measurements (Part II), by W.B. Wholey

Nov-1951, v.3 n.3

Recent Developments in -hp- Waveguide Type Measuring Equipment, by J.K. Hunton, N.B. Schrock

Dec-1951, v.3 n.4

Oscillators for many purposes


Jan-1950, v.1, n.5

Greater Reliability in UHF Impedance Measurements, by W.B. Wholey

Feb-1950, v.1, n.6

A New 0.07-10 Microsecond General-Purpose Pulse Generator, by G.S. Kan

March-1950, v.1, n.7

A New 10-500 Megacycle A-M Signal Generator, by H.E. Overacker

April-1950, v.1, n.8

Direct Measurement of Impedance in the 50-500 MC Range, by Arthur Fong

10-500 MC VHF Detector

May-1950, v.1, n.9

Direct Reading UHF Power Measurements, by B.P. Hand

June-1950, v.1, n.10

The Explanation for Certain Cathode-Follower Effects, by Brunton Bauer

July-1950, v.1, n.11

New 125-Volt Fast Pulse Amplifier, by N.B. Schrock

Aug-1950, v.1, n.12

A New Monitor for FM Communications Services, by J.E. Stiles

Sept-1950, v.2, n.1

A 3800-7600 MC Signal Generator Using a Parallel-Plane Type Resonator, by W.D. Myers

Oct-1950, v.2, n.2

A 10 MC Scaler for Nuclear Counting and Frequency Measurement, by A.S. Bagley

Nov-1950, v.2, n.3

The 700 Megacycle Voltmeter and Its Applications, by J.R. Petrak

Dec-1950, v.2 n.4

A New Low-Power Klystron Supply, by J.R. Petrak

Balanced Load Measurements with VHF Bridge, by W.B Wholey

Repair of Hewlett-Packard Instruments


Sept-1949, v.1, n.1

A New Amplifier for Milli-Microsecond Pulses, by N.B. Schrock

Oct-1949, v.1, n.2

A New Frequency Standard and Time Interval Generator, by Brunton Bauer

Nov-1949, v.1, n.3

Design Notes on the Resistance-Capacity Oscillator Circuit (Part I), by Brunton Bauer

Dec-1949, v.1, n.4

Design Notes on the Resistance-Capacity Oscillator Circuit (Part II), by Brunton Bauer


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